HEBREWS AND CHRISTIANS -FACTS -Vasile_Mesaros-Anghel- I

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The motivation to achieve this documentary started from the desire to put a 'pebble' to build a vision of harmony, based on the belief in one God given to us by its Prophets. I hope you will browse the text will feel, like in a Cathedral, Mosque or Synagogue, inner peace.to build a vision of harmony, based on the belief in ONE UNIQUE GOD given to us three thousand years. vmesarosanghel@yahoo.com

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AMV Dessign June 2010 Motto: ‚God is ONE; mankind made him many: One Mosaic, one Christian, one Muslim’ HEBREWS AND CHRISTIANS -FACTS- -Documentary Essays- … to my mother, Thaci Raisa Gherschovici vmesarosanghel@yahoo.com

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1 FOREWORD Beyond the desire to document a fact which worried me a long time after the first readings about 'Zionism' was a fact in the modern era: that in 100 years by a people's will and its leaders action made the Return in his Homeland – Eretz Israel, after 2000 years. I tried to explain me the mechanism. From what I've documented the extraordinary results matching effort on three fronts: 1. Organizational - with all their differences and specific human egos, rabbis, bankers, political leaders with different orientations (from traditionalists to socialists and communists) and men of action converge efforts at establishing Hebrew World Congress (1897 – Basel). 2. Educational - Action to create a systematic educational unit, a single language, a system of education starting with the religious training (from age 3 years) to the sports and military training, to unite around a future mature Hebrew religious education, culture and common citizens, in any location on the globe would be community. Would be added intercommunication between communities (based on experience of secular rabbis questions Jews in remote locations). 3. Logistics - creating a group of financial, operational, able to support both returning to Eretz Israel and mutual support between Hebrew Communities around the world.  Axiological substrate can be expressed simply: Faith, Discipline, fairness, tenacity .... Compliance procedures once established, Creativity under uncertainty and risk situations.

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2  When I was unclear why they were pogroms and holocaust against the Hebrew people. Now I know. This other peoples have not intention to learn the ″Jewish lesson″ with Hebrews. It was easier to kill and take the goods! Than to build, hardly and in a long term, toghether, a better life for that people.  So I started to describe these things in this book, hopes to get some real reading Romanian: young financial or temporal power, priests or politicians, men or men of letters well ... And if we do not know how to proceed, why not asking the Hebrew: 'How did your brothers! Show us know! '. There is not a utopia: a primary would be enough on us to get in touch directly on the net, with a primary of a Moshav or a Kibbutz in Israel. Require logistical support in organizing his commune, in implementation of projects to exploit local resources and how to attract financial resources. I believe that novelty will call response in circumstances where there is a genuine belief in one God, the common good. Aim was to suggest that we can organize such, to have a will and collective action for the Romanian people, not only for each of us. Then I realized that I am too vain ... but I did the work to go.  To this volume I add and two Essays showing that the collaboration of two Christian prelates, one Orthodox Christian, a Roman Catholic Christian, along with the Jews helped save about 800,000 Hebrew from Holocaust extermination of the twentieth century.

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3 APOSTLES OF ZIONISM NOTIONS:  Zionism = National Movement of the Jews for Return in Country of Zion – ‘The Holly Land’ (or ‘The Promise Land’) and the formation of Eretz Israel State (not necessarily a definition).  Development Zionist movements in European countries and the U.S. (mid. XIX – XX centuries) becomes the engine and sponsor (through organizations Joint type) of various stages of Jewish Return, in a land barren and then hostile; social phenomenon is called generic: ALYA. National consciousness develops in jewish communities in Europe based on two social vectors:  Simultaneous event in communities in Europe, two contradictory states of mind:  Integration into the daily lives of the majority population of Jews (and in some cases, the assimilation through mixed marriages).

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4  Resistance and organizing against the anti-Semitism and intolerance of other ethnic populations in the majority. How this sequence have different times in different European countries, including the Russian Empire, hebrew communities were in a continuous search for solutions.  Formation of national consciousness. The join around Jewish Rabbi, as exponents of the Mosaic Faith Leaders and willingness to organize Return of Jews in 'The Promised Land’; to rebuild his country: Eretz Israel. That although many times there were open conflicts between the rabbi. Although many families of Hebrew in the middle class realized why go in the wilderness when going very well where they lived, with the majority population. Therefore the first who left were poor people - schnorers[1]. A large number of immigrants took to the road to America, beginning XIX century (where, no more than 70 years and will come before the main financial support of the Jewish Joint). Another initiative was jew baron Moritz de Hirsh (finance, among others the construction of railways in the Balkans and East) send to 7000 Russian Hebrew poverty in Argentina. Jew baron Edmond de Rotchschild funds directly (1870-1910) the creation of compact settlements in Palestine ... Individual events and punctual.  It was to be like, before Messaiah (God sent) waiting at a handful of Hebrew, the rabbis, bankers, men of culture, etc. from all jewish communities in Europe and Russia, in social conditions very different; but united by the belief that Return is the only way to true peace and dignity for Hebrew people. It confirmed by the harbinger of countless pogroms neighborhoods of big cities olso in small urban settlements at the end of XIX and early XX centuries, the tragical Schoah of the Jews in European fascism and communism, in the XX century. [1] Term designating those poor, are at the threshold of subsistence. At that time there were millions of Hebrew in Europe and Russia in that social state.

