DETERMINANTS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF EARLY MARRIAGE ON RURAL WOMEN OF BHILWARA DISTRICT : DETERMINANTS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF EARLY MARRIAGE ON RURAL WOMEN OF BHILWARA DISTRICT Presentation Outline : Presentation Outline INTRODUCTION
RATIONALE, OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESES
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Determinants of early marriage
Psychosocial consequences of early marriage
SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 2 INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION 3 Child marriage intro : Child marriage intro is one of the burning problems of Indian society. In India, despite amended laws advocating 18 as the legal minimum age at marriage for females, a substantial proportion i.e. every third adolescent girl in the age group of 15-19 year is married and every second married adolescent girl has given birth to a child. According to the Registrar General of India (RGI) Report (2001) Rajasthan has the highest (40.8) percentage of females ever married among 15-19 year old girls as compared to India (24.9 %) followed by Bihar (39.6 %), Madhya Pradesh (34.1%), Jarkhand (32.9%) and Andhra Pradesh (32.3%). Among the various districts of Rajasthan, Bhilwara is at the top with 61.9 percent. 4 Child Marriage nfhs : nfhs reflecting the country’s diversity, few women (12%) marry before age 18 in Goa and Himachal Pradesh, while nearly 57 to 61 percent do so in Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Bihar. Differences by area of residence are also stark: 28% in urban areas vs. 53% in rural areas.
Yet, there has been a slow trend toward delaying marriage: Nationally, the proportion of women marrying before their 18th birthday declined by five percent from 1993 to 2006 (50% to 45%). 5 NFHS Vicious Circle of Girl Child's Neglect : Vicious Circle of Girl Child's Neglect 6 Girls are socialized from the very beginning to accept the culture of male supremacy, which willingly or unwillingly, subjects them to discriminatory practices. They actually adopt, support, promote and transmit inter-generationally the dominant social and cultural values. Gender inequality begins even before birth and is consistently becoming adverse throughout the life of the Indian women. The plight of rural women in India irrespective of their age is a matter of concern. Slide 7: Child Marriage: Age view Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006, India defines Child marriage is a marriage of individuals before they attain the legal age i.e. 18 years for girls and 21 years for boys.
UN's Convention on the Rights of Children define the union of children or adolescents under the age of 18 as child marriage.
IAC (2003) Child marriage, also known as early marriage, is defined as “any marriage carried out below the age of 18 years, before the girl is physically, physiologically, and psychologically ready to shoulder the responsibilities of marriage and childbearing.
Early Marriage: In the present study the term early marriage used, is understood as child marriage i.e. below the age of 18 years for female as prescribed by law. 7 Slide 8: INTRODUCTION
Child Marriage: Facts (UNICEF -2009) 47% of India's women aged 20–24 were married before 18, with 56% in rural areas and 40% of the world's child marriages occur in India.
(NGHS-3) 57.1 percentage of women aged 20-24, married by the time they are 18 in Rajasthan.
Median age at marriage among urban and rural women age 20-49- 18.8 years and 16.4 years.
(RGI-2001) Rajasthan has the highest (40.8) percentage of females ever married among 15-19 year old girls as compared to India (24.9 %) followed by Bihar (39.6 %), Madhya Pradesh (34.1%), Jarkhand (32.9%) and Andhra Pradesh (32.3%). Among the various districts of Rajasthan, Bhilwara is at the top with 61.9 percent.
According to Census 1981, 1991 and 2001, mean age at marriage for female in Bhilwara district is 14.5, 16.2 and 16.4 years respectively. 8 Slide 9: Acts and Legal Perspective 9 Conceptual Framework of the Study : Conceptual Framework of the Study 10 0 to 9, 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 (in Years) 0 to 9, 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 (in Years) Determinants of Early Marriage : Determinants of Early Marriage Traditions and customs: Traditions are beliefs with particular consensus through time. Custom is a practice followed by people of a particular group or a pattern of habitual activity. Rajyalaxmi (1990) mentioned that the custom of early marriage is more prevalent in Rajasthan, in the spoken language it was said that the infant was being married in Pile Potare (yellow napkin).
