# Ray Diagrams - Concave Mirrors

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### Ray Diagrams - Concave Mirrors:

Ray Diagrams - Concave Mirrors To draw these diagrams, we will have to recall the two rules of reflection for concave mirrors: Any incident ray traveling parallel to the principal axis on the way to the mirror will pass through the focal point upon reflection. Any incident ray passing through the focal point on the way to the mirror will travel parallel to the principal axis upon reflection.

### Step-by-Step Method for Drawing Ray Diagrams:

Step-by-Step Method for Drawing Ray Diagrams The method is applied to the task of drawing a ray diagram for an object located beyond the center of curvature (C) of a concave mirror. Yet the same method works for drawing a ray diagram for any object location.

### PowerPoint Presentation:

. Pick a point on the top of the object and draw two incident rays traveling towards the mirror. Using a straight edge, accurately draw one ray so that it passes exactly through the focal point on the way to the mirror. Draw the second ray such that it travels exactly parallel to the principal axis. Place arrowheads upon the rays to indicate their direction of travel.

### PowerPoint Presentation:

. Once these incident rays strike the mirror, reflect them according to the two rules of reflection for concave mirrors. The ray that passes through the focal point on the way to the mirror will reflect and travel parallel to the principal axis. Use a straight edge to accurately draw its path. The ray that traveled parallel to the principal axis on the way to the mirror will reflect and travel through the focal point. Place arrowheads upon the rays to indicate their direction of travel. Extend the rays past their point of intersection.

### PowerPoint Presentation:

3. Mark the image of the top of the object. The image point of the top of the object is the point where the two reflected rays intersect. If your were to draw a third pair of incident and reflected rays, then the third reflected ray would also pass through this point. This is merely the point where all light from the top of the object would intersect upon reflecting off the mirror. Of course, the rest of the object has an image as well and it can be found by applying the same three steps to another chosen point. (See note below.)

### PowerPoint Presentation:

4. Repeat the process for the bottom of the object. The goal of a ray diagram is to determine the location, size, orientation, and type of image that is formed by the concave mirror. Typically, this requires determining where the image of the upper and lower extreme of the object is located and then tracing the entire image. After completing the first three steps, only the image location of the top extreme of the object has been found. Thus, the process must be repeated for the point on the bottom of the object. If the bottom of the object lies upon the principal axis (as it does in this example), then the image of this point will also lie upon the principal axis and be the same distance from the mirror as the image of the top of the object. At this point the entire image can be filled in.

### PowerPoint Presentation:

In the three cases described above - the case of the object being located beyond C, the case of the object being located at C, and the case of the object being located between C and F - light rays are converging to a point after reflecting off the mirror. In such cases, a real image is formed. As discussed previously, a real image is formed whenever reflected light passes through the image location. While plane mirrors always produce virtual images, concave mirrors are capable of producing both real and virtual images. As shown above, real images are produced when the object is located a distance greater than one focal length from the mirror. A virtual image is formed if the object is located less than one focal length from the concave mirror. To see why this is so, a ray diagram can be used.

### PowerPoint Presentation:

Ray Diagram for an Object Located at the Focal Point Thus far we have seen via ray diagrams that a real image is produced when an object is located more than one focal length from a concave mirror; and a virtual image is formed when an object is located less than one focal length from a concave mirror (i.e., in front of F). But what happens when the object is located at F? That is, what type of image is formed when the object is located exactly one focal length from a concave mirror? Of course a ray diagram is always one tool to help find the answer to such a question. However, when a ray diagram is used for this case, an immediate difficulty is encountered. The incident ray that begins from the top extremity of the object and passes through the focal point does not meet the mirror. Thus, a different incident ray must be used in order to determine the intersection point of all reflected rays. Any incident light ray would work as long as it meets up with the mirror. Recall that the only reason that we have used the two we have is that they can be conveniently and easily drawn. The diagram below shows two incident rays and their corresponding reflected rays.