balantidium coli

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Balantidium Coli:

Balantidium Coli

Balantididae - Characteristics:

Balantididae - Characteristics Body covered with Cilia Two distinct nucleus – Macro Nucleus and Micro nucleus Exclusive parasites of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts – Digestive tract

Balantidium coli stein 1862:

Balantidium coli stein 1862

Introduction :

Introduction Common parasite of pigs Only ciliate known to infect humans Largest Protozoan


History First described by Malmstein (1857) in feces of man suffering from dysentery. Named it as Paramecium coli Later renamed as Balantidium coli by Stein (1863)


Habitat Large intestines of humans, Pigs and Monkeys

Morphology - Trophozoite:

Morphology - Trophozoite Two stages Trophozoite and Cyst Oval in shape Slightly pointed anterior end and a blunt posterior end Size 30 – 300 µm x 30 - 100 µm Body surface is covered with rows of cilia – responsible for active motility

Morphology - Trophozoite:

Morphology - Trophozoite Anterior end shows V shaped mouth – Cytostome Cytostome leading to a funnel shaped gullet cytopharynx ( upto 1/3 rd of the body) Intestine absent Posterior end – less prominent pore – cytopyge (food molecules evacuted )

Morphology – Trophozoite :

Morphology – Trophozoite Cytoplasm consists of Macronucleus and a Micronucleus Micronucleus is present in the concavity of macronucleus Consits of contractile vacuoles and numerous food vacuoles Trophozoite capable of ingesting bacteria, RBC and fat droplets

Morphology - Cyst:

Morphology - Cyst Round and smaller than the trophozoite Size : 40 µm to 60 µm A thick and transparent wall surround the cyst. Cytoplasm granular and contains macro and micronucleus and a refractile body Cilia are absent in mature cysts Resistant and infective stage

Life Cycle:

Life Cycle Completed in a single host Natural hosts : Pigs Accidental hosts : Man Source of infection : contaminated food, water and hands with infected feces. Route : Ingestion

PowerPoint Presentation: On ingestion , cysts excysts in small intestine Multiplication takes place in large intestine, caecum and terminal ileum Each cyst excysts to produce a single tropozoite

Life Cycle: Life Cycle Both asexual and sexual reproduction present Asexual by binary fission Sexual by conjugation Conjugation two opposite mating types pair & exchange genetic material

Life Cycle: Life Cycle

Life Cycle:

Life Cycle Trophozoites undergo encystation to produce infective cysts . Some trophozoites invade the wall of the colon and multiply. Some return to the lumen and disintegrate. Mature cysts are passed with feces .

Pathogenesis and Pathology:

Pathogenesis and Pathology Both trophozoites and cysts – found in large intestine But invasion of intestinal mucosa – key feature of infection Invasion facilitated by Mechanical action of ciliary movement Hyaluronidase produces by parasite Parasite invade mucosa and sub mucosa – Balantidium ulcers

Pathogenesis & Pathology – Balantidium ulcer:

Pathogenesis & Pathology – Balantidium ulcer Similar to amoebic ulcers Found in caecum , ascending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. Oval to round multiple ulcers with undermined edges Floor is filled with pus and necrotic material. Trophozoites found in edge and also in pus. Do not invade the muscular layer of intestine (unlike amoebic ulcers) Perforation is the main complication

Clinical manifestation - Ciliate dysentery :

Clinical manifestation - Ciliate dysentery Mild infection Intermittent diarrhoea alternating with constipation Acute infection Diarrhoea with more of blood and mucous (ciliate dysentery) Clinical symptoms similar to amoebiasis Fever, GIT symptoms and intestinal colic Few cases fulminant ulceration with haemorrhage , shock and death

Clinical manifestation - Ciliate dysentery :

Clinical manifestation - Ciliate dysentery Chronic infection Intermittent diarrhoea alternating with constipation Stool conatins more of mucous and less of blood Parasites rarely seen

Geographical distribution:

Geographical distribution Infection worldwide Endemic areas for parasite South and central America, China, Indonesia, Philippines, Papua new guinea and pacific islands Highest prevalance in districts of West Irian in Indonesia India Poorly documented

Lab diagnosis - Microscopy:

Lab diagnosis - Microscopy Mostly parasitic Specimens : Stool Methods of examination Microscopy and Culture Microscopy Trophozoites and cysts Trophozoites best demonstrated in fresh specimens of dysenteric stool Cysts in semi formed stool samples

PowerPoint Presentation:

unstained trichrome eosin

Lab diagnosis Culture:

Lab diagnosis Culture Cultured in Robinson’s medium and other media used for culture of E. histolytica Other tests Demonstrating trophozoites in Biopsy specimen of large intestine obtained by sigmoidoscopy and scrapings of ulcer

Treatment :

Treatment Tetracycline is drug of choice Dose : 500mg QID x 10 days Metronidazole 750 mg TID Idoquinol is also effective

Prevention and control :

Prevention and control Sanitary disposal of human and pig feces Treatment of infected pigs Prevention of faecal contamination of food and water by not using night soil as fertilizers Improved personal hygiene

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