Lack of Education: High rate of early marriage is caused due to low level of female literacy and low status of women (Sharma, 2003; UNICEF, 2001).
Childhood Residence: According to Savitridina (1997), childhood residence refers to that place where the respondent spent the longest period of time till reaching the age of 12. 11 Determinants of Early Marriage : Determinants of Early Marriage Caste: The caste has immense control over the social and economic life of people; the traditions and practices of castes are rigidly followed by them. The caste hierarchy also perhaps had its role to play in perpetuating early marriage (Birodkar, 2006). Findings of the study (Reddy, 1998) revealed a marked caste differences in the age at marriage of females among the different Hindu castes.
Protection of Girl and Absence of Father: Early marriage is one way to ensure that a wife is ‘protected’, or placed firmly under male control. She is submissive to her husband and works hard for her in-laws’ household; that the children she bears are ‘legitimate’; and that bonds of affection between couples do not undermine the family unit. Girls will be better off and safer with a regular male guardian (Caldwell, John & Pat, 1977).
According to study by Santhya, Haberland, Singh (2006) at Rajasthan State, girls’ emerging sexuality is viewed as a threat, puberty as a signal to promptly place a girl under the safety of the label “married”. Deviating from this practice elicits community pressure. The developing body of an adolescent girl is viewed as a liability or danger that can be dealt best by pre-emotively marrying her off. 12 Determinants of Early Marriage : Determinants of Early Marriage Exposure to Mass Media: Exposure to mass media has a significant effect on age at marriage. Women with no access to any of the mass media were more likely to have married early as compared with those who had access to all three of the media (audio, video & print) or at least one of them. The age at marriage, according to media exposure in big cities and towns, was similar; however, some differences prevail in rural areas. The proportion of women who married early compared with those who had no access to mass media is slightly lower than for those who had access to at least one medium. For rural residents, radio is the most popular media (Savitridina, 1997).
Socio- Economic Status: Caste, occupation, income and educational backgrounds of the people are considered as the important socio- economic variables to assess the socio economic status of the people in the society. These socio- economic differentials significantly affect the age of marriage (Reddy, 1998). 13 Psychosocial Consequences : Psychosocial Consequences Exploitation of Girl Child as Loss of Adolescence: For the majority of girl children in India, there is no period of "Adolescence" as they shift from childhood to adulthood and soon become a pregnant adult. (NIPCCD, 1992-93).
The time when she needs support, confidence and advice, an adolescent bride has to adjust to the unfamiliar set up of her new home. She also cope with the post pubescent bodily changes along with the feelings and sensation that are unfamiliar and people with whom she must maintain a respectful distance (Kakar, 1978).
Denial of Education: Once married, girls are rarely permitted to continue their education, except in a few families. It is only through education that the girl child can arm herself to be independent and self-reliant, and hence have a fighting chance in life (Patel, 2007).
Denial of Freedom: (Population Council, 2006), women are not allowed to go out and in many cases, permission of the family is required. Similarly, girls are restricted from moving freely. A girl becomes a mother, she is crushed under multiple responsibilities of being a wife, mother and daughter-in-law at very tender age. Despite growing up together, the boys are not completely connected or committed to their wives and some even seek relationships outside their marriage. 14 Psychosocial Consequences : Psychosocial Consequences Personal Development and Inadequate Socialization: UNICEF (2001) focused that child marriage, along with little or no education, economic dependence, denial of decision-making power, inequality within the home, and sexual exploitation adversely affect the mental health. A girl child tends to be more attached emotionally to her parental family than a boy child. She is more prone to psychological stress and tension because of detachment from parents after marriage. Many women get depressed following the incident. They suffer from an inability to enjoy things, find it difficult to sleep and eat, face concentration problems, and experience feelings of guilt and decreased self-esteem.