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5 Is unpleasant, but correctly noted that this process was not ongoing idyllic.  The five social vectors:  The Councils of Rabbis the Traditionalists[1] and Hassidics[2] are in a continuous war of deaf and leading jewish communities.  Considered class great bankers of Europe, accustomed to generous gestures singular, too full of them to mix with the herd - is famous that say Rotchschild bankers to Zionist leader Theodor Herzl: 'What do you think that, with 100,000 schnorers (poor) to rebuild the Country of Israel ?!',  Middle class swing between satisfaction and empowerment recent idea of financial support and participation - especially the Hebrew of these young families - to build economic infrastructure to the future new Hebrew State.  Poor People ordinary people who lived, side by side with the majority poor population, but having a higher education of community life and practice of mosaic faith for thousands of years) - They will be mobilize by Theodor Herzl, (after him being rejected by bankers Hirsch and Rotchschild) They constitute a majority in the firsts ALYA.  Zionists heterogeneous group as social class of origin and countries of origin, gathered around the idea of achieving the Jew - Eretz Israel during 1840 - 1897 which will be the rule of law and fact in the Basel Congress in 1897. Had many moments in which their opinions [1] Traditional Rabbi strictly follows the Written Torah and the Oral Law as interpreted by the Medieval commentators and codified in the Shulhan Arukh and Mapah. [2] Hasidic Rebbe made the teachings, interpretations of Judaism wich includes the charismatic folk religious elements of Hasidism, but mainly describes its structured thought, expressed in its range from Judaic theology. A hasidic rebbe is generally understood to be an exceptionally righteous person (called a "tzaddik" - is a title which is generally given to those who are considered to be righteous such as a spiritual master

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6 and attitudes were different. Unity of purpose and location made the miracle latter exodus Hebrew people in the establishment of the State of Hebrew (1948). The road was opened by two Rabbi: Yehuda Solomon Alcalay, Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalischer. PRECURSORS OF ZIONIST MOVEMENT SEPHARDIM RABBI YEHUDA SOLOMON ALKALAY Sephardim[1] Rabbi Yehuda Solomon Alkalay (Alkalay Shlomo Ben Yehudah, Judah Alkalay) (1798-1878). He was born in Sarajevo (Bosnia). After a period of study in Jerusalem (where become advocates of teaching Kabbala) is return in Serbia, where leads a small sephard community Semlim (Zemun) near Belgrade (1825). Under the influence of origin nationalist movements in the Balkans and Europe (which will culminate with the 1948 revolutions across the continent), but also in consonance with the desire to reform life, which are generated in the sec. XVIII Hassidic spiritual movement initiated by Yisroel (Israel) ben Eliezer, called the Baal Shem Tov (Besht - Shin Bet Ayin [1] Sephardic Jews are Jews rite Spanish. They were installed in Spain after having been driven out of Judea: first deportation took place in 70 and after cancellation State Jew by Roman army (134-135). Dispersal area was along the territories bordering the Mediterranean Sea. They were installed in Spain along with installation Arab caliphate (eighth century). Were expelled from Spain in 1492 (Decree of the Alhambra, given by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand, at the urging of Jesuit Bishop Francesco de Loyola ) and later from Portugal. They emigrated to North Africa, Italy, the Middle East, the Balkan Peninsula and in southern Romania, then in England, Holland and America (the first community established around ‘Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue’ the state of Pernambuco - Brazil). They talked Ladino or Judeo-Spanish language (dialect based castilian).

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7 Tes) (1698 -1760) and Dov Ber of Mezritsh (1704-1772); Alkalay of work in 1834, 'Shema Yisrael ' ('Listen to the people of Israel ') starts from the idea that it is not enough to pray and deplores the Jew life in Galut (exile) to God by asking for expressions Force Him to be displaced again in 'the Holy Land' (something commonly practiced in the synagogues of the Diaspora jewish communities and in Jerusalem, where he preached his pending Messaiah to restore them in Hebrew on Israel and release it of Galut). Is not sufficient!. Jews must act and held for real Return as more and their spiritual and real life in their country, in those days called Palestine.  'Then the God will come!' Said Rabbi Alkalay. There he issued the first modern doctrine for the independence of the people of Israel. Master in Kabbala study, he argues that the year 5600 (1840) saw the beginning of Return – to make ALYA. In the introduction to a book of Hebrew grammar (Darkhei No'am), in 1839, and 'Shelom Yerushalayim' (1840), he urges people to prepare both spiritual and material resources through the collection - proposes the allocation of each family of Hebrew tenths of an income 'tithe' to support those who want to settle in Jerusalem. Provides also future dangers of living in the Diaspora and future effects of the welfare of the majority population accumulated exponentially because of Hebrew children's early education, a system of socialization and support specific to jewish communities, which the majority population not know to apply and generate forms of early anti-Semitism - which in fact will happen over the next years ... In the same year, 1840 in Damascus, are killed a Hebrew, reason to be killed Christians for ritual manufacture matzot (azyme) for Easter. This was the Franciscan brother Thomas and his greek servant, then disappeared. French consul in Damascus Turkish governor alerts claiming that murder is a ritual practiced by the Hebrew. This starts an investigation,

