Fingerprint Technology: Dr. Vuda SreenivasaRao Fingerprint Technology FINGERPRINT: FINGERPRINT Oldest form of Biometrics. Highly Reliable. Uses distinctive features of fingers. Objectives:: Objectives: 2.Fingerprint Technology: 2.1.Technical description. 2.2.Fingerprint Security characteristics. 2.3.Strengths. 2.4.Weaknesses. 2.5.Deployment. PowerPoint Presentation: 2.1.FINGERPRINT Finger-scan biometrics is based on the distinctive characteristics of the human fingerprint. A fingerprint image is read from a capture device . Features are extracted from the image . A template is created for comparison. Each and every fingerprint is considered to be Unique. Classification: Classification Fingerprints are made up of Ridges and Furrows. Core Delta Arch Loop Whorl Ridge ending Ridge Dot Bifurcation Ridge Basic information of fingerprint is known as Ridge. Black line of parents is known as Ridge.: Ridge Basic information of fingerprint is known as Ridge. Black line of parents is known as Ridge. CORE-Weak of the parent: CORE- Weak of the parent Delta- Triangular shape of the parent: Delta- Triangular shape of the parent Three basic fingerprint parents- Arch , Loop and Whorl. Arch- The parent start at one side and exit on the other side of the finger.: Three basic fingerprint parents- Arch , Loop and Whorl. Arch- The parent start at one side and exit on the other side of the finger. Loop- one side start at finger and exit on the same side of the finger: Loop - one side start at finger and exit on the same side of the finger Whorl- Round shape of the fingerprint, one face is up and one face is down.: Whorl - Round shape of the fingerprint, one face is up and one face is down . Ridge Ending : End on the each parent: Ridge Ending : End on the each parent Bifurcation-one ridge divided in to two ridges: Bifurcation -one ridge divided in to two ridges Dot-Start and endings are very short distance.: Dot-Start and endings are very short distance. PowerPoint Presentation: ARCH, LOOP AND WHORL Loop-65%, Whorl-30% and Arch-5% PROCESS: PROCESS PROCESS-Flow chart: PROCESS-Flow chart Identity versus Identification: Identity versus Identification A person can have multiple identities. A user who has multiple e-mail accounts is a good example . This user is known by each of these e-mail accounts , allowing the person to have multiple identities. Identification occurs when user is uniquely identified using some form of biometric mannerism. Fingerprint uniquely identify individuals. Conditions : Conditions Each biometric technology can contain the following conditions: 1.Failure to Enroll(FTE). 2. False Match or False Accept(Type 2) 3. False Non match or False Reject(Type 1) 4. Crossover Error Rate. 5. Ability to Verify Rate. 1.Failure to Enroll(FTE): 1.Failure to Enroll(FTE) Failure to enroll(FTE) occurs when a given individual lacks sufficient unique fingerprint data to uniquely identify him or her based on the required minutiae. Example: the fingerprint technology requires 500 minutiae to enroll, yet a given fingerprint only produces 450 minutiae. The result would be an Failure to Enroll. 2. False Match or False Accept(Type 2): 2. False Match or False Accept(Type 2) An example of a false match in fingerprint biometrics could be when only 100 minutiae were required to create a fingerprint template, and two fingerprint templates contained the same 100 minutiae points(even through there are other minutiae point differences). It would be possible for the algorithm to falsely accept one fingerprint template as valid when in fact it belonged to a different individual. 3. False Non match or False Reject(Type 1): 3. False Non match or False Reject(Type 1) A false non- match can occur when a biometric template generated by a previously enrolled/valid individual does not create a match with the enrollment template information. This can occur when fingerprint information falls out of the acceptable tolerances due to the condition of the finger, placement, pressure, and so on. 4. Crossover Error Rate: 4. Crossover Error Rate Crossover Error Rate(CER) is generally stated as a percentage at which the false rejection rate and the false acceptance rate equal to each other (1%). 