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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript An Introduction to the Elements of the Periodic TableAn Interactive PowerPoint Project : An Introduction to the Elements of the Periodic TableAn Interactive PowerPoint Project By Olivia White Computers in Education section 05 Periodic Table Quit Slide 2: Home Navigation Page Alkali Metals Focus on Sodium Alkaline Earth Metals Transition Metals Focus on Silver Lanthanides and Actinides Focus on Uranium “Other” Metals Focus on Lead Metalloids Focus on Silicon Organic Nonmetals Focus on Carbon Halogens Noble Gases Interactive Periodic Table Periodic Table Quit Author’s page Resource page Slide 3: Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Transition Metals Lanthanides and Actinides “Other” Metals Metalloids Organic Nonmetals Halogens Noble Gases Quit Na Ag U C Si Pb Look for the “FOCUS” buttons to hone in on certain important elements! Alkali Metals : Alkali Metals Periodic Table Quit The Alkali Metals make up the first group on the Periodic Table. They stretch from Lithium down to Francium. These elements are soft, silvery metals that oxidize quickly with air. They also have interesting reactions with water, as you can see in this video: Brainiac Alkali Metals Video Focus on Sodium : Focus on Sodium Periodic Table Quit Sodium metal is probably the most common alkali metal. However, it is rarely seen in its metallic form (shown at far left) because it is an easily reacting element. You may be familiar with its common table salt molecule, sodium chloride (NaCl). It is a very useful material in chemistry because it forms highly soluble salts that often do not interfere in aqueous reactions Alkaline Earth Metals : Alkaline Earth Metals Periodic Table Quit Alkaline Earth Metals get their name from the fact that their oxides (Alkaline Earth Metal + Oxygen) make alkaline (basic) solutions with a pH above 7. They are the second group on the periodic table, right next to the Alkali Metals. They stretch from Beryllium down to Radium. Like Alkali Metals, they are soft and silvery in their pure form, and they readily react with other substances… though not as explosively as the Alkali Metals you observed in the video. Transition Metals : Transition Metals Periodic Table Quit The Transition Metals stretch across the middle of the Periodic Table. This long list of often similar elements may seem monotonous and extensive, but the transition metals are full of interesting properties (such as their aqueous solutions turning many bright colors, as seen left). Also, the Transition Metals include all of the precious and most of the semi-precious metals that society values, including gold, silver, platinum, and copper. Focus on Silver : Focus on Silver Periodic Table Quit Silver is one of the most valuable raw metals. Interestingly, silver has properties that make it both highly useful for chemistry and for daily life. Silver in its pure form does not decompose or react readily, and it is therefore excellent for bright jewelry and decoration. However, in its oxidized and aqueous forms, silver is perfect for use in reactions and titrations. No wonder it is so valuable! Lanthanides and Actinides : Lanthanides and Actinides Periodic Table Quit Usually shown in a separate block below the Periodic Table (so it doesn’t look the extended periodic table shown below), the Lanthanides and Actinides are as a group the heaviest set of elements. Lanthanides are relatively common in nature (despite their nickname “rare earth metals”) and have very similar properties. Actinides are not as similar to each other, but they are all radioactive, making them hazardous and rarely seen outside of reactors and labs. Most of the actinides are synthetic, and the two that have been found naturally occurring are quite rare. Lanthanides and Actinides Focus on Uranium : Focus on Uranium Periodic Table Quit Uranium (one of the Actinides) is the heaviest naturally occurring element. With 92 protons and between 141 and 146 neutrons, it has a dense, heavy nucleus that is prone to sudden decomposition. When bombarded with particles, the extra energy is enough to knock neutrons free of its core and begin chain reactions that release huge amounts of energy. It is this property that makes Uranium useful as a nuclear weapon. Despite these destructive properties, however, Uranium is also used in glass-coloring, silk and wool mordants, and other stains and dyes. Slide 11: “Other” Metals Periodic Table Quit This group of metals falls to the right of the transition metals and below the descending line of metalloids. They do not have an official name, but they include some very important elements. Gallium (Ga) is one of only two elements that is liquid near room temperature (the other being mercury, Hg). Tin (Sb) is a common lightweight metal that has many practical uses. Aluminum is another lightweight household metal that is found in every day life. Lead (Pb), though slightly toxic, is another well-known material. Slide 12: Focus on Lead Periodic Table Quit Lead is a soft, heavy metal. Although silvery-white when freshly cut, it soon tarnishes to dark grays and blacks. Lead is a neurotoxin, meaning it accumulates into tissues and bones with exposure. Once found in many paints, construction, and materials, its toxicity has led to its decreased use. Now it is used only in ways that will not lead to its absorption into living creatures, including soldering, batteries, and radiation shielding. Metalloids : Metalloids Periodic Table Quit Metalloids are found around the amphoteric line that separates metals from nonmetals as it descends across the p-block of the periodic table. Metalloids are also known as semi-metals. They have characteristics of both metals and nonmetals, and fit into neither category. They have many uses as semiconductors, and they are highly valuable in nanotechnology and electronics industries. Focus on Silicon : Focus on Silicon Periodic Table Quit Silicon is the second most abundant element on earth (following oxygen). It is mostly found naturally in oxides, such as sand, quartz, several gemstones, and plant and animal cell walls. Synthetically, it is converted into the polymeric silcone, which has hundreds of useful properties, to chemistry and other industries. Organic Nonmetals : Organic Nonmetals Periodic Table Quit The Organic Nonmetals some of the most important elements on the Periodic Table. They are also some of the most common elements, because they are present in every living thing on the earth’s surface. Carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous are necessary for life. Because these elements can form bonds with multiple atoms at once, they are generally stable and organic in nature when they are bonded with each other. Focus on Carbon : Focus on Carbon Periodic Table Quit Carbon is the most common element on earth. It is so widespread that materials are defined as “organic” by the presence of carbon within them. Carbon is unique in that it prefers to form four bonds, and because of this, all of its forms are stable. They often require heat to react. Because of its flexibility, there are multiple forms of “pure,” carbon-only substances. For instance, diamond, graphite, lonsdaleite, fullerenes, and amorphous carbon are all “pure” carbon—yet their properties are extremely different! Halogens : Halogens Periodic Table Quit The Halogens are found in the second-to-last group on the Periodic Table. Halogens are highly unstable in their unbonded form, so they react quickly and often with each other to form very stable compounds. The Halogens are nonmetals and interact frequently with the Organic Nonmetals as well. As shown to the left, when Halogens are bonded in doublets to themselves, they can take the forms of liquids, solids, and gases. Noble Gases : Noble Gases Periodic Table Quit The Noble Gases are the very last group on the Periodic Table. These elements, all in gaseous form, are so stable that they are hardly ever seen in any reactions. They earned the name “Inert Gases” because of this unreactivity. Their stability is due to the octet configuration of their electrons. Despite their unreactivity, halogens do have uses. We are especially familiar with them in neon lights, which may contain neon or any of the other halogens. About the Author : About the Author My name is Olivia White, and I am a student at Grand Valley State University. I am majoring in chemistry with a minors in biology and education. I will be graduating in 2012. I hope to teach beginning or advanced placement chemistry to high school students. Any comments or questions? Feel free to email me. Periodic Table Quit Resources : Resources Works Cited •The Periodic Table—Georgia Perimeter College http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~pgore/PhysicalScience/Periodic-table.html • Web Elements http://www.webelements.com/silicon/ • Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page Images •Google Images http://images.google.com/imghp?rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&hl=en&tab=wi Video • “Brainiac Alkali Metals” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m55kgyApYrY Periodic Table Quit You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.