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8 during which a barber Jew recognizes under torture deed. Follow a series of pogroms at the Hebrew settlements in the Middle East.[1]  That confirms to Alkalay that Jews can be free only in their own motherland and only by their own action taken in a systematic way. A concrete form that Rabbi Alcalay promoted it in its efforts by European capitals was that of gathering funds for the purchase of land in Israel (from the Ottoman Empire) on which to base jews settlements. Idea taken and Theodor Herzl (whose grandfather was friend with Alkalay). In 1874 is established in Palestine to contribute to the settlements of Hebrew. Alkalay died in 1878. ASHKENAZI RABBI ZVI HIRSCH KALISCHER In the same period aschenazi[2] rabbi in Poland () militate for the same idea: Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalischer (1795 - 1874), rabbi of the community in Torun. In 1862 he declared that the Return to Zion must begin with the Hebrew people to reinstall concrete, practicing agriculture and self as a means of implantation. He traveled up and across to Germany asking for fund-raising by the Jewish state with settlement projects of jewish families in Palestine, including bankers Berlin branch of the Rothschild family. 1862 paper published in 'Drishat Tziyon veHevrat Erez Noshevet' [1] Funeral of disappeared two Christians are held in their absence bodies ... [2] Ashkenazi Jews having been driven out of Judea: first deportation took place in 70 and after Israel's destruction by Roman army (134-135), have emigrated to western and central Europe, especially in Germanic countries. Since the first centuries of first millennium AD. In the Middle Ages, they migrated to Eastern Europe. Ashkenazi Jews using Yiddish (Germanic idiomatic) and the Hebrew / Aramaic: the practice of religion, speech and rabbinical Everieşti more distant relationship with communities.

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9 ( "looking for the Zion"), a first training manual for modern agricultural settlements in Israel.  Both rabbis were aware that community empowerment of the first decade of the XIX century in France , the Habsburg Empire and Germany, by Napoleon I, was not sufficient. It induces a self-middle class and Hebrew magnaţilor across the everyday life: a mortal danger to induce that state of mind of what a sacrifice was necessary to establish land arid and response to our hospitable local population in Palestine (which and what happened after 1890). Therefore militants for systematic development of national consciousness within the Hebrew community, in close collaboration with Talmudic training and community socialization of the young generation as a first step in the process of Return. Kalisher succeeds in 1864 to establish the Central Committee for setting the region of Israel, in Berlin. Manages to raise awareness Jewess Universal Alliance in support of agricultural settlements in Israel and the first agricultural school: Mikve Yisrael in 1870. He suggests that residents of settlements to combine farming with that of self-defending in local Guard Units to counter attacks robbery against Yishuv (Palestinian Settlements of Jews). Today, a religious kibutz valley Bet Shen have his name.

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10 AUTHOR NOTES ON "APOSTLES OF ZIONISM “ Both promoters of ALYA encountered resistance from traditionalist rabbi weather but they have their ideas by way of Return those who have followed and developed, theoretically and practically: The Beginning point is the World Zionist Congress in Basel (1897)[1] organized by Theodr Herzl, followed by a pleiad of militants:Judah Leib (Leon) Pinsker, Ber Borochov, Nachman Syrkin, Ze'ev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky, Asher Ginsberg (Ahad Ha'Am); Rabis Shmuel Mohilever, Naphthali Zvi Yehudah. Chaim Weizmann, who will become in 1948 the first President State of Eretz Israel. And more ... many other anonymous fighters arrived legally or illegally in Eretz Israel. They learned to work the land, to cultivate their traditions and culture, to organize and to defend himself[2]. [1] Video to: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jvc549hFb1E [2] Video to: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJZal1-MGb4

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11 JEWISH MOVEMENT TO RETURN IN ERETZ ISRAEL ZIONISM FROM VISION TO FACT - CONGRESS IN BASEL 1897 -  Theodor Herzl (Binyamin Ze'ev Herzl) (1860 - 1904) was born in Budapest into a family of Hebrew Sephardim bankers native from Zemun (where his grandfather was a disciple of Rabbi Yehuda Solomon Alkalay, Apostles of the Zionist Movement[1]. When he was 18 years, the family has moved to Vienna. He follow the Faculty of Law in Vienna. After completing studies a short time working at the Ministry of Justice of the Habsburg Empire after which, as a press correspondent of the newspaper "Neue Freie Presse” (Vienna) to visit London, Paris Istanbul. Are a literary columnist and religious point of view was not concerned about the destiny of Hebrew communities - until the outbreak of "Dreyfuss Affair" in France (Paris 1894). For 10 years, this confrontation between pro-and anti-Semitism of the French. That fact will mobilize young journalist energy, will trigger an action, for Return of Jews in Eretz Israel.  A few words about "Dreyfuss Affair ”. Artillery Captain Alfred Dreyfuss, officer in the service of French intelligence (Bureau Two) is investigated, beginning with October 13 1894 on charge of being supplied intelligence military informations to German intelligence service. Although graphologic expertise of a to logs taken with anti-Semitic orientation as a means of pressure on the Army Staff of the [1] See: ‘ZIONISM APOSTLES - MOMENT OF ZIONISM (I)’ Link Adress: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GCjWIEsYQ1I

