WHITE COLLAR CRIME by Waseem I. Khan

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Waseem I. Khan Assistant Professor, Shri Shivaji Law College, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India

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WHITE COLLAR CRIME By Waseem I. khan Assistant Professor Shri Shivaji Law College, Parbhani, Maharashtra contact: waseemikhan03@gmail.com:

WHITE COLLAR CRIME By Waseem I. khan Assistant Professor Shri Shivaji Law College, Parbhani, Maharashtra contact: waseemikhan03@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION This notion was laid down for the first time in the field of criminology by Prof. Edwin Sutherland in 1941. ”. Examples of it include fraudulent advertisements, infringement of patents, publication of falsified balance sheet of business, passing of goods, concealment of defects in the commodity for sale etc. These white collar crimes by nature are such that the injury or the damage caused as a consequence of them is so widely diffused in the large body of citizens that their enormity as regards personage victim is almost trifling.

MEANING OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME:

MEANING OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME White collar crime denotes a display of fraudulent scheme, corruption and commercial offences committed by businessman and public official alike. Its current usage include a broad range of non violent offence where cheating, dishonesty and corruption are the central elements of the crime.

DEFINITION OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME:

DEFINITION OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME Sutherland , white collar crime as “crime committed by persons of respectability and high social status in course of their occupation”. Hartung defines a white-collar offense as a violation of law regulating business, which is committed for a firm by the firm or its agents in the conduct of its business.”

FEATURES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME:

FEATURES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME Victims often suffer the effect of white collar crime without even meeting the perpetrator. It is in essence of indirect form of theft, it is victimless in relation with physical damage. Offenders are at work at the scene while victims are present and unaware of offending.

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME:

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME Bank Fraud:   To engage in an act or pattern of activity where the purpose is to defraud a bank of funds . Blackmail:   A demand for money or other consideration under threat to do bodily harm, to injure property, to accuse of a crime, or to expose secrets .

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME:

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME Bribery:   When money, goods, services, information or anything else of value is offered with intent to influence the actions, opinions, or decisions of the taker. You may be charged with bribery whether you offer the bribe or accept it. Money Laundering:   The investment or transfer of money from racketeering, drug transactions or other embezzlement schemes so that it appears that its original source either cannot be traced or is legitimate.

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES…..:

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES….. Cellular Phone Fraud :  The unauthorized use, tampering, or manipulation of a cellular phone or service. This can be accomplished by either use of a stolen phone, or where an actor signs up for service under false identification or where the actor clones a valid electronic serial number (ESN) by using an ESN reader and reprograms another cellular phone with a valid ESN number . Computer fraud:   Where computer hackers steal information sources contained on computers such as: bank information, credit cards, and proprietary information.

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES…..:

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES….. Securities Fraud:   The act of artificially inflating the price of stocks by brokers so that buyers can purchase a stock on the rise. Counterfeiting:  Occurs when someone copies or imitates an item without having been authorized to do so and passes the copy off for the genuine or original item. Counterfeiting is most often associated with money however can also be associated with designer clothing, handbags and watches.

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES…..:

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES….. Credit Card Fraud:   The unauthorized use of a credit card to obtain goods of value . Embezz1ement:  When a person who has been entrusted with money or property appropriates it for his or her own use and benefit.

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES…..:

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES….. Extortion :   Occurs when one person illegally obtains property from another by actual or threatened force, fear, or violence, or under cover of official right . Larceny/Theft:   When a person wrongfully takes another person's money or property with the intent to appropriate, convert or steal it . Welfare Fraud:  To engage in an act or acts where the purpose is to obtain benefits (i.e. Public Assistance, Food Stamps, or Medicaid) from the State or Federal Government.

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES…..:

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES….. Forgery:  When a person passes a false or worthless instrument such as a check or counterfeit security with the intent to defraud or injure the recipient . Insider Trading:  When a person uses inside, confidential, or advance information to trade in shares of publicly held corporations . Insurance Fraud:  To engage in an act or pattern of activity wherein one obtains proceeds from an insurance company through deception .

