Unconventional feeds

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NCFR and importance in livestock feeding

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Dr. P. Venu Madhav, MVSc VAS, RAHTC, Visakhapatnam NCFR Importance in animal feeding

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NCFR vs. Conventional Feeds CONVENTIONAL FEEDING LEGUMES FORAGES PASTURES TREE LEAVES CEREALS OIL CAKES HAY SILAGE

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NCFR Definition The non-conventional feed resources (NCFR) refer to all those feeds that have not been traditionally used in animal feeding & are not normally used in commercially produced rations for livestock.

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NCFR Background Population Explosion Increasing Demand Shortage of both protein and energy rich animal feeds Deficit of 19 % DM, 55% DCP & 28% TDN

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NCFR Bridging the Gap Allocating more land for fodder cultivation NCFR NOT POSSIBLE Efficient utilization of available feedstuffs along with continuous search for newer feed resources

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NCFR Scope Considerable potential as feed material Economically justifiable technology Convert them into some usable products .

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NCFR Importance High cost of feed ingredients Cost of quality commercial feeds Diminishing fodder cultivation Change in land usage pattern Boom of agro based industries Need for alternate sources Viable dairy farming

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NCFR Characteristics End products of production that have not been used, recycled or salvaged. Mainly organic and can be in a solid, slurry or liquid form . Economic value is often less than collection & transformation cost for use, and consequently, discharged as wastes .

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NCFR Characteristics Excellent sources of fermentable carbohydrates (Cassava & sweet potato) Fruit wastes like banana rejects & pineapple pulp have sugars which are high energy sources Majority are bulky, poor-quality cellulosic roughages suitable for ruminants .

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NCFR Characteristics Some have deleterious effects on animals Not enough is known about the nature of the active principles and ways of alleviating the effects . More information is required on chemical composition, nutritive value, toxic factors and value in feeding systems

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Brewery waste & DDG S ea weed meal Sugar cane bagasse NCFR Classification based on Nutrient Contents Protein Rich Vegetable origin Animal origin Miscellaneous Tapioca products Mango seed kernel Tamarind seed powder Guar meal Rubber seed cake Neem seed cake Poultry By products Blood & Meat Meal Shrimp Shell Energy Rich

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NCFR Classification Agricultural crop residues By-products from sugar industry Oil seeds and cakes. Animal protein sources. By products from forest. Animal organic wastes Fruit & vegetable By-products

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NCFR in Different Agro-Climatic Zones Tamarind Seed Cake Rice Husk

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Agricultural Crop Residues NCFR Classification

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NCFR Agricultural crop residues After harvest, usually available residues are straws, stovers, grains and their byproducts like husks/hulls, bran etc …. Crops grown usually in India are cereals like paddy , wheat, maize, sorghum & legumes like grams, ground nut, beans & peas Straws are the staple source for livestock feeding globally

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Broken rice can easily substitute maize, nearly 40-50% in Broiler feed & 50% in diets for growing & finishing pigs. Rice bran can be used up to 15 - 30 % in diets of pigs & poultry & major ingredient in dairy feed . Rice husk can be used up to 5% in the diets & nearly 10%, if ground to smaller size Availability in M.T CP % CF % TDN % Rice straw 144570000 3.4 25.1 ---- Rice husk 24576900 3.0 40.0 ---- Rice bran 14457000 15.5 ---- 84.8 Broken rice 7228500 ---- ---- ---- NCFR Paddy Contains phytic acid 70 -300 mg%, adding phytase enzyme increases digestibility.

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NCFR Wheat Contains phytic acid 170 -280 mg% and treatment with phytase enzyme increases digestibility. Availability % CP% TDN% Wheat straw 75806700 4.8 47.5 Wheat bran 7580670 17.3 71.5 WHEAT BRAN Species Level of Inclusion Pigs Sows 25% Fatteners 15% Piglets 10% Poultry Poultry feeds 10% Breeder mash feed 20% Dairy Cattle 20% Sheep Breeders & Ram lambs 15%

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NCFR Maize DM % CP % TDN % Maize Stover 91.1 4.13 82 Maize bran 100 8.1 75 Maize gluten 89.4 23.8 74.1 Distillers grain 90.2 29.7 79.5

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NCFR Straws Dry adult cattle can be maintained with straw as a sole feed with small quantities of protein supplements, but extensive use is limited by factors like, High lignin & oxalic acid content Dustiness & reduced palatability Reduced calcium absorbability

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NCFR Straw Treatment Alkali treatment: 1.25 % NaOH @ 1 Lt sol. /kg straw. Soaking straw in water: Soaking 1 kg straw in 1 lit of water decrease dustiness. Impregnation of straw with urea - molasses: I ncrease palatability . Ammonia treatment: Treating straws with ammonia gas without adding water increase nitrogen content .