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12 document with the data was not relevant for intelligence investigation was give to newspapers. In the October 29 start in the newspaper “La Libre Parole " a press campaign French. On December 4 the War Council meets to judge this case. Captain is convicted, irrespective of the absence of a final opinion from the committee of inquiry on the basis of our audited statements, issued a general (Mercier) and a colonel (Henry). Sentenced (22 November) and then degraded in public (5 January 1895) Dreyfuss is being deported to Devil Island in French Guiana. His brother and a friend (writer Bernard Lazare) moves to start the review of process. Made addresses to Jew deputy in French Parliament Joseph Reinah and the Great Rabbi of France Zadoc Kahn. Both adopt non involvement position. The initiators of the review process works without any support from the Jewish authority and opacity of the Ministry of War. The new investigator (mars 1896) Picquart, discovers the identity of a writing of secret military information is Walsin Ferdinand Esterhazy (known by his adventurous life). War Ministry decided not to reopen the case. Finding of this fact, Bernard Lazare awareness goes to press in November 1986 by publishing the booklet "A miscarriage of justice - the truth Dreyfuss Affair”. Issue review process reaches the French Senate, this time assisted by deputy Jew Joseph Reinah. The intellectuals of the caliber of Charles Péguy, André Gide, Marcel Proust, Daniel Halévy, Lucien Herr, Emile Zola, takes position to defend Dreyfuss. The population is divided into pros and anti Dreyfuss. In 1899, after various diversion to keep the allegations and the Esterhazy exempt by false statements and documents, before the trials, the Major State of French Army is forced to bring Dreyfuss to Reine trial on review. Alfred Dreyfuss is relieved of charges, but some time passes until you will be reintegrated in the army (21 July 1906). He fight in the First World War and will retire with the lieutenant colonel rank. With all that has been criticized by some leaders of obedience to his attitude, over those 12 years, man Dreyfuss

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13 has demonstrated a stoicism and respect for the law to honor them (especially since before this disaster in his personal life was rated as a brilliant military future of the Head Staff, gen. Boisfedre). In the beginning of the "Dreyfuss Affair" as a journalist in Paris, the position of young Theodor Herzl is changed in the wave of anti-Semitism generated. Influenced by ideas of Rabbi Alkalay he becomes a fervent fighter for thef Return of Jews in Eretz Israel. He understand that the ideas assmilation of Jews by the performance in a majority of each country (ideas promoted in the emancipation movement "Haskala" - Jew in the community equal citizen in the society of the country) and hope that anti-Semitism field is history and will not be repeated is illusory and counterproductive for the Hebrew people. The same ideas are shared and Max Nordau[1], which will meet in Paris at the beginning of the process Dreyfuss. Both share the belief that anti-Semitism is a universal fact. Assimilation that practiced the Hebrew is bankrupt; Return that in Eretz Israel and the formation of a Jew is the only way for the Jews. Become a friend and comrade of ideas and promotion of the Zionist movement, Theodor Herzl. Max Nordau will an organizer of the first Zionist congress. At first Congress (1897) will be the secretary of Congress. In the speech was addressed to those present in the courtroom, he underline as a characteristic of Hebrew communities mess everywhere, not so much material - present more or less supportive of the misery existing in the majority population living in each community. Even in Western countries - Europe, declared the equality of Jews with the majority of the state, is [1] Max Nordau was born in Budapest in 1849, the son of Gabriel Südfeld an Orthodox rabbi of Sephardi origin. Following courses at primary school Hebrew, Catholic college and obtain licensee in Medicine. Is married to a Protestant Christian, and is set in Paris where he opened a medicine cabinet. At the same time is a writer and correspondent for the press.

