PRA

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Participatory Rural Appraisal: 

P articipatory R ural A ppraisal Dr. P. Venu Madhav MVSc

PRA: 

PRA What is PRA ? Method to help farmers in a village understand their human and natural resources by defining problems Family of techniques evolved to learn from the people about their situation RA is a method to help farmers in a village their human and natural resources through rom the people about their situation

Why PRA ?: 

Why PRA ? Understand village environment Know and learn indigenous technologies Interact with farmers Gain their confidence Collect data with minimum costs Cut down “ Professional biases” PRA

How PRA ?: 

How PRA ? Tell who you are & why are you there Be gentle , polite and accommodative Try to understand villagers reasoning Don’t interrupt, suggest or prescribe Stay relaxed while talking to farmers PRA

PRA Tools: 

PRA Tools TRANSECT WALK VILLAGE MAPPING TRENDS AND CHANGES SEASONAL CALENDER VENN DIAGRAM RANKING PRA

TRANSECT WALK: 

TRANSECT WALK PRA

TRANSECT WALK: 

TRANSECT WALK A walk inside the village Accompanied by villagers Observations made during this walk Visualized with a diagram PRA

Why a Transect Walk ?: 

Why a Transect Walk ? Get acquainted with the villagers Observations on specific items Idea about traditional practices Information about available resources PRA

How to make Transect Walk: 

How to make Transect Walk Decide the purpose Explain the purpose of walk Select a logical starting point for the walk Proceed , taking time for brief discussions At the end present outcome in a diagram PRA

VILLAGE MAPPING: 

VILLAGE MAPPING PRA

VILLAGE MAPPING: 

VILLAGE MAPPING Helps to understand available resources & infrastructure Map shows different items like Social Infrastructure : houses, schools, hospital, Cooperatives, Milk center, etc . Natural Resources : fields, waste land, grazing area, etc. Specific Resources : irrigation, wells etc. PRA

How to make a Village Map: 

How to make a Village Map Decide purpose Use a stick to draw a map on the ground Ask the farmers to draw the Map Mark important aspects of village Discuss PRA

TRENDS AND CHANGES: 

TRENDS AND CHANGES PRA

TRENDS AND CHANGES: 

TRENDS AND CHANGES Overview of important changes over a period presented on a line Gives insight in the trends necessary to understand the actual situation Understand farmers perceptions on trends and underlying causes PRA

How to make Trends & Changes: 

How to make Trends & Changes Decide changes you want to focus Select elder persons as resource persons Ask important changes Discuss implications of change PRA

SEASONAL CALENDAR: 

SEASONAL CALENDAR PRA

SEASONAL CALENDAR: 

SEASONAL CALENDAR Shows season/month-wise availability of resources, activities, events etc. Provides insight in seasonal variation of various issues Identifies events that happen often Shows annual constraints/opportunities PRA

MAKING A SEASONAL CALENDAR: 

MAKING A SEASONAL CALENDAR Prepare a checklist of the issues Ask different seasons they distinguish Draw the calendar with visuals Let participants draw if possible Discuss PRA

VENN DIAGRAM: 

VENN DIAGRAM PRA

VENN DIAGRAM: 

VENN DIAGRAM Indicates the linkages between farmers and various institutions To understand the importance of institutions for a specific person or group of persons To compare differences in access to resources PRA

RANKING: 

RANKING PRA

RANKING: 

RANKING Method to compare different items according to one or more criteria To show villagers preferences and priorities To understand farmers criteria and decision making PRA

PRA - DOS: 

Be an active learner Show interest & enthusiasm Respect villagers knowledge Appreciate their contribution Be sensitive to their moods Follow protocol as required by the situation Create an atmosphere of confidence Involve the silent ones Record names of informants Give credit for the information they provide PRA - DOS PRA

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Don’t feel superior to the villagers Don’t feel that there is nothing to learn Don’t hesitate to ask villagers for advice Don’t hesitate to clear your doubts Don’t interrupt Don’t forget to say “ thank-you” Don’t take villagers for granted Don’t monopolize the interview PRA – DON’T’S

INTERVIEWING TIPS: 

INTERVIEWING TIPS Always introduce yourself Tell purpose of the interviews Seek cooperation Record as many details Start with least controversial questions Encourage responses Listen actively Clarify if you have not understood Know which questions are essential At the end, thank the respondents PRA

AVOID BIASES: 

AVOID BIASES URBAN BIAS- farmer knows nothing PROFESSIONAL BIAS- I know everything ROAD SIDE BIAS- Interior village BIG FARMER BIAS- He receives me well SEASON BIAS- It is hot in May, I will go in January GENDER BIAS- M ore preference to one sex PRA

QUESTIONING TYPES: 

QUESTIONING TYPES Leading questions - Question in which answer is already included Direct questions - Question to get specific information Open questions - Question to elicit opinion of the farmer Probing questions – Lead to focused information PRA

Summary: 

Summary PRA