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The Current State of Nursing Science : 

The Current State of Nursing Science Shannon Hudson Kathy VanRavenstein Kimberly Sell Holisa Wharton

Objectives : 

Objectives Identify and explain themes related to knowledge development for nursing science. Identify issues that may impact future development of nursing science. Make recommendations for future direction of nursing science.

Defining Nursing as a Science : 

Defining Nursing as a Science

What is Nursing? : 

What is Nursing? King (1981/1990) says nursing is “a process of action, reaction, and interaction” (p. 2). Orem (1997) views nursing as “a triad of interrelated action systems” (p. 28). Parse (1997) says “nursing is a discipline, the practice of which is a performing art” (p. 73).

What is Nursing? : 

What is Nursing? Fawcett (2000) Nursing is the actions taken by nurses on behalf of or in conjunction with the person, and the goals or outcomes of nursing actions

What is Nursing : 

What is Nursing Rogers (1992) Nursing is a noun meaning to know Nursing is a basic science Practice of nursing is use of nursing knowledge for human betterment.

What is Science? : 

What is Science? Philosophical debates Demarcation Ancient philosophers More recent philosophers

What Is Science? : 

What Is Science? Natural vs. social science

What is Science? : 

What is Science? The role of theory and knowledge

What is Science? : 

What is Science? King (1997) science is to know. Parse (1997) “the theoretical explanation of the subject of inquiry and the methodological process of attaining knowledge in a discipline; thus, science is both product and process”(p. 74) and is arrived at through “creative conceptualization and formal inquiry” (p. 75).

Nursing as a Science : 

Nursing as a Science Application of criteria for demarcation to nursing science

Nursing as a Science : 

Nursing as a Science Theory and knowledge development in nursing

Nursing as a Science : 

Nursing as a Science Natural vs. Social science

Defining Nursing Science : 

Defining Nursing Science Enhance known nursing knowledge Problem solving approach using empirical and conceptual problems

Defining Nursing Science : 

Defining Nursing Science Nursing theory–guided practice American Academy of Nursing’s Expert Panel Ingersoll’s definition of Evidence Based Nursing

Defining Nursing Science : 

Defining Nursing Science U.S. National Institutes of Health (2005) “. . . ultimate intent of the knowledge generated through nursing research is to provide information for guiding nursing practice; assessing the health care environment, enhancing patient, family, and community outcomes; and shaping health policy” (U.S. National Institutes of Health, 2005, p. 72).

Development of Current Issues in Nursing Science : 

Development of Current Issues in Nursing Science Evidence-Based Practice Definition Current state of EBP in nursing science

Development of Current Issues in Nursing Science : 

Development of Current Issues in Nursing Science Concept Development Important for nursing knowledge and theory development Problems with current concept analysis methods

Development of Current Issues in Nursing Science : 

Development of Current Issues in Nursing Science Theory and observation The theory and observation debate Application to nursing practice and research

Moving on… : 

Moving on…

Contemporary Issues and the Future of Nursing Science : 

Contemporary Issues and the Future of Nursing Science

Future Generations of Nursing : 

Future Generations of Nursing Definitions Roles

The World In Which We Live : 

The World In Which We Live Social Issues Culturally Environment of care Economics Nursing’s role in healthcare economics Politics Importance of nursing

Evidenced-Based Practice: Is it the future? : 

Evidenced-Based Practice: Is it the future? Use of in practice Future of Evidenced-Based Practice

Pitfalls of Evidenced-Based Practice : 

Pitfalls of Evidenced-Based Practice Evidenced-based Practice Defined Varying Levels of Data Theory disconnect Ethical considerations Individual considerations

Future Direction : 

Future Direction Identification of goals for the discipline of nursing Direction for growth in knowledge development Criteria to help evaluate whether nursing is advancing in the right direction Rodgers, 2005

Future Direction : 

Future Direction Continued theory development Proper utilization of the various levels of theory Grand theory Middle-range theory Micro-range theory Situation-specific theory

Future Direction : 

Future Direction Other forms of inquiry Concept Development Story telling Art Literary analysis

Future Direction : 

Future Direction Greater understanding of philosophy

Slide 30: 

The future of nursing knowledge is created not predicted!!!

References : 

References Burns, N. & Grove, S. K. (2009). The practice of nursing research (6th ed.). St. Louis: Saunders. Carnap, R. (1998). The nature of theories. In Klemke, E. D., Hollinger, R., & Rudge, D. W. (Eds.), Introductory readings in the philosophy of science. (pp. 316-332). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Hanson, N. R. (1998). Observation. In Klemke, E. D., Hollinger, R., & Rudge, D. W. (Eds.), Introductory readings in the philosophy of science. (pp. 339-351). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Melynk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2005). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Popper, K. (1998). Science: conjectures and refutations. In Klemke, E. D., Hollinger, R., & Rudge, D. W. (Eds.), Introductory readings in the philosophy of science. (pp. 38-47). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books Putnam, H. (1998). What theories are not. In Klemke, E. D., Hollinger, R., & Rudge, D. W. (Eds.), Introductory readings in the philosophy of science. (pp. 333-338). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Rodgers, B. L. (2005). Developing nursing knowledge: philosophical traditions and influences. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Rodgers, B. L. (2000). Philosophical foundations of concept development. In B. L. Rodgers and K. A. Knafl (Eds.), Concept development in nursing (2nd ed., pp. 7-37). Philadelphia: Saunders. Thagard, P. R. (1998). Why astrology is a pseudoscience. In Klemke, E. D., Hollinger, R., & Rudge, D. W. (Eds.), Introductory readings in the philosophy of science. (pp. 66-75). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Weir-Hughes, D. (2001). NLINKS: Concept analysis center. Retrieved November 14, 2009, from http://www.nlinks.org/cac_introduction.phtml Ziman, J. (1998). What is science? In Klemke, E. D., Hollinger, R., & Rudge, D. W. (Eds.), Introductory readings in the philosophy of science. (pp. 48-53). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

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