Early marriage typically cuts girls off from established support networks and friends (Santhya & Jejeebhoy,2003).
Access to Contraception: Selvaratnam (1988) revealed that women who married early were less likely to use contraception, this is because women who married late with higher education have a better knowledge of contraception. Education exposes women to family planning knowledge, attitudes and practices. 15 Psychosocial Consequences : Psychosocial Consequences Violence and Abandonment: A study among women in Calcutta found that half had been married at or below the age of 15, and that this group were highly vulnerable to sexual violence in marriage (Sen, 1997).
UNICEF (2005) Domestic violence is more common among women, who had been married during childhood. India has the highest levels of domestic violence (67%) among women married before 18 years.
Life Satisfaction: Satisfaction is a mental state where an individual expresses positive feeling about what he has done or has been able to achieve. Whatever one does, its merit is determined in terms of satisfaction it brings to the doer. . A happy and satisfied woman can make better adjustment and modify the internal and external environment, reduce the tension and increase harmony at home. A satisfied woman gives due regards to other people’s feelings, is kind and tolerant to others and in general is more cautious, less touchy, less irritable and less critical (Narang,1996) . 16 Customs Surrounding Child Marriage : Customs Surrounding Child Marriage Gauna or Muklawa: A ceremony is performed for consummation of marriage after girl attains maturity/puberty or the virtual transfer of girl from her family to conjugal family, after few days or years of formal marriage.
Akshya Tritiya or Akha Teej : A day of Mass Child Marriages, the third day of the bright fortnight of Baishakh (May-June). People do not consult almanac or Pandit.
Mausar and Gangoj: is a practice of giving a feast to relatives, villagers and people of same caste on 12th and 13th day of death of an elder person. These occasions Mausar (12th day) and Gangoj (13th day) are utilized by those who are not well off to get their child married.
Nata (Re marriage): After marriage when a woman establishes marital relation with another man with her will or by her parents wish or force.
Mayas and Jhagra: parents do not perform Gauna of their married daughter and remarry her to another person, in return they get money from new husband (Mayas). Previous husband get compensation or bride price known as “Jhagra”. The amount of Jhagra is decided by caste and community leaders.
Aata-Sata: parents used to marry their daughters in the same family where their son is married or vice versa. 17 Customs Surrounding Child Marriage RATIONALE : RATIONALE Women, a weaker and depressed section Indian Society. The neglect and discrimination of the woman is subjected to severe and deep-rooted criticism. The “lost years” of adolescence, can be harnessed fruitfully, and girls can be equipped for a better and more productive life if they are addressed to a special target category of developmental programmes. They need to be educated, confident and have decision-making skills. This would have far-reaching implications for the status of women in the coming generations.
Most studies have focused on the impact of early marriage on fertility rather than to better understand psycho-social consequences. The present investigation was planned to examine the marital age and its determinants in varying socio-cultural set up and psycho-social consequences of marriage age on development of a girl child or women. From the cited literature and personal observations, it was found that early marriages are more common in rural area with its hard consequences, especially in Bhilwara district of Rajasthan state. It was felt necessary to study the effects of various socio-economic and other factors on the pattern of age at marriage and its psycho-social consequences in certain selected rural areas. 18 OBJECTIVES : OBJECTIVES To assess the socio- economic status (SES) and demographic components of the respondents under study.
To find out the significant differences and impact of SES components on age at marriage (M-age) and age at Gauna (G-age) of the respondents belonging to different SES.
To find out the significant differences and impact of determinants of early marriage (DEM) components on M-age and G-age of the respondents belonging to different SES.
To find out the significant differences and impact of M-age and G-age on psycho-social consequences (PSC ) components of the respondents belonging to different SES.
To find out the significant differences and impact of M-age and G-age on life satisfaction (LS) components of the respondents belonging to different SES.