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES…..:

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES….. Tax Evasion:   When a person commits fraud in filing or paying taxes. The complexity of tax laws in India has provided sufficient scope for the tax-payers to evade taxes. The evasion is more common with influential categories of persons such as traders, businessmen ,  lawyers , doctors, engineers, contractors etc. The main difficulty posed before the Income  Tax Department is to know the real and exact income of these Professionals . It is often alleged that the actual tax paid by these persons is only a fraction of their income and rest of the money goes into circulation as ‘black money . Telemarketing Fraud:   Actors operate out of boiler rooms and place telephone calls to residences and corporations where the actor requests a donation to an alleged charitable organization or where the actor requests money up front or a credit card number up front, and does not use the donation for the stated purpose.

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES…..:

TYPES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME CONTINUES….. Environmental Schemes:   The overbilling and fraudulent practices exercised by corporations which purport to clean up the environment. Currency Schemes:   The practice of speculating on the future value of currencies. Weights and Measures : The act of placing an item for sale at one price yet charging a higher price at the time of sale or short weighing an item when the label reflects a higher weight. Investment Schemes:  Where an unsuspecting victim is contacted by the actor who promises to provide a large return on a small investment.

WHITE COLLAR CRIME IN DIFFERENT PROFESSION:

WHITE COLLAR CRIME IN DIFFERENT PROFESSION Medical profession:   White collar crimes which are commonly committed by persons belonging to medical profession include issuance of false medical certificates, helping illegal abortions, secret service to dacoits by giving expert opinion leading to their acquittal and selling sample-drug and medicines to patients or chemists in India, dilatory tactics adopted by the members of this profession in treatment with a view to extracting huge sum from them. Engineering : In the engineering profession underhand dealing with contractors and suppliers, passing of sub-standard works and materials and maintenance of bogus records of work-charged labour are some of the common examples of white collar crime.

WHITE COLLAR CRIME IN DIFFERENT PROFESSION:

WHITE COLLAR CRIME IN DIFFERENT PROFESSION Legal Profession:  The instances of fabricating false evidence, engaging professional witness, violating ethical standards of legal profession and dilatory tactics in collusion with the ministerial staff of the courts are some of the common practices which are, truly speaking, the white collar crimes quite often practiced by the legal practitioners . Educational Institutions:   Yet another field where white collar criminals operate with impunity are the privately run educational institutional in this country. The governing bodies of those institutions manage to secure large sums by way of government grants of financial aid by submitting fictitious and fake details about their institutions. The teachers and other staff working in these institutions receive a meager salary far less than what they actually sign for, thus allowing a big margin for the management to grab huge amount in this illegal manner.

CAUSES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME :

CAUSES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME Avarice( Extreme greed for wealth ): Edwin S utherland calls white collar criminals as avaricious person. It is his greed that is the cause of his crime. Studies have found out that honesty standards among politicians are higher than they are among business man.

CAUSES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME :

CAUSES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME Bad general public mentality Ruthlessness in making money has became an important part of the business code. A person who reports his personal property honestly is regarded as a abnormal person. This shows that the general public mentality has accepted a particular common level of dishonesty. Popular feeling incline to the belief that a lawyer cannot be successful if completely honest and therefore most of them accept. Pick pocket is beaten to death but business man commits crime with immunity.

CAUSES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME :

CAUSES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME Opportunity Unemployment plays hardly any role in the case of white collar crime. The white collar crime is a challenge to the concept that absence of employment is helpful to crime and presence of employment is useful to non crime. White collar crime are closely related to opportunity. An unemployed person cannot commit this crime. You cannot commit a computer fraud unless you have access to computer. You cannot evade tax unless you have a taxable income. You cannot indulge in insider trading unless you have access to secrete information You cannot indulge in bank embezzlement unless you work for the bank.

CAUSES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME :

CAUSES OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME The other Causes are as under It is very difficult to detect as white collar crimes always committed in privacy of an office or home and usually there is no eyewitness . The economic growth and industrial progress White collar criminals are tactful, intelligent and stable under the cover of high social status.

REMEDIES FOR WHITE COLLAR CRIME :

REMEDIES FOR WHITE COLLAR CRIME Creating public awareness through the media and press and other audio visual aids. Special tribunal should be constituted with power to award a serious sentence . Stringent regulatory laws and drastic punishment for white collar criminals, may help in reducing these crime. Separate chapter should be inserted in the Indian Penal Code, 1860 relating to white collar crime.

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION The real solution to this problem is going to have to come from the people who are being affected by it. They are the most likely to stop it. They cannot let anyone take advantage of them anymore.

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