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Premium member Presentation Transcript Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance : Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance BIOLOGY Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) : Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Austrian monk who formulated fundamental laws of heredity in early 1860s. Studied science and mathematics at University of Vienna. Formulated the particulate theory of inheritance. Inheritance involves reshuffling of genes from generation to generation. Gregor Mendel—Important Dates : Gregor Mendel—Important Dates Experimented with peas, Pisum sativum, from 1857-1865 Reported his findings to the Brunn Society for the Study of Natural Science in 1865 Published Experiments with Plant Hybrids in 1866 One-Trait Inheritance : One-Trait Inheritance Mendel performed cross-breeding experiments between true-breeding plants (homozygous). Chose varieties that differed in only one trait (monohybrid cross) Performed crosses Parental generation = P First generation offspring = F1 (1st filial) Second generation offspring = F2 Law of Segregation : Law of Segregation Each individual has two factors for each trait. The factors separate when gametes form. A gamete contains only one of two factors. Fertilization = new individual with 2 factors for each trait. Genotype Versus Phenotype : Genotype Versus Phenotype Genotype Refers to the alleles an individual receives. Phenotype Refers to the physical appearance of the individual. Modern Genetics View : Modern Genetics View Each trait is controlled by two alleles (alternate forms of a gene). Dominant allele (D) masks the expression of the recessive allele (d). Alleles occur on a homologous pair of chromosomes at a locus. Homozygous = identical alleles Heterozygous = different alleles Punnett Square : Punnett Square All possible kinds of sperm are lined up on one axis, and all possible kinds of eggs are lined up on the other axis. Every possible combination of alleles is placed within the squares. Testcross : Testcross A monohybrid testcross determines if the phenotype is homozygous dominant (RR) or heterozygous (Rr). Those with one dominant gene will express the dominant phenotype whereas individuals with the recessive phenotype must be homozygous (rr) Two-Traits : Two-Traits Dihybrid Cross Mendel performed cross using true-breeding plants differing in two traits. Observed phenotypes among F2 plants. Formulated law of independent assortment: Each factor segregates independently of the others All possible combinations of factors can occur. Figure 14.7 Testing two hypotheses for segregation in a dihybrid cross : Figure 14.7 Testing two hypotheses for segregation in a dihybrid cross Two-Trait Testcross : Two-Trait Testcross A two-trait testcross is used to determine if an individual is homozygous dominant or heterozygous for either of the two traits. Incomplete Dominance : Incomplete Dominance Exhibited when the heterozygote has an intermediate phenotype between that of either homozygote. Co-Dominance : Most genes have more than two alleles in a population—called multiple alleles. The ABO blood groups in humans are determined by three alleles, IA, IB, and i. Both the IA and IB alleles are dominant to the i allele The IA and IB alleles are codominant to each other. Because each individual carries two alleles, there are six possible genotypes and four possible blood types. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Co-Dominance Polygenic Inheritance : Polygenic Inheritance Occurs when a trait is governed by two or more sets of alleles. Each dominant allele has a quantitative effect and these effects are additive like height Terminology : Terminology Pleiotropy - A gene that affects more than one characteristic of an individual. Sickle-cell (incomplete dominance) Epistasis - A gene at one locus interferes with the expression of a gene at a different locus. Human skin color (polygenic inheritance) Slide 17: Example of Epistasis In mice, coat color depends on two genes. The epistatic gene determines if pigment will be deposited in hair or not. Presence (C) is dominant to absence (c). The second determines what pigment is deposited: black (B) or brown (b). The black allele is dominant to the brown allele. An individual that is cc has a white (albino) coat regardless of the genotype of the second gene. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Environment and Phenotype : Environment and Phenotype Himalayan Rabbits - Enzyme coding for black fur is active only at low temperatures. Black fur only occurs on extremities. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.