Abortions in Dairy Cattle

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Dr. P. Venu Madhav, MVSc VAS, RAHTC, Visakhapatnam Abortions in Dairy Cattle

Reproductive dysgenesis that compromise viability of domestic animals prior to parturition:

Reproductive dysgenesis that compromise viability of domestic animals prior to parturition Prologue

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What is an abortion? Early embryonic death? Stillbirth? Loss of the fetus between the age of 42 days and approximately 260 days

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Estimates have put the NORMAL abortion rate between 2 - 5% and an occasional abortion is probably not cause for alarm. Loss of potential income, estimated to cost the producer Rs. 25000 – 40000 depending on milk & feed prices, value of replacement stocks & stage of gestation

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Abortions exceeding 3% and over a short period of time could represent a problem WARNING SIGNS

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Abortion storms are not always associated with infectious processes . Specific infectious agents are determined in only 31%

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Idiopathic 50% Anomalies 2% Bacterial 15% Viral 11% Infectious 17% Fungal 5%

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While infectious agents are most frequently thought of cause of bovine abortion, there are other factors that may cause a large proportion of pregnancies to terminate with abortions. Infectious Causes Non infectious Factors Genetic abnormalities Heat Stress Toxic Agents

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Infectious causes of abortion 50% or less are caused by organisms that are contagious while abortions caused by miscellaneous bacterial or fungal account for the remaining infectious abortions

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Length of gestation Description of fetus 2 months Size of a mouse 3 months Size of a rat 4 months Size of a small cat 5 months Size of a large cat 6 months Size of a small dog (hair around eyes, tail, muzzle) 7 months Size of a big dog (Fine hair on body and legs) 8 months Hair coat complete, incisor teeth slightly erupted 9 months Incisor teeth erupted

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Bacterial abortions Brucella abortus Actinomyces pyogenes Haemophilus somnus Leptospira hardjo Listeria monocytogenes Campylobacter fetus Ureaplasm diversum Mycoplasma bovigenetalium

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Viral abortions Bovine viral diarrhea virus Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus Epizootic bovine abortion virus Bovine herpes virus Akabane virus Bluetongue virus

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Protozoan abortions Neospora caninum Trichomonas fetus Toxoplasma gondii Anaplasma marginale

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Fungal abortions Aspergillus fumigatus Mucor spp Morteriella wolfii

Summary of infectious abortions:

Summary of infectious abortions Infectious disease Samples for diagnosis Usual Stage of gestation Bacterial agents Brucellosis Fetus, placenta, serum of dam Last half Campylobacter Cervical mucus, fetus, placenta, preputial scraping EED Leptospirosis Urine of dam, fetus, serum-dam, herd mates Any stage Listeriasis Fetal stomach, uterine fluid & placenta Last trimester Salmonella Serum Late pregnancy Viral agents BVD Fetus Any stage IBR Fetus, placenta, Last half EBA Grazing history, fetus and ticks last trimester

Summary of infectious abortions:

Summary of infectious abortions Infectious disease Samples for diagnosis Usual Stage of gestation Protozoal agents Neospora Serum of dam; fetal brain 4-6 months Trichomonas Fetus, placenta, cervical mucus preputial scraping EED Sarcocystis Caruncle from uterus Last trimester Other agents Chlamydia Fetus; placenta Variable Aspergillus Fetus; placenta Last trimester

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Nutrition in neonatal health Nutritional Deficiencies impair fertility & conception Prolonged starvation lead to abortion Animals on a low plane of nutrition abort as a preventive mechanism Multiple deficiencies along with starvation brought on by drought result in a high incidence of birth of dead, weak or premature calves

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Vit A def. causes keratinization of vaginal epithelium & degeneration of the placenta leading to abortion Adversely affects reproduction Terminates late in pregnancy Birth defects involving eyes Iodine def. associated with hypothyroidism often causes dead or weak calves at term & abortions Reproduction impaired Premature calves Incidence of retained placenta Vit A deficiency Iodine deficiency

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Other factors that may cause a large proportion of pregnancies to terminate with abortions Chemicals, drugs & poisonous plants Nitrate poisoning Chlorinated naphthalene Ergot poisoning Estrogenic compounds Glucocorticoids Progesterone deficiency Hormonal causes

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Physical causes Douching the uterus Rupture of amniotic vesicle Rupture of fetal heart & BV Removal of CL Uterine torsion Displacement of umbilicus Severe transportation fatigue

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Miscellaneous causes Twinning Allergies Anaphylactic reactions Abscesses of uterine wall Lack of uterine caruncles Adhesion of uterus to body wall Severely anemic cattle

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Identify aborting cows isolate them from the rest of the herd. Save fetuses and fresh placentas. Refrigerate at 38o F to 45o F. Do not freeze. Wrap in plastic or other waterproof material. Do not cut or wash the fetus or placenta. History of your Reproductive history of cows Aids in diagnosis

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Vaccination ?

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