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LIFE AND WORK OF JANAKI AMMAL:

LIFE AND WORK OF JANAKI AMMAL Wahid Ul Rehman CUPB/ M.Phil -PhD/SBAS/Bio/2013-14/13 School of Basic and Applied Sciences. CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF PUNJAB, BATHINDA

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Full name: Edavaleth Kakkat Janaki Ammal . Born: Nov 4,1897 , at T ellichery , Kerala. Father: Dewan Bahadur Edavalath Kakkat Krishnan. Profession: Botanist. ( conducted scientific research in cytogenetics  and phytogeography. ) Nationality: Indian. Awarded: Padma Shri (1977) 2

EDUCATION:

EDUCATION Basic education: at Tellichery , Kerala Bachelor’s degree from Queen Mary’s College. Honours in Botany from the Presidency College in 1921. Went to Michigan for Master degree in 1925. D- Sc degree: University of Michigan ( USA) 1931. 3 Women’s Cristian College,Madras <http :// www.batchmates.com/institution instdetails.aspx?instcode > University of Michigan ( USA) <http :// w4.campusexplorer.com/media/560x420/Eastern-Michigan-University-A32483F.>

Timeline:

Timeline In 1932 she returned to India and joined as professor of botany at the Maharaja college of science, Trivandrum (1932-1934). W orked as genetist at Sugarcane B reeding I nstitute, Coimbatore (1934-1939 ). Worked as Assistant Cytologist at the John Innes Horticultural Institution in London ( 1940 to 1945 ). As cytologist at The Royal Horticultural Society at Wisley (1945 to 1951). 4 Royal Horticultural Society at Wisley <http :// www.rhs.org.uk/gardens/wisley/plan-your-visit/group-visits-to-wisley>

Timeline Contd….:

Timeline Contd …. On the invitation of Jawaharlal Nehru , returned to India in 1951 to reorganize the Botanical Survey of India (BSI). From then onwards, Ammal served the government of India in various capacities including: H eading the Central Botanical Laboratory at Allahabad, She was officer on special duty at the IIIM Jammu. She worked for a brief spell at the BARC , Bombay. In 1970 she settled as emeritus s cientist at University of Madras. 5

Personal life:

Personal life  In her family, girls were encouraged to engage in intellectual pursuits and in the fine arts, but Ammal choose to study botany. July 14, 1909 she was married to Srinivasa Ramanujan an Indian mathematician and autodidact. They were childless. Ammal Died in February 1984 at the age of 87. 9/2/2014 6 S Ramanujan Their House a Monument http://src.sastra.edu/ramanujan-125/images/SRCConf/ramanujan-house.jpg

Janaki Ammal Herbarium:

Janaki A mmal H erbarium The Janaki Ammal Herbarium at Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (Formerly RRL), House of 25,000 species taken from all over India. Mostly represented area of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. These includes specimens collected even prior to 1935. The structure or organization of Janaki Ammal Herbarium is based on Bentham and Hooker system of classification. http://www.iiim.res.in/herbarium/ 7

Images of Some specimen.:

Images of Some specimen. <http :// www.iiim.res.in/herbarium/menispermaceae/tinospora_cordifolia.htm> 8

Botanical Database :

Botanical D atabase Presently in this repository, o f a total 3,600 crude drug samples of authenticated parts of the plants. The botanical drugs comprising , root stem leaves , flower fruit , seed stem bark, root bark, heart wood bulb have been classified on the most scientific and modern lines 9 http:// www.iiim.res.in/fac_botany.html

Interest towards research:

Interest towards research Under the influence of teachers at the Presidency College. love of nature and the study of plants build her interest for research. 10

Interspecific and Intergeneric Hybrids:

Interspecific and Intergeneric Hybrids Ammal quit teaching in Trivandrum and joined the Institute at Coimbatore. At there she made several intergeneric hybrids: Saccharum x Zea Saccharum x Erianthus Saccharum x Imperata and Saccharum x Sorghum . The pioneering work at the Institute on the cytogenetic of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) and interspecific and intergeneric hybrids involving sugarcane 11 <http ://www.caneinfo.nic.in /> Sugarcane Breeding Institute at Coimbatore

Intergeneric Hybrids of Saccharum:

Intergeneric Hybrids of Saccharum The true octoploid species S. ofcinarum when used as the female parent in intergeneric crosses has given economically disappointing results . However when crossed the hybrid cane of Java, "POJ 2725", 2n =106, with Sorghum they obtained both valuable and useless seedling. Since then, "POJ 2725" and another Java cane, "POJ 213", 2n=124, have been extensively used in breeding . 12

Cytology of the saccharum parent POJ 2725:

Cytology of the saccharum parent POJ 2725 When S.officinarum ♀ is crossed with S . spontneum ♂, the F1 in all cases examined was the result of the fertilization of an unreduced egg of the first species by a reduced pollen grain of the second species. It has the composition 00S where 0 and S stand for the complements of the two species. In back-crossing the hybrid " Kassoer", of this constitution, as male to S. offcinarum ♀ ,fertilization was again confined to 2n eggs ,. POJ 2364, was the female parent of the cane POJ 2725, may be considered as a triploid S. offcinarum plus about half the gametic complement of S. spontaneum. 13 Origin of clone POJ 2725

Meiosis in POJ 2725 :

M eiosis in POJ 2725 The chromosomes in pollen mother . cells of POJ 2725 at diakinesis associate as bivalents, trivalents and quadrivalents (Fig. a). A number of univalents were also regularly observed, and many divided at-first anaphase ( Fig.b ). Meiosis is consequently irregular. Due to distribution of chromo­somes gives gametes with variable numbers; 62 were found at metaphase in a pollen grain ( Fig.c ) 14 Janaki Ammal, E. K. (1942). Intergeneric hybrids of Saccharum: IV. Saccharum- Narenga .  Journal of Genetics ,  44 (1), 23-32.

Contd…:

Contd … Another experiment have used the cane " POJ 2725" in crosses with Imperata. The grass I. Cylindrica has a wide distribution in both the Old and the New World . It is a troublesome weed of cultivated land. There are several ecotypes ranging from dwarfs of a few inches to 9 ft. tall with inflorescences up to 20 inch in length . The type that she used for hybridization with the sugar cane was known in Malay as " alang-alang", with a chromosome number 20. Its gametic complement is 10. 15 http://www.sms.si.edu/irlspec/Imperata_cylindrica.htm Imperata. Cylindrica

Contd..:

Contd.. The seed was supplied by the department of agriculture ,Kuala lumpur , Malaya. In 1935 she pollinated an arrow of POJ 2725 with pollen of I. Cylindrica, under a bag, and obtained thirty-five seedlings . All of these looked like sugar canes, though a few were dwarf. From an unpollinated control arrow under a bag she obtained a single seedling in 1935 and four seedlings in 1936. Investigation concerns some of the surviving seedlings. Only fourteen were examined R 16

PowerPoint Presentation:

17 Chromosome No. No. of Plants Origin Presumed Constitution Pollen Fertility I 106 2 Vegetative Embryony SS 23-35% II 108 110 112 3 2 1 Sexual or diploid parthenogenesis SS+ 0.0-7% III 120 130 132 134 1 1 1 2 True F1 SSI 50-80% IV 156 1 Triploid self SSS None The chromosome number of the fourteen seedlings

Contd..:

Contd.. Hence it seems unlikely that POJ 2725 will contribute its exact haploid number, 53 to any of its hybrids . The percentage of viable pollen was about 21 %. Anthesis was poor and variable . In a sample from one arrow 2 % of the anthers had dehiscence pores . Selfing and parthenogenesis is therefor responsible for the few seedlings obtained under the bag in 1936-8. 18

PowerPoint Presentation:

It will be seen that they fall into four groups, of which representative types are shown ' in Fig. First, there are those that have the same number as POJ 2725 . These also resemble it closely in vegetative characters and have the same pollen fertility, 23-35%. They are in all probability vegetatively apomictic plants and could be considered as clones of the mother plant ( Fig. , type A). 19 Janaki Ammal, E. K. (1942). Intergeneric hybrids of Saccharum: IV. Saccharum- Narenga .  Journal of Genetics ,  44 (1), 23-32.

Conti..:

Conti.. To the second group belong plants in which the chromosome number is slightly greater than in POJ 2725. They show segregation of characters and are very highly sterile, the pollen fertility being 0-7 %. From the evidence of their chromosome number and morphology, they would appear to be either true self's or parthenogenetic plants developed from unreduced gametes. ( type B and D in Fig.). 20 Janaki Ammal, E. K. (1942).

