The Writing Process : The Writing Process Created by D. Herring
Adapted by Mr. Potter for English 11 Classes, Westlake High School Stages of the Writing Process : Stages of the Writing Process There are several stages to the Writing Process. Each stage is essential.
Editing I. Prewriting : I. Prewriting Choose/narrow your topic
Explore your topic
Make a plan Choose/Narrow Your Topic : Choose/Narrow Your Topic Your topic should pass the 3-question test:
Does it interest me?
Do I have something to say about it?
Is it specific? Determine Your Audience : Determine Your Audience Your Audience is composed of those who will read your writing.
Who are my readers?
What do my readers know about my topic?
What do my readers need to know about my topic?
How do my readers feel about my topic? Audience continued. . . : Audience continued. . . What do my readers expect?
Standard Written English
Correct grammar and spelling
Logical presentation of ideas
Followed directions of the assignment!!!
What are my length requirements?
What is my time limit?
What does the assignment consist of?
Is research required?
What format should be used? Determine Your Purpose : Determine Your Purpose Purpose is the reason you are writing.
Whenever you write, you always have a purpose. Most writing fits into one of 3 categories:
More than one of these may be used, but one will be primary. Determine Tone : Determine Tone Tone is the mood or attitude you adopt as you write.
Serious or frivolous/humorous?
Intimate or detached? Determine Point-of-View : Determine Point-of-View Point-of-view is the perspective from which you write an essay.
There are 3 points-of-view:
First person—”I, we”
Third person—”he, she, they”
One of the most common errors in writing occurs when the writer shifts point-of-view unnecessarily! Determine Tense : Determine Tense Tense is the voice you use to designate the time of the action or state of being.
Future tense Explore Your Topic : Explore Your Topic Pre-writing Techniques:
Outlining Make a Plan : Make a Plan Before you begin drafting your essay, you should make a plan (a roadmap).
Review, evaluate, and organize ideas written in your pre-writing; then make a plan for your essay’s
Structure Thesis Statement : Thesis Statement The thesis statement expresses the MAIN IDEA of your essay, the central point that your essay develops/supports. Thesis continued. . . : Thesis continued. . . Your thesis SHOULD:
Accurately predict your essay’s direction, emphasis, and scope
Make no promises that the essay will not fulfill
Be direct and straightforward
NOT be an announcement, statement of opinion, or statement of fact. Support : Support Be sure to evaluate the information in your prewriting carefully in order to choose the best support for your topic.
Primary Support—major ideas or examples that back up your main points
Secondary Support—details which further explain your primary support Support continued. . . : Support continued. . . Basics of good support
Relates to main point
Considers readers, i.e. provides enough information
Is detailed and specific Structure/Organization : Structure/Organization Consider how your essay will be organized; then create an Outline.
Sample Outline of standard
Body Paragraph 1
Body Paragraph 2
Body Paragraph 3
Conclusion Write Your Introduction : Write Your Introduction Your introductory paragraph should do the following:
Be a minimum of 4-6 sentences
Tell the audience what to expect from your discussion (thesis)
Move from general to specific, with the thesis as the last sentence in the intro
Get the reader’s attention
Set the tone for the rest of the essay Introduction, continued : Introduction, continued Strategies for developing an Introduction include
Providing background information
Telling a personal anecdote
Beginning with a quotation
Using an opposite
Asking a question Write Your Body Paragraphs : Write Your Body Paragraphs Each body paragraph should develop one of the specific points mentioned in the thesis.
Each BP should contain:
Topic Sentence—main idea of BP
Secondary Support—details Body Paragraphs: Topic Sentence : Body Paragraphs: Topic Sentence A Topic Sentence expresses the main idea of the body paragraph.
Begin each body paragraph with a Topic Sentence that
Narrows the focus of the paragraph
Accurately predicts the direction of the paragraph
Refers back to the Thesis statement Body Paragraphs continued : Body Paragraphs continued Body paragraphs must have
Unity—everything refers back to main point
Support—examples and details
Coherence—all points connect to form a whole; one point leads to another Body Paragraphs: Unity : Body Paragraphs: Unity Unity is achieved when everything refers back to the main point
ALL SENTENCES SHOULD RELATE BACK TO TOPIC SENTENCE & THESIS.
Do not include any ideas that are irrelevant or off-topic. Body Paragraphs: Support : Body Paragraphs: Support Support is achieved through adequate examples and details.
Each body paragraph should include at least two examples to support the main idea of the paragraph.
Each example should include at least one specific detail that further illustrates the point. Body Paragraphs: Coherence : Body Paragraphs: Coherence Coherence is achieved when all points connect to form a whole; one point leads to another.
Coherence is mainly achieved through the use of transitions.
Transitions—words & phrases which connect your sentences so that your writing flows smoothly. Write Your Conclusion : Write Your Conclusion The concluding paragraph should
Contain a minimum of 4 sentences
Refer back to the main point, but not simply repeat the thesis
Make an observation on what is written
NOT introduce any new ideas
Create a sense of closure IV. Editing : IV. Editing Editing is finding and correcting problems with grammar, style, word choice & usage, and punctuation.
Editing focuses on the “Little Picture”—Word level. Editing Strategies : Editing Strategies Keep an Error Log to help you identify your problem areas and improve your writing.
When editing, review your paper for one type of error at a time; don’t try to read through looking for everything at once.