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By-products from Sugar Industry NCFR Classification

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NCFR Sugarcane tops Include the growing points of cane, few upper nodes & accompanying leaves Cattle and buffaloes relish chaffed sugarcane tops Serves as roughage Can be converted into silage of good quality & palatability Sugar tops TDN % DCP % Sugarcane top silage 12 0.33 Sugarcane top silage with molasses 13.9 0.45

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NCFR Sugarcane Bagasse It is a fibrous residue of sugarcane stalks after juice has been pressed out in sugar factories. It is of 2 types- finer bagasse & coarser bagasse. Dry matter digestibility of sugarcane bagasse is 12-14 %. CP % CF % Finer 2.23-4.74 36.52-42.1 Coarser 1.76-3.32 40.49-43.22

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NCFR Molasses Byproduct of raw sugar syrup, containing nearly 45 % sugar . Good energy source for livestock feed (75% TDN) Enhances palatability Agent for reducing dustiness in feed Binder for pellets Carrier for urea Beet Cane TDN 71 65 DE 2500 2350 CP 10 5

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NCFR Molasses Press Mud Byproduct of sugar industry during precipitation ..& can be used as mineral supplement for cattle Condensed molasses soluble Byproduct of various fermentation processes in which molasses is used to produce alcohol, yeast, MSG… Dried yeast sludge Obtained after fermentation of molasses to alcohol % Moisture 5.6 Organic content 64 Ash 30

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Oil seeds and Cakes NCFR Classification

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NCFR Guar Meal It contains 40-45% protein Good source of amino acids like Lysine 2.25 %, cysteine 1.16 % & glycine 4.61 % Contains 2 deleterious factors Residual gum ( galactomannin) - it is a polysaccharide which is neither, digested nor absorbed , about 18% of guar meal. Trypsin Inhibitor. Cattle Adults 10-15% Calves 5-10 % Poultry Up to 20 %

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NCFR Niger Cake Richer in available lysine & methionine content than GNC Inclusion level: 10-15% in the concentrate mixture in cattle. In lactating animal, it may bring down the milk solids concentration TDN 50% DCP 33% CF 14-18% ME 2700 K Cal/Kg

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NCFR Karanja Cake Moderately rich in all EAA Lysine 5.6% & Methionine 0.1% of total protein Contain polyphenolic compounds : karanjin, pongapin, tannin ,trypsin inhibitors - deleterious effect on growth and production TDN 60% DCP 30% CF 6-7% ME 2200 K Cal/Kg

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NCFR Neem Cake Neem contains 34% protein and 4.4% fiber. It is unpalatable as such, fed along with other feedstuffs . Toxic factors – Nimbidine & Nimbine Inclusion level in Cattle feed - 15-20% TDN 60% DCP 34% CF 25.8% ME 2200 K Cal/Kg

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NCFR Sal seed Cake Extraction rate is 35-40%. Tannins - 8-12 %. Simple washing can also remove 60% tannin but DM is lost Treating with 9% urea at 50% moisture level & subsequent storage for 30 days can inactivate 30% of tannin without loss of DM TDN 50% DCP 9% CF 1.5% AIA 0.8%

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NCFR Mahua Seed Cake Chemical composition: 14% CP, 9% DCP, 46% TDN Contain toxic factors like Mowrine(6-20%) & tannins (6.4%) Detoxification : Soaking in water and stirring. Inclusion level: 10% in the ration of cattle TDN 46% DCP 9% ME 2200 K Cal/Kg

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Animal Protein Sources NCFR Classification

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NCFR Blood Meal Dried blood collected from slaughter plants Rich in Lysine, Fe & poor in Ca & P Inclusion less than 2%, if more palatability & taste affected and cannibalism may develop in pigs/poultry TDN 76% CP 90% EE 1.2%

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NCFR Bone Meal Derived from bones. Protein is of low quality as it doesn’t originate from muscular tissues. It may included up to 3% in feed for cattle, sheep, pigs & up to 6% in poultry feed. TDN 76% CP 41% ME 2000 K Cal

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NCFR Blood & Bone Meal It comes from thermo chemical process of slaughter refusal. Protein is of low quality because of more glues from bones & connective tissues. High mineral content with 14% Ca & 6% P. TDN 62% CP 54% EE 10.4%

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NCFR Feather Meal Feathers are treated under high temp. & pressure (hydrolysis) Rich in cysteine & methionine TDN 62% CP 54% EE 10.4% Cattle <2% Pigs max. 2% for fatteners Poultry max.2% for layers & broilers Sheep <2%

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NCFR Fish Meal It comes from fish, parts of fish, & other sea animal with a limited amount of shell (max.2% CaCO3) Protein is of good quality with 5% lysine Strong flavor to meat & eggs Not included in cattle feeds TDN 76% CP 72% EE 4.6%

