TKC Week-14 _ Incas

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Slide 1: 

Inca Overview Began as tribe from Killke culture in 1100s Founded Cuzco, then vast empire from 1438 to 1532 Conquered by Spanish in 1532

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Inca Overview Inca spoke the Quechua language Empire extended 2,500 miles, includes parts of present-day Columbia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, & Argentina Emperors ruled through complex political system of four quadrants Absorbed surrounding tribes by force, who kept their local languages Skilled at engineering and crafts Developed vast network of roads with rest areas each days travel

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Inca Society Lived in extended family groups (Ayllu) which worked land Family life and marriages determined by social rank Some military service required of all males – affective army Food – potatoes, corn, & beans Clothing – differed by location in empire Highlands – wool ○ Lowlands – cotton Shelter; Nobles – spacious, richly decorated stone palaces Lowlands – small thatched roof, adobe type houses Economy and Agriculture Inca used bartering - no money Extensive terrace farming and irrigation – no plows

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Inca Society Travel – no wheeled anything Nobles rode on hand carried frameworks Commoners walked Government – a family business Emperors traditionally married their sisters Upper government all extended family members Communications No written language Used quipus talking ropes Orderly society Virtually no common crimes “a stick marks the door”

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Inca Architecture

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Inca Religon Contained many gods of three group types: ○ Upper world (condor) – Viracocha creator of sun, moon, stars, & lighting gods Outer earth (puma) – human Inner earth (snake) – earth mother & mother sea Sacred sites or things (huacas) were widespread Divination (future telling) used as a guide for almost everything

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Inca Religon

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Inca Religon Capacocha was the Inca practice of human sacrifice, mainly using children. Usually with a religious event. Victims were physically perfect fed well the year before dress-up, attended Emperor banquet walked to mountain top intoxicated (pain relief) killed and abandoned Natural conditions mummified the bodies for later discovery

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Spanish Conquest of the Inca Francisco Pizarro (1478? – 1541) Born in Trujillo, Spain – illegitimate son of infantry captain Raised by mother’s poor relatives 1502 – moved to West Indies 1509 – took part in exploration of the western / southern Caribbean 1513 – served under Vasco Nunez de Balboa in crossing Panama to the Pacific Ocean 1519 – helped establish Panama City Became interested in South America

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Spanish Conquest of the Inca Francisco Pizarro (1478? – 1541) 1524 – 1st expedition 80 men & 40 horses Reached Columbia then quit 1526 – 2nd expedition 160 men, horses, & 2 ships Found Indians with gold Explored near Ecuador 1528 – sailed back to Spain for approval to continue, granted by Queen Isabel 1532 – 3rd expedition 167 men with horses entered Peru

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Spanish Conquest of the Inca Spanish advanced to Cajamarca where Atahualpa had gathered forces Surprise attack captured Atahualpa and killed thousands Incas paid ransom for emperor One room filled of gold Two rooms filled of silver Spanish killed Atahualpa 1533 – captured Cusco and conquered the Inca empire

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