To predict the determinants of age at marriage (within different age groups) of the respondents under study.
To predict the psycho-social consequences and overall life satisfaction in relation to age at marriage (within different age groups) of the respondents under study.
To find out relationship (a) among determinants of early marriage and psycho-social consequences components and (b) inter correlation of SES components and life satisfaction components. 19 HYPOTHESES : HYPOTHESES SES components will show significant differences and impact on M-age and G-age of the respondents belonging to different socio- economic status.
DEM components will show significant differences and impact on M-age and G-age of the respondents belonging to different socio- economic status.
M-age and G-age of the respondents belonging to different socio- economic status will show significant differences and impact on their PSC components.
M-age and G-age of the respondents belonging to different socio- economic status will show significant differences and impact on their LS components.
Age at marriage (within different age groups) of the respondents under study will be significantly predicted by the determinants.
Psycho-social consequences and overall life satisfaction of the respondents will be significantly predicted by their age at marriage (within different age groups).
(a) There will be a significant relationship between determinants and psycho-social consequences of early marriage. (b)There will be a significant inter-correlation among SES components and LS components. 20 METHODOLOGY : METHODOLOGY 21 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS : OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Early Marriage/Age at Marriage (M-age): In the present study the term age at marriage (early marriage) used is understood as child marriage i.e. below the age of 18 years for female as prescribed by law, categorized in three groups i.e. 0 to 9, 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 years.
Age at effective marriage (Gauna) (G-age): In rural context, especially for Rajasthan age at marriage itself does not depict the virtual transfer of girl from her family to conjugal family. After few days or years of formal marriage husband returns to take her wife back to his home to live with him permanently and this occasion is known as “Gauna” ceremony. In demographic literature it is known as effective marriage which marks the time when sexual union between husband and wife starts. For the present study G-age is categorized in three groups i.e. 0 to 9, 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years.
Socio- economic Status: For the present study socio-economic status can be operationally defined as scores obtained on 15 items of socio- economic status scale developed by investigator. 22 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS : OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Determinants of early marriages (DEM): For the present study determinants of early marriage can be operationally defined as scores obtained on 60 items under 6 dimensions of DEM scale developed by investigator.
Psycho-social consequences (PSC): For the present study psychosocial consequences can be operationally defined as scores obtained on 66 items under 6 dimensions of PSC scale developed by investigator.
Life Satisfaction (LS): For the present study life satisfaction can be operationally defined as scores obtained on 60 items under 6 dimensions of tool developed by Alam and Shrivastava (1973). 23 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS : OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Locale of the study: Rural areas of Bhilwara district of Rajasthan state were selected purposively as the locale of study.
Sample and its selection: The multistage sampling procedure includes selection of Tehsils, villages and finally, selection of respondents.
Criteria of sample selection
Socio-economic status – The subjects belonging to different socio-economic status i.e. Upper, middle and lower were included in the sample.
Age at marriage- Respondents married before the legal age of marriage i.e. 18 years.
Duration of marriage – minimum 5 years to maximum 15 years. 24 Sampling procedure : State Rajasthan Purposive
District Bhilwara Purposive
Households (n=600) Purposive
Respondents (n=300) Purposive
Upper SES Middle SES Lower SES
n1 = 100 n2 = 100 n3 = 100
(n1=5X20) (n2=5X20) (n3=5X20) SAMPLING PROCEDURE Sampling procedure Research Design : Population Universe (600 HHs)
Village Mapping and Wealth Ranking SES (self developed scale) Presentation, interpretation, & discussion of results n = 300 Time Plan Frequency, Percentage, Mean, z test, ANOVA, Pearson’s ‘r’ and Regression Activities Research Design MEASURING TOOLS : MEASURING TOOLS 27 The following tools were used:
Baseline Pro forma: (self developed) It consists of 10 questions on background information of the subjects i.e. current age, marital status, marital duration, age of marriage, age at Gauna, education, family composition, exposure to media, legal awareness etc. MEASURING TOOLS Socio- Economic Status Scale (SES scale): : Socio- Economic Status Scale (SES scale): Socio- Economic Status Scale (SES scale):
For determining the SES of subjects, a self framed SES scale was used. This tool aims to gather general socio-economic information of the respondents and includes total 15 items such as Caste, Occupation, Education Level, Total monthly income, Family type, Family size, Asset-1, Asset-2, Social membership and Social participation.