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14 accompanied by inducement of majority of the population that a Jew can have a sense of honor, sense of duty, patriotism and morality as they are. Arguments related to pre-existing feelings of hate a Jew. Emancipation of Jews in Western Europe has created a feeling among them that "Hebrew in the Ghetto" became a frustration their daily life where they suffered shame and humiliation. They forget that for hundreds of years he was a place of refuge and preserve spiritual and moral values of people ... Those who choose the path of assimilation, social and cultural, and want to be French, German ... before being considered Jew, believing in such a life of dignity and decent society in which the majority live. From this posture minimizes the manifestations of anti-Semitism that observed around him. But these phenomena, apparently more or less minor, while it induces a feeling misery moral, social support in the absence of the Hebrew native traditions which went on the road to assimilation. He asks Congress to find ways to build financial and educational structures able to achieve unity of Jewish spiritual recovery through education and training to regenerate links with local communities. Staff will remain in the future Congress, as president or vice president, promoting a democratic debate and decision making. In 1892 published his best known: "degeneration" which criticizes the so-called degenerate art based on the negative social effects that have rapid urbanization on the human body and psyche. Dies in 1923.  Given to its pragmatic spirit, Theodor Herzl move to immediate action to raise Jews tycoons in Europe without too much success. Meeting with Belgian banker Moritz de Hirsch takes place in May 1895.

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15 Baron Moritz de Hirsch[1] at 17 years is a new employee to a strong bank "Bischoffsheim & Goldschmidt" in Brussels. Is performing in the company, but upswing is guaranteed by marriage to Clara, daughter of the owner of the bank (1855). Soon set up its own bank and invest in building the railway sugar plantations, and mines copper. Use of a bankruptcy banker to take up the construction of railways in Turkish Empire and in the Balkans states, first connection with Middle Europe in 1883 by opening the railway Vienna - Constantinople. He Becomes very rich and popular in the High Life (such as friend of the Prince of Wales, future King Edward of England). From this position it will occupy the lives of indigent Jews bordering countries of Western Europe, subject to the restrictions of social origin (employment) and ethnic (anti-Semitism). He donated 1,000,000 francs (1873) to ‘Alliance Israelite Universelle’ (Paris) to establish trade schools for Hebrew in the Balkans and in Turkey, the process continued through annual donations of 400,000 francs. In 1889 established a charitable fund in support of Hebrew refugees persecuted in the Russian Empire, which has benefited to a lesser or greater extent Hebrew 5,000,000 in Russia, Lithuania and Poland, located in the so-called "region Pale" (from that region Jews were not allowed to leave at that time). This double tax and was not allowed to live in big cities. Bear successive pogroms destroy homes, businesses and synagogues. From 1887 Jews are prohibited access to secondary education in the Pale. Hirsch proposes the amount of 50,000,000 francs to establish separate schools for Hebrew in the region but refused to stipulate that the conditions as these amounts are not defalcate from officials of Czarist empire. The Families [1] Moritz De Hirsch was born in Munich, on 9.12.1831. Belonged to a family of bankers who claimed the Hebrew king Bavaria. The family received a rank of noble baron "von" Hirsch. They kept mosaic faith, they build a small synagogue in his own house. Here Moritz taught Jewish religious instruction and Ivrid language. School followed her to Munich, not to excel in the study.

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16 of thousands of Hebrew flee to the Austro-Hungarian border, around the city Brod. Under these conditions Hirsch argues in 1891, ‘Jewish Colonization Association’ (Jewish Colonization Association (JCA) in England) to support the Jewish colonization of Russia and elsewhere in Argentina for not to be subjected to discrimination, for determine Jews to make agricultural activities, commercial work of any kind. Send emissary to buy land in Argentina, Canada. Intend to ensure the issue of Russian passports to the departure of 20,000 Hebrew in first year. JCA cover cost of travel to South America. Even though only about 7,000 Hebrew followed this road, was the first experiment of Hebrew pastoral life. He help in the years 1880 - 1900, the Jews population displacement from Pale to less restrictive areas (Poland, Ukraine, Austria-Hungary, Bucovina, Romania). In the North America, forming communities of Hebrew farmers in New Jersey, including the College of Agricultural. Will bequeath to his death (1899) $ 45,000,000 for Jewish colonization Association. Meeting between Theodor Hertzl and Moritz de Hirsch is tough and without effect. Maybe the pride of Baron, von Hirsch, style may directly, and our ardent and directly style of young Herzl's protocol ... Anywhere it was a hope missed chance to joint two personalities, deep involved in ALYA[1] of Jewish People. [1] Term designating the return movement of Jewish People in the Reretz Israel land

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17  Tenacious, Theodor Herzl prepare, in November 1895, a meeting with English banker Edmond James de Rothschild[1].. For this purpose write a draft for discussion, 64 pages, later called "Der Judenstaat" ("Hebrew State"). Meeting, in which Herzl proposes to banker to take over leadership of a large organization, all Jews, for the accumulation of financial assets and organization actions for Return in Eretz Israel. Rothschild say : 'What do you think that, with 100,000 schnorers[2] to rebuild a Country of Israel ?!'. Herzl's reply was: "Then I'll refer to the people". And in this case was the result of failure of subjective attitudes of the two. Each will contribute decisively to the creation of theoretical bases, organizational (Herzl) or funding (Rothschild) the Return in Eretz Israel Another perspective, in both cases, it would be like to be! Effort-will be played by the whole Hebrew people, from visionary Herzl, who followed him after the Basle Congress, and why not, the majority of financial and industrial Jews elite, who during the rally organized by the structure of [1] Baron Edmond Benjamin James de Rothschild (19.08.1845-02.11.1934) was born in Paris in the family castle of French bankers Rothschild. Concerned with art, with a vast collection of paintings, many donated to Louvre Museum in Paris will be geared to support Jewish settlements in Erez Israel (1882), at great hardship. He donated huge sums of money from its assets to buy land in Palestine. He established the first two Hebrew estates who cultivated large areas of vines: Rezhon Lezion, Zichron Yaakov (after the name of his grandfather). He financed the development of wine industry and economic development of settlements in the Middle East. For this purpose he create "Association of Hebrew colonization of Palestine" (Palestine Jewish colonization Association - PICA). After the first Zionist Congress in Basel, he will support the Zionist movement's own name, without being integrated directly in its organizational structure and politics. [2] Term designating those poor, are at the threshold of subsistence. At that time there were millions of Hebrew in Europe and Russia in that social state.