PowerPoint Presentation:

In the third group are plants with 120-134 chromosomes (type E, Fig .). These numbers represent the sum of the chromosomes from Unreduced gametes of POJ 2725 and from the haploid gamete of Imperata . They represent the only true hybrids of Saccharum and Imperata . These seedlings were highly fertile they resembled sugar canes very closely though they are more of the medium cane type than the mother plant. 21

Hybrid. :

Hybrid. All the hybrid F 2 plant were fertile . Pollen fertility as high as 80%. The single plant with 156 chromosome in the population It was considered as a triploid POJ2725 . 22 Janaki Ammal, E. K. (1942). Intergeneric hybrids of Saccharum: IV. Saccharum- Narenga .  Journal of Genetics ,  44 (1), 23-32.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Ammal and Cytogenetics Janaki Ammal did various studies some are very importants : Polyploidy in Solanum m elongena Linn . Meiosis in the dioloid . Meiosis in triploid . T he chromosome morphology in P hiladelphus 23

WORK ON PHILADELPHUS:

WORK ON PHILADELPHUS 24 Janaki Ammal have traced the history of Philadelphus in cultivation. Occurrence of triploids amongst the progeny of garden hybrids. Triploids (2 n = 39) which had much larger flowers than diploids were first found in the progeny of the tri-specific hybrid P . purpureo­maculatus . This hybrid were originated from European species P. comnarius and the fragrant Arizonian species P. microphyllus Janaki Ammal, E. K. (1958). Iso -chromosomes and the origin of triploidy in hybrids between old and new world species of Philadelphus. In  Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section B  (Vol. 48, No. 5, pp. 251-258). Indian Academy of Sciences.

Books authored by Janaki Ammal:

Books authored by Janaki A mmal List of books : The Chromosome Atlas of Cultivated Plants in 1945. 25

Award and Honors:

Award and Honors Ammal was elected Fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1935, The University of Michigan conferred an honorary degree LL.D. on her in 1956. Indian National Science Academy in 1957. The Government of India conferred the  Padma Shri on her in 1957. In 2000, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry of the Government of India instituted the National Award of Taxonomy in her name in 2000. 26

PowerPoint Presentation:

27

References:

References Subramanian , C. V. (2007). Edavaleth Kakkat Janaki Ammal.  Resonance . Raghavan , R. S. (1958, July). A chromosome survey of Indian Dioscoreas . In Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Section B  (Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 59-63). Springer India . Janaki Ammal, E. K. (1934). Polyploidy in Solanum melongena Linn.  Cytologia , 5 (4), 453-459. Janki Ammal, E. K. (1931). A polyploidy egg plant, Solanum Melongena L . Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters , 81. Subramanian, C. V. (2007). Edavaleth Kakkat Janaki Ammal.  Resonance . Janaki Ammal, E. K. (1942). Intergeneric hybrids of Saccharum: IV. Saccharum- Narenga .  Journal of Genetics ,  44 (1), 23-32. http://www.iiim.res.in/herbarium/menispermaceae/tinospora_cordifolia.htm 28

Contd..:

Contd.. http://www.rhs.org.uk/gardens/wisley/plan-your-visit/group-visits-wisley Subramanian, C. V. (2007). Edavaleth Kakkat Janaki Ammal.  Resonance . Janaki Ammal, E. K. (1958). Iso -chromosomes and the origin of triploidy in hybrids between old and new world species of Philadelphus. In  Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section B  (Vol. 48, No. 5, pp. 251-258). Indian Academy of Sciences. Ammal, J. Edavaleth Kakkat Janaki Ammal. http://envfor.nic.in/content/e-k-janaki-ammal-national-award-taxonomy Darlington, C. D., & Janaki Ammal, E. K. (1945). Chromosome atlas of cultivated plants.  Chromosome atlas of cultivated plants < http:// www.iiim.res.in/herbarium/menispermaceae/tinospora_cordifolia.htm <http://www.batchmates.com/institution instdetails.aspx?instcode <http://w4.campusexplorer.com/media/560x420/Eastern-Michigan-University-A32483F.> 29

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