Asset-1& Asset-2: consists of check list and the total scores depends on number of asset possessed by the Ss.
Asset-1: consists of items on house type, land size and land type. Total scores obtained in this group were kept in three categories from low to high i.e. Score 1 to 8 (low), Score 9 to 12 (middle) and Score 13 to 18 (high).
Asset-2: consists of items on household equipments, available vehicle, agriculture instruments and livestock and scores obtained in this group was also categorized in three sub groups i.e. Score 1 to 10 (low), Score 11 to 18 (middle) and Score 19 to 23 (high).
The total scores were obtained by counting the tick mark (√) against each item. 28 Determinants of Early Marriages (DEM scale): : Determinants of Early Marriages (DEM scale): Determinants of Early Marriages (DEM scale):
A self made questionnaire cum interview schedule was developed to find out the determinants of early marriage. The tool consists of 60 questions on the following components (10 questions each):
D – 1 Traditions and customs
D – 2 Lack of education
D – 3 Childhood residence
D – 4 Caste
D – 5 Protection of girls & absence of father
D – 6 Exposure to mass media
The question needs to be responded in yes or no. one score was given for yes response and zero score for no response. The maximum score one could obtained is 60 and minimum is zero. 29 Psycho-Social Consequences (PSC Scale): : Psycho-Social Consequences (PSC Scale): Psycho-Social Consequences (PSC Scale):
A self made questionnaire cum interview schedule was developed to find out the psychosocial consequences of early marriage. The tool consists of 66 questions on the following components (11 questions each):
C – 1 Exploitation of girl child as loss of adolescence
C – 2 Denial of education
C – 3 Denial of freedom
C – 4 Personal development & inadequate socialization
C – 5 Access to contraception
C – 6 Violence & abandonment
The question needs to be responded in yes or no. one score was given for yes response and zero score for no response. The maximum score one could obtained is 60 and minimum is zero. 30 Life Satisfaction Scale (LS scale): : Life Satisfaction Scale (LS scale): Life Satisfaction Scale (LS scale):
The standardized tool by Alam and Shrivastava (1973) was used to measure life satisfaction. The scale consists of 60 items on six components viz., health, personal, economic, marital, social and job. The responses are to be given in yes/no. Yes responses were marked as one and no as zero. Higher the score, higher the life satisfaction. Test retest reliability is 0.84 and validity of the scale was obtained by correlating with Saxena’s adjustment inventory and Srivastava adjustment inventory, which is 0.74 and 0.82 respectively. 31 Case studies : Case studies Case studies: were conducted separately with 20 percent of the selected respondents.