5. Ability to Verify Rate: 5. Ability to Verify Rate The ATV is typically a numerical representation expressed in the form of a percentage of individuals that will not be able to use the biometric technology for authentication and will therefore have to be handled in an exception process. The lower the ATV rating, the better the overall ability to authenticate a greater majority of users. Example: if this was expected to happen in 10% of the population , and the system was required to handle 1000 users,100 users would need to be treated as exceptions. These exceptions might need to use biometric technology or passwords only. Fingerprint Security Characteristics : Fingerprint Security Characteristics Characteristics Ease of Use Error incidence Accuracy Acceptance Security Level Stability Cost High Low High Medium High High Low 2.3.Fingerprint-Strengths : 2.3.Fingerprint-Strengths Biometric fingerprint technology has several strengths that allows it to be one of the most popular and quite possibly the best-positioned biometric technology for data security . Among biometric technologies, finger printing is one of the oldest , most well – known and researched technologies. Fingerprints are easy to use ; simply place a finger on a scanner. Because fingerprint are well-known , many companies are participating in fingerprint technologies. Fingerprint-Strengths: Fingerprint-Strengths 4. A wide variety of application uses exist , depending on the manufacture. 5.Many fingerprint technologies are designed not only for security , but make multiple authentications to disparate systems easier . 6.Identification on some systems might be set up to only occur from a specific fingerprint scanner. 7.Fingerprinting is considered stronger than password protection alone. 8.It allows almost immediate identification for speedy authentication. Fingerprint-Strengths: Fingerprint-Strengths 9. It is a mature and proven core technology, capable of high levels of accuracy. 10. It can be deployed in a range of environments. 11. It employs ergonomic, easy-to-use devices. 12. The ability to enroll multiple fingers can increase system accuracy and flexibility. 2.4.Fingerprint-Weaknesses: 2.4.Fingerprint-Weaknesses Fingerprint technology is one of the oldest and most well-known technologies, a good amount of information is publicly available on how to defeat it. Fingerprints are easily copied/reproduced using publicly available documentation and easy-to-acquire , inexpensive materials(latex). A reproduction of a fingerprint is called a fake (or) dummy. If a user allows an impression to be taken of their fingerprint, it is much easier to create a fake (or) dummy than from a latent print. Fingerprint-Weaknesses: Fingerprint-Weaknesses 3.Using a fingerprint scanner leaves a latent print on the scanner device, which can also be used to create a fake using publicly available documentation and easy-to-acquire materials. This takes more skill than if a user is willing to provide an impression. 4.Fingerprint scanning is not considered as secure as retinal (or)iris biometric technologies. 5.Should a fingerprint or a fingerprint comparison template be compromised , it is not as easy to fix as if a password becomes compromised. Fingerprint-Weaknesses: Fingerprint-Weaknesses 6. The screens on fingerprint scanners tend to retain an obstruction of oil and residue from user fingertips. 7.Most devices are unable to enroll some small percentage of users. 8. Performance can deteriorate over time. 9. It is associated with forensic applications. Making a Gummy Finger from a Latent Print: Making a Gummy Finger from a Latent Print 2.5.Deployment: 2.5.Deployment One of the first questions asked when trying to decide which fingerprint technology to use is “What type of fingerprint sensor is the best?”. There’s no standard answer to this question. 1. cost is often among the top consideration when choosing many technologies. 2. Maturity of the fingerprint technology within the marketplace is another consideration when choosing a fingerprint technology. 3. The sensor should be minimally affected by humidity and temperature with in reasonable expectations . Again ,if the sensor is located near a metal melting pot, it will likely be affected by heat , whereas if it is located in a greenhouse , it might be affected by humidity . Implementation Criteria: Implementation Criteria One of the main reason –Biometric technology is very easy to use. Simply place the finger(fingers) on a scanner , and that’s it. Biometric fingerprint technology can be used in many of the following applications as well as others. ---- Network logon/authentication ---- Individual workstation logon/authentication ---- Application Control ---- Encryption Control ---- Activity logging ---- Public access protection. Benefits: Benefits Easy to use. Greater acceptance. The company is that users can be required to authenticate several times throughout a session of multiple sessions easily. PowerPoint Presentation: EXAMPLE:FINGERPRINT PC LOCK PowerPoint Presentation: FINGERPRINT DOOR LOCK PowerPoint Presentation: QUERIES ???