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18 Congress, contributing financially and logistically, on the road one hundred years before the establishment of the State of Eretz Israel. That is an example of a concerted effort to be worthy of other people, to be applied, adapted to their own prosperity. Failure of Rothschild meeting is compensated by the draft “der Judenstaat”, which first published in Vienna on 14 February 1895, is spread with the speed of fire in all Jewish communities. From the young students of Hebrew in European capitals to the Russian Jewish communities (where it was copied by hand in thousands of copies). An example is David Wolffsohn.  David Wolffsohn[1] with Max Bodenheimer will establish in the German Colonia locality, "Association for development of agriculture in the country of Israel" (under the local organization "Chovevei Zion"). Immediately after reading Herzl's book, will go in Vienna to meet with the author. He joined them, traveling with him in 1888 in Constantinople and in Eretz Israel, meeting with Emperor Wilhelm II. Wolffsohn will become the first president of the Jewish Colonial Trust, which aimed at the accumulation of financial resources and their use in Eretz Israel for the purchase of land and Hebrew settlements implantation. After Herzl's death (1904), is elected president of the ‘World Zionist Organization’ until 1911. ’Jewish State’ ('Der Judenstate’) - Is so naturally, given the simple ideas, clear and revolutionary in the text. Anti-Semitism occurs wherever there is a significant number of Hebrew, is manifest not long after their presence at any place within the majority population. It is observed in various forms, from school, sports, business, religious intolerance, and even as a reason for self-defense of majority. It is a phenomenon that can not be offset in the local, regional, should be addressed by the countries in a Interstate [1] He was born in Lithuania, in the town Darbenai.

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19 Agreement. The oppression and persecution could not exterminate the Hebrew. Integration of Jews in the place is not resolved by either waiving the Judaic tradition, imitation, assimilation, through mixed marriages. Jewish poverty problem, which is currently moving from one place to another in search of jobs is not resolved through individual philanthropy and can be generated or generating anti-Semitism. Anywere they emigrate, shortly time, the Jews middle class accumulate economic power. Sooner or later most people will respond by induction of some forms of anti-Semitic behavior. Example is France (in just the first run, hysterical anti-Semitic, the ‘Dreyfuss Affair’).  Jews must to Return in large numbers, their colonization in Eretz Israel to be assisted financially and logistically for the standard of living does not decreased for those who get there than in the place where they went. This can be achieved, financial and logistical, one philanthropist, for some. Organization is needed and sees as a corporation, accompanied by a "Hebrew Company" for a productive economic resources and management of their use.  Herzl describes the detailed operation and interpenetration between: the local community as the basic structure; Jewish society, as a body superior to all the communities through elected representatives; Company Hebrew: financial support to projects Return in a Jewish Eretz Israel.  In the chapter "Local Community" Theodor Herzl describes the difficulty of massive migration, as to departure forbiddance psychologically (attachment to the place, neighbors, tombs, traditions). He propose to make immigration groups. Preparation groups will be in time "guide", each having a "district" and a committee of representatives designated for this purpose within each local community. Each family can choose, depending on the opportunities to emigrate. At the same time Hebrew Company will provide transport (train,

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20 boat) and accommodation space for the first period of settlement, in a group or individually, in Eretz Israel. Herzl put an emphasis on cooperation with local community Rabbis. Each group will have its Rabbi, its spiritual leader, who will receive regular information from the Hebrew Company, and will distribute and explain the Group members. Committee of representatives will be led by Rabbis. Local groups will receive compensation for buildings and facilities free of reconstruction in the new country. The Philanthropic institutions should be included in a system which allows the complementarity of actions and funding. Education community, the meaning of training for productive activities in the new location will be coordinated by the "Hebrew Society" and supported the local community. Elderly population will be involved in activities, light feeling to have utility, along with the members. He write, finally: "We will do what's best to use moral force to the work of salvation of any man any age and class (social), and so our people will find new strength from working on his own ground seven hours a day.  "The Jews Society" is intended as a promoter of "Spiritual State": a state that combines the concept of Rousseau on state as a social contract and with the "Spiritual Hebrew State" of Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai, "in the Conciliation Jasmina" (70-90). This new organization should promote and convey the concepts of spiritual development, educational and organizational, uniform in all local communities. The “Hebrew Company" is a form of organization that aims to purchase land in Palestine. Also, as administrator of the Hebrew goods, regulates the conversion value of transferable assets (land, buildings, etc.) in the country of departure, the new location of Hebrew in Eretz Israel. Undertake and coordinate enterprises construction Hebrew workers, providing conditions for work (7 hours) and payment in kind and in cash. The Funds for those who can not work (pregnant women, children, elderly), funds for education, funds for self-defense of the Jewish settlements.

