Vermont Photonics Conference Oct 19 2007

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By: hyehope7750 (111 month(s) ago)

BEAUTIFULLLL !!!!!!!!

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Vermont Photonics ConferenceMount Snow : 

1 Vermont Photonics ConferenceMount Snow October 18-20, 2007 Materials science approach to the structure of liquid water and some extraordinary interactions with EM radiation and charged particles in metallic sols By Rustum Roy

“UNBELIEVABLE CHANGES”in condensed matter caused by EM radiation : 

2 “UNBELIEVABLE CHANGES”in condensed matter caused by EM radiation From 1999 on, Prof. Roy and his colleagues showed that very weak microwave electric and magnetic fields could completely destroy the ordered structures of the most important solids in all electronics: silicon; ferrites (used in all memories) BaTiO3,TiO2 (key insulators) In a few seconds at very modest powers. Go to: www.mri.psu.edu/centers/mpec/

Thermodynamics of Systems : 

3 Thermodynamics of Systems In traditional Phase Rule Texts (e.g. Ricci) only the effect of TWO Intensive Variables, P & T, on G, are even considered. But E & H are obviously candidates. Can E & H fields change G enough to cause phase transformations? Assumed to be de minimis except for ferroics

Absorption of Energy from Microwave Field is Non-uniform : 

4 Absorption of Energy from Microwave Field is Non-uniform In all microwave papers we find the expression for the power absorbed shown in the truncated form: P = 2π{єω є 1τ tan δ│E│2} Assuming that heating is only caused by dielectric losses

Slide 5: 

5 But the complete equation must include the magnetic field and is: P = 2π{єω є1τ tan δ│E│2 + μ0μ1 tan Φ │H│2 }

Slide 6: 

6 But now our experimental data demand: wholesale corrections of textbooks & papers because: E & H field effects are dramatically different AC fields are radically different from DC

MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER : 

7 MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER MRI The Science of Microwave based Multi-Energy Processing MICROWAVE MATERIALS PROCESSING IN SEPARATED ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS AT 2.45 GHz

MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER : 

8 MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER MRI Effects of E and H separation by EMS Completely different phases formed Transforms crystalline into amorphous solids in seconds—into “nano glasses” without melting “Fantastic” Coupling to electron spins

MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER : 

9 MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER MRI E (a) (a) (b) H A A TE103 cavity Quartz tube (a) (b) a A - A H Magnetic field distribution Electric field distribution E 0 a/2 a/2 Sample MICROWAVE FIELDS DISTRIBUTION WITHIN THE TE103 CAVITY The sample is located in (a) the maximum electric (E) field area where the magnetic field is minimum; (b) the maximum magnetic(H) field area where the electric field is minimum.

MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER : 

10 MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER MRI Microwave Setup for Selective E-H Heating H-Field Maximum E-Field Maximum

MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER : 

11 MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER MRI Results with BaCO3 + 4Fe3O4 in E-field Synthesis of Barium Ferrite, BaFe12O19

MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER : 

12 MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER MRI Results with BaCO3 + 4Fe3O4 in H-field Synthesis of Barium Ferrite, BaFe12O19

MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER : 

13 MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER MRI Works on non-magnetic oxides also (must have unpaired spins) Rutile TiO2-x

MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER : 

14 MICROWAVE PROCESSING AND ENGINEERING CENTER MRI Raman spectrum of TiO2-x Full Width at Half Max. As-reduced 42 39 H-field treated 62 96 439 608 As-reduced H-field, 30 sec

Slide 15: 

15 If crystalline solids (even with 4+ ions) can be so dramatically changed, obviously so can water. To which we turn…

Slide 16: 

16 Nucleation of NaCl Crystals Comparison of two chambers sharing the common saturated NaCl solution at room temperature. Resonant state - Illuminated by Na-light, numerous nucleation sites. Entropy State - Without Na-light illumination, few observable nuclei. Chamber Separation Sodium Chloride

Slide 17: 

17 Spectral Crystallization from Thermally Unsaturated Solution (3° above Room Temperature) Sodium Chloride

Microwave and RF Radiation effects on ‘Structure of Water’ : 

18 Microwave and RF Radiation effects on ‘Structure of Water’ Preliminary spectroscopic studies conducted at Penn State 18

Slide 19: 

19 Sedlmayr Microwave Device 19

Sedlmayr Microwave Device-SCHEMATIC : 