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NCFR Animal Fat Obtained from cadaver processing. By exposing the tankage to super heated steam at 130ºC animal fat is extracted. TDN 70% CP 0% EE 99% Cattle Less than 1% Pigs Piglets 2% & fatteners 4% Poultry Fat used in layer & broiler feed to meet high energy req. of birds Sheep up to 1%

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By- products from Forests NCFR Classification

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NCFR By-products f rom Forests Include wood, barks, fallen leaves, foliage & saw dust. Wood, saw dust & barks are indigestible and unpalatable. The fallen leaves or forest foliage are commercially exploited for livestock & poultry feeding as a source of carotene, trace elements and vitamins .

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NCFR By-products f rom Forests The by-products available from the forest for cattle feeding are dry leaves and seeds. The dry matter contents of most of the tree leaves ranges between 30 to 45% and CP content are also quite high (5- 12%). Goats relish variety in their diets and feeding tree leaves help to extend their diet preferences.

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Animal Origin Organic Waste NCFR Classification

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NCFR P oultry Manure Poultry manure consists of the dry excreta, the feathers & broken eggs Poultry excreta is of two main types: - caged layers - deep litter

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NCFR P oultry Manure Caged layer manure Suitable for non ruminants. Contains 30% total protein , high in glycine, low in arginine, lysine & methionine . Useful as a source of energy, Ca & P About 20 – 30 % are optimum levels for utilization in poultry feeds.

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NCFR P oultry Manure Up to 30% DM in the ration (4-6 kg DM/head/day ) Up to 30 % DM for fat lambs, but copper content in litter limits level of inclusion. Palatability problems are overcome by ensiling or chemical treatment. Molasses increases the palatability Adaptation must be done gradually (3-5 days).

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NCFR Poultry By product Meal It is the dried, ground tissues of un-decomposed, necks, heads, fat, carcass, feathers of poultry either of with or without oil extraction. Valuable protein source, and its value in diets for farm animals has not been adequately studied. TDN 72% CP 56.8% EE 12.4%

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Fruit & Vegetable By-products NCFR Classification

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Fat is extracted from kernel and de-oiled mango seed meal is used for livestock feeding. The limiting factor in this feed is the presence of about 5 - 10% of tannins. CP % EE % CF % DCP % TDN % 8.5 12 3 6.1 50 NCFR Mango Seed Kernel Cake

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Citrus pulp is a byproduct from fruit juice or pulp factories – Citrus Molasses Dried and ground citrus, orange, lemon peels can be used in feed to extent of 10 - 15% CP % EE % CF % DM % TDN % 6.9 4.9 3 86 80 NCFR Mango Seed Kernel Cake

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NCFR Palm kernel By-products Palm kernels are the centers of stones within the fruit, the stone shell needs to be removed before the kernels are processed Kernels contain 50 -60 % oil . Palm kernels are used in high energy compound feed Inclusion level > 5% considering pelleting problems . They are included < 5% in cattle, sheep & pig rations.

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CP % CF % EE % TDN % DE Kcal/kg Palm kernel cake 15 19 10 79 2650 Palm kernel meal 15 20 2 71 2200 NCFR Palm kernel By-products

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Tomato processing wastes consists of skin, pulp & seeds after extraction of juice . Tomato pomace is residue from processing of pulp, sauce, juice, paste & ketchup. CP % EE % DM % TDN % 19.3 13.3 24.7 65.5 NCFR Tomato Processing Waste

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Product remaining after potatoes have been processed to produce frozen potato products for human consumption. The product can include peelings, culled potatoes, rejected French fries & other products . CP % EE % DM % TDN % 10.5 10.8 35.4 80.7 NCFR Potato Waste Potato waste is equal in energy to cereal grains

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Moisture content shouldn’t exceed 13 % as it facilitates growth of fungi . TDN - 70-74% & CP - 3% Good source of energy NCFR Cassava Meal CATTLE Up to 30 % for adults PIGS Sows and fatteners up to 40 % POULTRY Up to 20 % SHEEP Up to 25%

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NCFR Future Need, Scope & Trends Increasing demand & limited resources of quality feeds. Use of wastes from livestock & agro-industry reduce cost of production in one hand, on the other hand it reduces human animal health hazards. Unconventional feeds are low in DCP and energy

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NCFR Future Need, Scope & Trends Enrich their nutrient values by practicable pre-treatment to increases palatability, digestibility and nutrient availability. Management of anti-nutritional factors to improve utilization . Reduce environmental pollution from animal wastes using newer technologies.

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NCFR Summary Finally, unconventional feed should be used judiciously with other conventional feeds to minimize feed expenditure & maximize returns from livestock enterprise.

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