Focus group discussions: were done with selected respondents and their families. 32 RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS : Frequency distribution of age at marriage and age at Gauna in selected villages
Mean age at marriage and Gauna
Socio-economic Status and Early marriage
Determinants and Early Marriage
Psychosocial Consequences and Early Marriage
Life Satisfaction and Early Marriage
Age at Marriage: Its Determinants and Psycho-Social Consequences
Relationship between Determinants and Psycho-social Consequences
Inter-correlation among SES components and LS components RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS 33 Frequency distribution of age at marriage and age at Gauna : Frequency distribution of age at marriage and age at Gauna in selected villages
(Lower age to Higher age of marriage) Frequency distribution of age at marriage and age at Gauna 34 Mean age at marriage and Gauna of different SES respondents : Mean age at marriage and Gauna of different SES respondents 35 Socio-economic Status and Early marriage : SES Components and M-age & G-age Socio-economic Status and Early marriage M-age
G-age 36 Socio-economic Status and Early marriage Slide 37: 37 Mean distribution of M_age and G_age according to SES Components : Mean distribution of M_age and G_age according to SES Components 38 Socio-economiAssettus and Early marriage One way ANOVA for SES Components among M-age and G-age : One way ANOVA for SES Components among M-age and G-age One way ANOVA for SES Components among M-age and G-age ** Determinants and Early Marriage : Determinants and Early Marriage 40 Percentage responses of DEM components with regard to early marriage Determinants and Early Marriage : Determinants and Early Marriage 41 Percentage responses of DEM components with regard to early marriage in different SES Mean, S.D. and ‘Z’ value of DEM components in different SES : Mean, S.D. and ‘Z’ value of DEM components in different SES 42 Mean, S.D. and ‘Z’ value of DEM components in different SES One Way ANOVA for DEM components with M-age and G-age : One Way ANOVA for DEM components with M-age and G-age One Way ANOVA for DEM components with M-age and G-age 43 The traditions and customs were found highly significant cause of early marriage Chandrasekhar (1996); Santhya, Haberland & Singh (2006). Savitridina (1997) Childhood residence has an effect on age at marriage and those who were brought up in villages were more likely to get married early. Parents may genuinely feel that their daughters will be better off and safer with a regular male guardian (Caldwell, John & Pat, 1977). Percentage responses of PSC components with regard to early marriage : 44 Percentage responses of PSC components with regard to early marriage Slide 45: 45 Percentage responses of PSC components with regard to early marriage in different SES Mean, S.D. and ‘Z’ value of PSC components in different SES : * significant at 0.05 level, ** significant at 0.01 level Mean, S.D. and ‘Z’ value of PSC components in different SES 46 Mean, S.D. and ‘Z’ value of PSC components in different SES One Way ANOVA for PSC components on M-age and G-age : One Way ANOVA for PSC components on M-age and G-age One Way ANOVA for PSC components on M-age and G-age 47 Percentage responses of LS components with regard to early marriage : Percentage responses of LS components with regard to early marriage 48 Standardized Regression Coefficients for different age groups for Determinants of Early Marriage : Standardized Regression Coefficients for different age groups for
Determinants of Early Marriage Standardized Regression Coefficients for different age groups for Determinants of Early Marriage 49 According to Sagade (2005); Singh (2008), in most cases, marriage is the mere transference of the father's domination over a woman in favour of a husband's. When done at an early age, it is felt, it is easy to get the bride to adapt well to her socially determined position. It also helps to control her sexuality and reproduction. Another author Santhya, Haberland & Singh (2006) showed that pressure to abide by societal norms was cited as a reason for the persistence of early marriage. Kulkarni (1994) also found that anxiety about grown-up daughters is another reason forcing less educated or illiterate parents to marry their daughters early.. Standardized Regression Coefficients for different age groups and Psycho-Social Consequences : Standardized Regression Coefficients for different age groups and
Psycho-Social Consequences Saxena (1999) corroborated that the “Inadequate socialization, discontinuation of education, great physiological and emotional damage due to early marriage and repeated pregnancies devastates these girls.” Santhya & Jejeebhoy (2006) documented several studies in India indicating that young women's early sexual encounters within marriage are often described as frightening and non-consensual. Standardized Regression Coefficients for different age groups and Psycho-Social Consequences 50 Pearson’s correlation with Determinants and Psycho-social Consequences : Pearson’s correlation with Determinants and Psycho-social Consequences ** Significant at .01 level, * Significant at .05 level Pearson’s correlation with Determinants and Psycho-social Consequences 51 Implications of the Study : Implications of the Study Present study had shown psychosocial consequences of early marriage on girls where parents are found to show interest in marrying off their daughter as soon as possible due to many determinants.