20 Sedlmayr Microwave Device-SCHEMATIC 20

Slide 21: 

21 UV- VIS SPECTRA Raman SPECTRA *Hundreds of spectral analysis on UV-VIS and Raman clearly show evidence of structural changes *Changes are also noted with more distillations. (A1- A10) 21

Slide 22: 

22 Raman Spectra of Sedlmayr water at T= 21.6oC as a function of time Results from machine 3 22

Kanzius Effect of RF radiation : 

23 Kanzius Effect of RF radiation Confirmation of the work at Materials Research Lab, Penn State on salt-water Polarized 13∙56 MHz beam

Slide 24: 

24 24 Emission Spectra of the Flame generated during the ‘salt-water’ burning process

Slide 25: 

25 25

Ultradiluted 1x10-6 mol% Ag Sols Colloidsas the Bridge : 

26 Ultradiluted 1x10-6 mol% Ag Sols Colloidsas the Bridge Detailed studies of the in vitro bioactivity; Our analysis of COMPOSITION / STRUCTURE ICP SEM TEM Raman ATR

Slide 27: 

27

Concentrations of metallic silver in engineered dispersions : 

28 Concentrations of metallic silver in engineered dispersions 10 ppm 32 ppm Our analyses 10-11 ppm 31-32 ppm Mfr’s claim

Clusters are ≈ 30 nm in vacuum.These are “agglomentes” of ≈ 6 nm particles : 

29 Clusters are ≈ 30 nm in vacuum.These are “agglomentes” of ≈ 6 nm particles

Slide 30: 

30 TEM of particles Most appear to be single crystal metallic Ag

Juliana Brooks showed that… : 

31 Juliana Brooks showed that… KT emission frequencies from metallic silver have have same biocidal effects

Slide 32: 

32 Figure 6: Raman Spectra of Pure Water vs Ag Colloid on Same Instrument under Identical Conditions

Slide 33: 

33 Dynamic light scattering monomodal distribution plot showing increasing particle size with decreasing mono-6-aza-6-deoxy-b-cyclodextrin–[60] fullerene (CDAzF) concentration. Samal and Geckeler “Unexpected solute aggregation in water on dilution” Chem. Commun., 2001, 2224–2225

Slide 34: 

34 Vertically oriented electrodes, running perpendicular to the plane of each image. Voltage stepped up progressively, as indicated. (b) Time course of pH change near vertically oriented electrodes at 4300 mV. Last panel shows color change following turnoff of input power at 900 s. (c) Continuation of previous experiment (Figure 5b) with V ) 4.3 V and electrical polarity reversed. Andrey Klimov and Gerald H. Pollack, “Visualization of Charge-Carrier Propagation in Water” Langmuir, Oct 9, 2007 .

Summary : 

35 Summary The facts are voluminous, indisputable, and compelling. RADIATION CAN & DOES DRASTICALLY CHANGE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS. Work by many authors (some in this audience) have also showed this. These are more spectacular.

Question. What does this demand of us in our views of the “Structure of Water”?Answer. A switch to the Materials Science perspective : 

36 Question. What does this demand of us in our views of the “Structure of Water”?Answer. A switch to the Materials Science perspective

Two Recent Papers Summarize our Views : 

37 Two Recent Papers Summarize our Views 1. “The Structure of Liquid Water; Novel Insights from Materials Research; Potential Relevance to Homeopathy,” Materials Research Innovations, Volume 9, Issue 4, December 2005, pg. 577-608Rustum Roy, William A. Tiller, Iris Bell, and M. Richard Hoover 2. “Ultradilute Ag-Aquasols with extraordinary bactericidal properties: the role of the system Ag-O-H2O,” Materials Research Innovations, Volume 11, Number 1, March 2007, pg. 3-18 Rustum Roy, M. Richard Hoover, A.S. Bhalla, Tania Slawecki, Sandwip Dey, Wei Cao, Jing Li, S. Bhaskar

Determining STRUCTURE of: : 

38 Determining STRUCTURE of: CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS: Are “HOMOGENEOUS” in structure Data are precise to .001 nm Diffraction works!! LIQUIDS & (GLASSES): They are very fuzzy, Nanoheterogeneous

Slide 39: 

39 Typical complex XL: Garnet Three intertwined polyhedrea: 4, 6 only here

Slide 40: 

40 8 or Cubic C.N. added

HRTEM shows atom by atom structure Note contrast in “glassy” area : 