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21 Facilitate trade in consumer goods inside and outside Jewish settlements in Palestine (Yishuv). It will facilitate investment in small industry, the rental of industrial and agricultural machinery. During the movements of groups of migrants ‘Hebrew Company’ will ensure all direct and indirect costs.  Rabinate reaction was, with some exceptions (eg the Grand Rabbi of Vienna) retained and sometimes laughably. Herzl was baptized as an "attic" of Retour in Holly Land. Since april 1896, when the English edition of the "Hebrew State" are publish, Theodor Herzl is recognized as a leader of the Movement of Return in Eretz Israel – Zionism Mouvement. "Der Judenstaat" (‘Hebrew State’), assemble energy in Hebrew communities up-and across Europe, and Russia, the United States.  In April 1896, Theodor Hertzl make first trip to Constantinople, by mediating the Grand Duke of Baden (who will assist in further efforts to further Jewish settlement of legal and purchase land in Palestine - under Ottoman Empire). This bears the first official talks with the Turks. On his return visit Hebrew community in Sofia, Vienna, Berlin, London ... Everywhere people it claims it receives and enthusiastically, with some reservations of Hebrew elite (it is the case, for example, Maccabees Group in London). Feeling that something terrible is about to happen Hebrew population abroad (which will become visible soon after 1904 - the Chisinau pogrom [1]- Bessarabia and death of the Hebrew 6,000,000 in [1] The April 6 1904, a Russian child is found murdered in the town Dubossary. Local Anti Semitic Newspapers incite to revenge against the Jews on the grounds that it would be a ritual murder - the blood to produce matzot of Easter - that was after he was killed by a relative ... Between 7-9 April Hebrew community of Chishinau is devastated: 49 dead, 59 seriously wounded, 500 wounded, 700 houses destroyed. Is no Czarist authorities, intervention during the pogrom. Manifest disdain towards the Jews is doubled along the order they are used as valve for discontents of majority population against the inefficient administration of the empire, hunger and generalized social misery of the Russian Empire

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22 35-45 years of XX century[1] gives him the energy to persevere. In July 1986 has a new meeting with Baron Edmond de Rothschild. The two ways: infiltration at any price[2] unlawfully, leading to the establishment of the first rural settlement of Moshav, and immigration legal assistance by the Ottoman supported by Herzl, not find a compromise formula.  In the same period, start to organize Zionist movement with the support of Max Nordau Aryeh Leib Motzkin and Avraham Usishkin. First Organization: ‘Jewish Association’ in 1987. In March 1897 preparation Conference takes place. Congress to be held in Münhen. The opposition of German Rabbis Council determine the location change.  August 1897 - Switzerland - Basel: hotel gable which float on the white flag with blue stripes and Magen David (Star of the six corners of David), representatives of Jews from 16 countries discussed first plan to Return in Eretz Israel. The formation of Basel World Zionist Organization, with the following coordinates:  The Systematic and programmatic support to the development of Jewish agricultural settlements, industrial and craftsmen.  The Unification of Hebrew organizations in each country in accordance with the laws of that State.  Strengthening the spirit of individual conscience and national Jewry. Preparation work for obtaining of the various governments to accept and support the Zionist aim of Return in Eretz Israel. [1] The Schoah - Holocaust of XX Century [2] Edmond de Rothschild has applied this method since 1882 - first Aliya.

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23 Formation of a Committee of Action, based in Vienna, which includes representatives of major Hebrew community.  Max Bodeheimer proposes to establish a Bank and a National Fund, to centralize and manage financial resources accruing from collective or individual donations. Professor Shapira proposes to establish a Hebrew University in Eretz Israel. He took being first Zionist Organization. Ha Tikva (The Hope) the first hymn of Zionism, future hymn of Eretz Israel, lyrics by poet Naftali Herz Imber (1856 – 1909[1]) and music of Bedrich Smetana.  Herzl consider getting an “International Agreement” for Jewish settlement in Eretz Israel to be safe. He criticized illegal infiltrations (Aliya). This view has created confusion in dealing the Return. It will take place in fact, over the 41 years before the establishment of Israel, both ways: legal and illegal, according to the international political situation.  In June 1898, at his own expense set up weekly 'Die Welt' (The World), which discuss tactics in the political, social, educational and spiritual unification of the various linguistic communities in Europe, Russia and America, to support what Hebrew grant settlements in Eretz Israel.  In August 1898, is second Zionist Congress in Basel. Within this formation was ‘Jewish Colonial Trust’ - coordination role with the amounts donated to the purchase of land, agricultural and industrial development, education, social assistance to those who are Return in Eretz Israel. Theodor Herzl launched the concept of "the conquest of comunities"- in response to hostile attitudes of some rabbis and Hebrew opinion leaders from Europe to new Zionist organizations. Provide the focus of attention and funding necessary to support the harmonization of the educational structures communities. And mutual support in case of [1] Romanian Jew