Parents should be encouraged to evaluate and empower their daughter with life skills enhancing their self esteem rather than escaping from their responsibilities. If they do so they should be given some incentive in the form of cash or employment or some financial support in name of their daughter’s marriage.
Community leaders, social workers should also be sensitized and mobilized to change the mind set of the people. The person or the society should be awarded and recognized as a role model and be provided some extra financial help to improve the status of women.
Religious leaders can play the most important role in changing attitudes of the people. They can force the public to delay the marriage of the girls following the legal norms and justifying the status of girl.
GO’s and NGO’s should jointly raise awareness through strict implementation of the acts about marriage preventing ill health of girl child.
Media, an utmost and powerful source of change. Producers should take the themes of social relevance to spread the message of adverse consequences of early marriage eg. Balika Vadhu, Lado.
Families and societies responsible for early marriage should be given legal and non bail able punishment and social boycott. 52 Suggestions : Suggestions Present study was conducted on determinants of early marriages and its’ psycho-social consequences. Further study could be planned by taking different variables like physical health, mental health, and reproductive health, personal and marital adjustment.
Present study was conducted in Bhilwara district of Rajasthan state. Samples from different districts of Rajasthan would cater in-depth understanding about determinants and consequences of early marriages.
Only female were taken for present study. A comparative study of male and female could give clearer picture of their married life.
A comparative study of urban and rural setting could be planned by taking wide samples.
Intervention programmes can be planned to raise awareness at micro, meso and exo level for unmarried boys and girls and their parents. 53 Major Findings : Major Findings Early marriages are more prevelant in those villages, which are at distance from connecting road to tehsil or district headquarter or remote villages have little awareness of ill effects of early marriages, lack of media awareness and less approach of GOs and NGOs programmes. Also it was found that early marriage is customary in those villages, which are densely populated with Jat, Gurjar, Jogi and Rebari castes.
The SES of a person does have major role in determining the age of marriage or effective marriage. It was found that age of marriage and Gauna is low among the people belonging to lower castes and illiterate or less educated. The lower occupational level or agriculture base of the respondent also seems to be related with early age of marriage.
Major differences were observed in mean age at marriage and age at effective marriage or Gauna among upper, middle and lower socio- economic status i.e. 13.72, 10.69 and 6.69 years for age at marriage and 15.33, 14.51 and 13.32 years for age at effective marriage respectively.
It is found that childhood residence is highly and significantly affect the age at marriage, followed by traditions & customs, castes, lack of education, Protection of Girls & Absence of Father and Exposure to Mass Media. Among all, lower SES families were more rigid in following traditions and customs, had less educated, more affected by rural culture, blindly follow the caste ethics, more protecting in nature and less expose to mass-media. 54 Major Findings : Major Findings It was found that early marriage denies the right of education of girl child followed with denial of freedom, violence & abandonment, personal development and inadequate socialization, exploitation of girl child as loss of adolescence and less access to contraception, and lower level to life satisfaction. Also it was found that Psycho-social consequences of early marriage are significantly different among different SES groups.
Correlation between determinants and psychosocial consequences of early marriage shows that respondents’ castes significantly affect the exploitation of girl child and loss of adolescence, whereas traditions and customs not only deny education of a girl child but freedom also. This pathetic situation leads to very low life satisfaction. At tender age she has to bear lots of responsibilities of house hold chores.
Lack of education, as a determinant of child marriage, leads to less access of contraception for girl and violence against wife and abandonment. Overall scenario says lack of education means lack of life satisfaction. less the exposure to media, more the denial of education and denial of freedom. Also, access to contraception is significantly very low. Higher exposure helps in personal development and proper socialization of a girl. Exposure to mass media and life satisfaction is highly interrelated. SES level of a respondent is highly significant with denial of education and freedom. Personal development and socialization is highly is affected with a very low life satisfaction. Socio- economic status level is significant with access to contraception and violence abandonment. 55 THANKS : THANKS 56