41 G. B. Phase HRTEM shows atom by atom structure Note contrast in “glassy” area matrix ZrO2 grain Y-TZP + 10wt%(Bi2O3-CuO-V2O5 ) , PECS ; 1200˚C, 30MPa for 5 min thin amorphous layer at two phase boundaries 20 nm ZrO2 ZrO2 ZrO2 ZrO2 ZrO2 ZrO2 In some materials developed, the nano-sized crystalline with electric conductivity were also dispersed in the amorphous grain boundary phases. 1nm 21

Slide 42: 

42 Water exists in ≈ten crystalline and several non-crystalline structures Water can be quenched into a glass (or different glasses) by rapid cooling None of these convert into femtoseconds!! Relaxation times of different changes by EM, Acoustic, and “chi” fields are in hours Relation to homeopathy: Changes to structure, not composition, may be key; Pressure (during succussing); Epitaxy from additives, nanobubbles. Water in Condensed Phases

Slide 43: 

43 Fig. 1. The classical picture of the “Random Network Structure” as presented by Zachariasen (1932), which had become “established” as the structure of glass. 11 Liquids earlier assumed incorrectly to be “homogeneous in structure”

Slide 44: 

44 Porai-koshits et al. (1984) show hundreds of incontrovertible TEM photos of 2-4 separate phases. Glasses are not homogeneous.

Slide 45: 

45 Many stable liquid phases in 1970s: Roy, Vezzoli, Dachille et al. demonstrated S, Te, Bi, etc. Liquid sulfur has at least 5 structures

Slide 46: 

46 Kawamoto (2004) shows exactly the same phenomenon in water. Of course, many others must exist. Here is the first proof in water itself

What does this prove beyond any dispute? : 

47 What does this prove beyond any dispute? Condensed water exists in tens of different structures under thermodynamically stable conditions. Many more probably, in metastable states.

How does this relate to Chaplin’s masterful compendium of molecules & oligomers? : 

48 How does this relate to Chaplin’s masterful compendium of molecules & oligomers? They are molecular building bricks/blocks-- “Structure” of a condensed phase is the architecture of the house There is no conflict.

Slide 49: 

49 Typical molecular aggregates or building blocks of water. Here is the molecular level view

Slide 50: 

50 Obviously in the condensed phase one must describe the concentration and location of all such units. More building blocks

1st Law of Materials Science says: : 

51 1st Law of Materials Science says: Properties are determined (largely) by structure Graphite & Diamond: softest and hardest But they have identical compositions Demo example: Enough said!!

Slide 52: 

52 DeBenedetti and Stanley (Physics Today, 2003), classic survey of water properties demands many structures in ambint T, P, waters.

Slide 53: 

53 Fig. 7.a. The cartoon version of the more generalized structure of glass clearly indicating its heterogeneous (with respect to structure or structure and/or composition) nature from Roy (1971).Note that water is mentioned in the third column. This is the new minimalist schematic representation of the structure of water. Early cartoons of nanoheterogeneous liquid structures demanded by thermodynamics (after Roy 1971).

Slide 54: 

54 A similar representation of the water structure by J. Bockris and A.K.N. Reddy (1998). Similar early cartoon

Slide 55: 

55 Roy et al. cartoon (2005) structure of liquid water incorporating Chaplin figures.

Key conclusions so far : 

56 Key conclusions so far Liquid water is a condensed phase According to the absolute thermodynamic considerations above, it is required that it may assume many different structures Empirically, the data now prove that it does In addition there are TWO other ways of causing (even) other new, metastable structures 1. Epitaxy 2. Nano bubbles

Slide 57: 

57 Schematic illustrating widely used phenomenon of liquid phase epitaxy.

Slide 58: 

58 Irregular nanobubbles shown modified from JWG Tyrrell and P. Attard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 176104 (2001) Nanobubbles are real

What about explanations; theories? : 

59 What about explanations; theories? As usual these will lag facts by many years, or decades? In the case of radiation effects, there are lots of data and some explanations, including from speakers here. I refer you to the unknown theoretical and experimental work of Juliana Brooks in a dozen lengthy patents (1999-2007). Is resonance the real “black hole” in physics?

Summary : 

60 Summary It is absolutely certain that there exists an enormous array of structures in liquid water: stable and metastable. It is erroneous to muddle the kinetics of condensed phase changes—stable and metastable—with molecular dynamics. The commonest solid and liquid changes cover the range from seconds to hours to ≈ infinity (ask DeBeers about diamonds!!!)

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