Fifty Years of Community Radio in India Where is the Community

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Fifty Years of Community Radio in India: Where is the Community:

Bidu Bhusan Dash Doctoral Fellow Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai bidu.dash@tiss.edu Fifty Years of Community Radio in India: Where is the Community

Background:

Background Dash, B. B. 2 Part of my broad study “Media for Empowerment: A Study of Community Radio Initiatives in Bundelkhand” Review of Literature Community Radio Sets Local Radio Stations Community Radio Programmes Narrowcasting Campus Community Radio Stations Community Radio Stations Exploring Community in terms of Participation Ownership

Community Radio Sets:

Community Radio Sets Dash, B. B. 3 Objective: Disseminating information in rural India Approach: Distribution of Radio Sets in villages History: Distributed by Bombay, Uttar Pradesh and Madras Governments in the 50s and 60s of 20 th Century. Analysis: For the community, by the village elitists and of the local institutions. Dalits and women were excluded.

Local Radio Stations (LRS):

Local Radio Stations (LRS) Dash, B. B. 4 Objective: Diffusion of Information Approach: Local programme in local dialect History: First LRS was started at Nagercoil in 1984. 85 LRS with 5 CRS in AIR ( Prasar Bharati , 2008) Analysis: In-studio recording could not gave space to the people’s voice and ownership was with AIR Top-down approach could not facilitate the process of development

Narrowcasting:

Narrowcasting Dash, B. B. 5 Objectives: Informing and empowering the community Approaches: Bottom up, community centric and By-way communication History: Sangam Radio (1998), Namma Dhwani (2001), Radio Alakal (2006), Lalit Lokvani (2008) Analysis: Ownership ownership changed- from State to CSOs/NGOs People’s participation increased tremendously Limited to micro units i.e. within a group or village

Community Radio Programmes:

Community Radio Programmes Dash, B. B. 6 Objective: Empower and Inform the local community Approach: Local people produced their programme, NGOs facilitated it, broadcasted by AIR History: Saras Crane of Our Kutch (KMVS) from AIR Bhuj (1999), Chala Ho Gaon Mein (NFI) from Daltonganj AIR (2001), Ujala (PFI- Agragamee ) from Jeypore AIR (2002) Analysis: State-Civil society partnership emerged in ownership paradigm Of studio recording gave space to the people’s voice

Campus Community Radio:

Campus Community Radio Dash, B. B. 7 Objective: Empower and Inform the local community, Ensure people’s participation in the process Approach: State provided licence , Academic Institutions opened Radio stations, campus community and ‘greater community’ participated in the process. History: GoI gave permission to academic institutions and KVKs to open radio stations in Dec 2002. Anna University (1 Feb 2004) was the 1 st one. Analysis: Sandwiched between ‘campus community’ and ‘greater community’ Very much open as different communities is in a particular geographic boundary (Somewhere, community is diluting)

Community Radio Station:

Community Radio Station Dash, B. B. 8 Objective: Empower and Inform the local community, Ensure people’s participation in the process Approach: State provided licence , CSOs/NGOs/GOs opened Radio stations, target community participate in the process of production, management and ownership. History: GoI gave permission to NGOs/CSOs to open radio svations in 2006. Now, hundreds of CRSs in India in all most all states. Analysis: Funding agencies and NGOs/CSOs seem owners, Village elitists become the management committee members, and Villagers are limited in vox pops.

Concluding Remarks:

Concluding Remarks Dash, B. B. 9 Number of radio sets are down falling and Convergence of media is emerging Concept of community is diluting and diversifying Ownership and management is questioned Who is participating where?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Dash, B. B. 10 Thank You Acknowledgement: I hear tily acknowledge Prof. K. P. Jayasankar and Prof. Anjali Monteiro for their guidance to develop it as a paper from my literature. Refer: Dash, B. B. 2012. Fifty Years of Community Radio: Where is the Community, Presented in National Conference on Community Radio: Prospects and Challenges at Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli on 16-17 March.

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