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Presentation about Guided and unguided transmission medium. Overview on Twisted pair cable, Co-axial cable, BNC connector, Fiber optics. And brif intro of Fiber optics transmission modes. and types of optical fibers. Also intro of Wireless modes like WI-FI, Bluetooth, Infrawave, Microwave,


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TRANSMISSION MEDIA Prepared By:Vyas Pratik

What is Transmission Media:

Sending of data from one device to another is called transmission of data Medium used to transmit the data is called Media Transmission of data through Medium is called Transmission Media What is Transmission Media

Types Of Transmission Media:

Types Of Transmission Media Guided (Wired) Twisted Pair Coaxial cable Fiber Optics Unguided (Wireless) Wi-Fi Bluetooth Infrared Microwave

Guided ( Wired ):

Guided Media determine the path of the signal The transmission capacity, in terms of either data rate or bandwidth, depends critically on the distance and on whether the medium is point-to-point or multipoint. Guided ( Wired )

Twisted Pair:

A twisted pair consists of two insulated copper wires arranged in a regular spiral pattern. Data rates: Over long distances, about 1-3 Mbps Short distances: 1Gbps and higher Telephone network Between house and local exchange Twisted Pair

Twisted Pair Types:

Twisted Pair Types Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) ordinary telephone wire cheapest easiest to install Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) metal braid or sheathing that reduces interference more expensive easiest to install harder to handle (thick, heavy)

Coaxial cable:

Coaxial cable consist the followings layers in its construction The copper conductor Insulation layer of plastic foam Second conductor or shield of wire mesh tube or metallic foil Outer jacket of tough plastic Coaxial cable can be used over longer distances and support more stations on a shared line than twisted pair. Coaxial cable

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Characteristics It is comparatively inexpensive Its installation is comparatively simple It must be grounded properly in a network connection Its bandwidth capacity is around 10 Mbps It is thin Ethernet connection maximum 30 nodes and in thick Ethernet connection maximum 100 nodes can be successfully interlinked with this cable connection

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BNC connectors BNC Connectors are used for connecting to co-axial cables together at connecting points is when repeaters are required

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Fiber Optics Fiber optic cable is known as most sophisticated cables used in long distance network connection . Through this cable data transmission is done through « Light ray signal  transmission» rather than electrical signal transmission. It has inner core of glass that conducts light.This inner core is surrounded by cladding . Cladding is nothing but layer of glass material that reflects light back into the core . Each fiber is then surrounded by plastic sheath

Benefits of Fiber Optics:

greater capacity data rates of hundreds of Gbps smaller size & weight electromagnetic isolation greater repeater spacing 10s of km at least Benefits of Fiber Optics

Fiber Optics Connector:

Fiber Optics Connector Optical fiber connectors are used to join optical fibers.

Optical Fibre Transmission Mode:

Optical Fibre Transmission Mode

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Optical Fibre Transmission Mode

Types of Optic fibre:

Types of Optic fibre Rays at shallow angles are reflected and propagated along the fiber; other rays are absorbed by the surrounding material. This form of propagation is called step-index multimode When the fiber core radius is reduced, fewer angles will reflect. By reducing the radius of the core to the order of a wavelength, only a single angle or mode can pass: the axial ray. This is single-mode propagation by varying the index of refraction of the core, a third type of transmission, known as graded-index multimode .

Un-Guided ( Wireless ):

Also called wireless communication. It transports electromagnetic Waves. There are available to anyone who can receive them. Unguided is also define as radio communication is divided into eight ranges, called bands. Un- Guided ( Wireless )

Frequency Band:

Frequency Band

Un-Guided Types:

Un-Guided Types


Wi-Fi Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) Networks use Radio Technologies to transmit & receive data at high speed. Operates at 2.4GHz, 5 GHz (less use) Band width. A single access point can support up to 30 users and can function within a range of 100 – 150 feet indoors and up to 300 feet outdoors.

Example of Wi-Fi:

Example of Wi-Fi Example: Use at SOHO(Small office Home office)

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“Bluetooth is a low-cost, low power, short range wireless communication technology used in. networking, mobile phones and other portable device. Bluetooth wireless technology also enables devices to communicate with each other as soon as-they come within range; no need to connect, plug into, install, enable or configure anything.” Perhaps you prefer to use a traditional mouse with your laptop. Choose a Bluetooth-enabled mouse and you won’t have to keep track of a mouse cable. Bluetooth


Infrared Infrared technology allows computing devices to communicate via short-range wireless signals. No licenses required Infrared communications span very short distances. Infrared network signal can works only in the direct "line of sight.“ Simple circuitry: no special or proprietary hardware is required. people, walls, plants, etc. can block transmission. data rate transmission is lower. Typical use TV remote control


Microwaves must be transmitted in a straight line and that no obstructions can exists, such as buildings or mountains, between microwave stations. To avoid possible obstructions, microwave antennas often are positioned on the tops of buildings, towers, or mountains. Types of Microwave: Terrestrial Microwave Satellite Microwave Microwave

Terrestrial Microwave:

Terrestrial Microwave Long-distance telecommunication service • requires fewer amplifiers or repeaters than coaxial cable • requires line-of-sight transmission Example Telephone system TV distribution

Satellite Microwave:

Satellite Microwave The satellite receives transmissions on one frequency band (uplink) and repeats the signal, and transmits it on another frequency (downlink). Telecommunications, in linking remote and regional telephone exchanges to larger (main) exchanges without the need for copper/optical fiber lines.

Satellite Microwave:

Satellite Microwave


Microwave 2GHz to 40GHz microwave highly directional point to point Satellite Satellite is relay station Receives on one frequency, amplifies or repeats signal and transmits on another frequency Eg . Uplink 5.925-6.425 ghz & downlink 3.7-4.2 ghz Typically requires geo-stationary orbit Height of 35,784km Spaced at least 3-4° apart Typical uses Television Long distance telephone Private business networks Global positioning



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