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Intrauterine delivery systems- uterus:

Intrauterine delivery systems- uterus SUBMITTED BY: M.SHIVA PRASAD PHARMACEUTICS SUBMITTED TO: Dr. HEMANT KUMAR YADAV LECTURER JSSCP 3/6/2012 1

CONTENTS :

CONTENTS 1)Anatomy of uterus 2)Menstrual cycle 3)Uterine proteins 4)Cyclic viscoelasticity of cervical mucus. 3/6/2012 2

1.ANATOMY OF UTERUS:

1.ANATOMY OF UTERUS Pear shaped, thick-walled muscular organ suspended in the anterior wall of pelvic cavity. Shape: triangular, flattened anterio -posteriorly . Dimensions: ( in normal state) Length- 3 inches Width- 2 inches 3/6/2012 3

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Parts- Fundus Body (Uterine Cavity, Isthmus) Cervix (Cervical canal, Internal Os, External Os) Openings- Superior- fallopian tubes Inferior- Vagina (mouth of Uterus) 3/6/2012 4

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Wall of uterus:

Wall of uterus Endometrium – inner coat of uterine wall made up of simple columnar epithelium, areolar connective tissue & endometrial glands. Stratum Functionalis - innermost, sloughed off during menstruation Stratum Basalis - permanent, gives new s. functionalis . Myometrium – Thick, muscular middle layer made up of 3 layers of smooth muscles (Middle thick circular & other two longitudinal) Peritoneum – External surface of uterus which attaches uterus to pelvic cavity by ligaments 3/6/2012 6

2.Menstruation cycle:

2.Menstruation cycle During reproductive ages non-pregnant woman exhibit cyclic changes in ovaries & uterus, called as Menstrual cycle. Menstruation cycle can be divided into 2 phases 1)Follicular phase 2) L eutal phase 3/6/2012 7

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1)Follicular phase- First 14 days of cycle. In this phase, estradiol is secreted from the ovary and ovarian follicle enlarges and moves to surface of ovary Ovulation occurs normally on day14. 3/6/2012 8

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2)Luteal phase Next 14 days. Corpus luteum is very active initially and then degenerates just before the next menstruation. The progesterone produced by the follicular lutein cells, in conjugation with estrogenic hormones in suitable proportions , builds up endometrium of a fertilized ovum. 3/6/2012 9

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In both follicular and luteal phases the blood circulation continuously supplies endometrium to the coiled arteries. During period of menstruation, there is reduction in blood circulation in the coiled arteries . After a period of time these arteries open again and blood escapes through the walls 3/6/2012 11

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Menstrual flow consists of blood mixed with the mucus and also contains numerous leukocytes . It does not clot b ecause A)The fluidity of menstrual blood may be due to anticoagulant substances in endometrium (OR) B) Liquefaction of the blood by uterine enzymes after clotting in uterine cavity. 3/6/2012 12

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At the end of menstrual cycle the endometrium is regenerated from the deeper region of glands. All uterine changes are brought by estradiol. Both estradiol and progesterone are inactivated or metabolized to varying extents in the liver. 3/6/2012 13

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Estradiol is metabolized into estrone , estriol , and other closely related metabolites and then excreted in urine. Progesterone is metabolized to pregnanediol and then excreted in urine as the biologically inactive glucuronide . 3/6/2012 14

3.UTERINE PROTEINS:

3.UTERINE PROTEINS Uterine proteins originate primarily from the selective filtration of serum proteins through endometrium. Uterine proteins consists mainly of serum proteins such as albumins, gamma globulins and transferrin's The amount of protein in uterine secretion depends on the stage of menstrual cycle. 3/6/2012 15

4.CYCLIC VISCOELASTICITY OF CERVICAL MUCUS:

4.CYCLIC VISCOELASTICITY OF CERVICAL MUCUS Human cervical mucus shows cyclic fluctuation. Viscoelasticity increases significantly in association with ovulatory phase of cycle. The fluctuation in viscoelasticity is related to variation in mucin concentration. 3/6/2012 16

REFERENCES::

REFERENCES: NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS BY Y W Chein . Page no 100-103 3/6/2012 17

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THANK YOU  3/6/2012 18

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