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24 oppression by the "majority" population and state oppression in any country (it had the immediate realities of the Russian Empire). This mode of organization and management of funds at the global level is the present "Joint" of the Jews and at the same time, the symbiosis between political and social Zionism. Within Congress, the socialist leaders have requested representation in the organization's management.  In October 1898, Herzl arrives in Jerusalem leading a Zionist delegation, members of the World Zionist Congress (including the David Wolffshon). Visit his ancestral lands. He is impressed by the vitality of the Hebrew people in the agricultural settlements. He is accompanied by a group of riders who protect him. They are hardy, healthy, work their land. Hertzl compare the vitality and freedom of this Jews with that of the Hebrew state in subsistence poverty, fear of pogroms, of thousands Hebrew in Europe and Russia. He have a concrete vision that will mean for the hundreds of thousands of Hebrew Return in Eretz Israel and the way: the concerted efforts of Diaspora to the accumulation of funds, purchase of land in Palestine and the spiritual reinforcement, Jews becoming free people in their own country. Emperor Wilhelm II - visiting the same area lead an official delegation of the German Empire in Turkey. Herzl's opportunity is to present its agricultural Hebrew estates. And are visited Jaffa Rishon Lezion, Ness Zion, Rehovot and Mikve Israel Agricultural School.  In March 1999 ‘Jewish Colonial Trust’ is registered in London as the bank shares.  In May 1899, Herzl made a new trip to Istanbul, where (through mediation of sister Sultan teacher) has a meeting with Sultan on buying land in Palestine[1]. Sultan asked him instead to cover the huge deficit of Turks treasury. Preparations made to persuade Hebrew [1] Then integrated in the Ottoman Empire

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25 European bankers to create a joint fund for this purpose fail[1]. The Three Congress of the Basel takes place in August 1899. Herzl makes a report on the steps and meetings with German officials (including King Wilhelm II to Jerusalem and to Constantinople). Even if it recognizes the efforts that had no practical effect, he insists the issue has increased in prestige 'Zionist Organization Congress’ limited the use of funds to Palestine and Syria. Personnel and undemocratic way in which Herzl makes its decisions creates animosities among members of Congress, such as Asher Ginzberg (Ahad Ha Am).  1900 and 1901 are an sterile effort that Zionist leader makes besides British, Russian and Ottoman governments. . Congress in London (the Four - 1900) Herzl take action against the expatriation of thousands of Hebrew in Romania but did not mention the major persecutions in the Russian Empire. He hopes that negotiations to allow Russian officials will give positive results. Rabbis want to limiting Zionist Organization which require only the political issues (in order not to interfere with the field of spiritual and cultural with Rabbis). The fifth Basel Congress (December 1901) confirms the ineffectiveness of political contacts with the Ottoman Empire. Frames are formed in Congressional opposition to the way in which Theodor Herzl drive - called 'Democratic faction'. The group led by Leo Motzkin, Martin Buber and Chaim Weizmann require a focus on the achievement of a uniform culture and education among Hebrew communities. Also ask for democratization of the movement as a warning to single-member leadership of Herzl. The only concrete achievement, impact in the coming years will be statutory Jewish National Fund (‘Jewish National Fund – JNF’), which had the objective of accumulating funds to purchase land in Palestina. [1] Although subsequent Jews financial will implement separate funding but without effect in terms of Herzl's idea.

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26  Swan song of Herzl's visionary materializes in 1902 by publication, in the October 1902 of the essay 'Altneuland' (‘Our held’). He describes a Jewish State with a European culture, with a developed social protection. A free country, with a complete freedom of religion, separate from political power, the Jews and non Jews have equal rights. Jewish State is not a country of national oppression but a place where the feeling of brotherhood and equality will prevail. Immediate reaction will go from the fact that Herzl did not specify that the only language will be Ivrid. Ahad Ha Am became a fierce and constant critic of, ‘cosmopolitan ideas' of the Herzl essay.  Year for 1902 -1903 were years in which Theodore Hertzl made repeated approaches to the British, Russian and Ottoman officials. He made a trip to Russia to minimize the effects of anti Jews laws. It is received with great warmth and hope of the Jews in the area of Pale, with a grand reception in Vilnius. Caught between promises and false alternatives, on the one hand, and the increasingly poor Jews from Eastern Europe, the devastating pogroms subject and the lack of prospect of escape from the vicious circle, Herzl accepted the proposal of the Secretary British state for colonies, Joseph Chamberlain (October 1903), to establish a Hebrew State on the current territory of Uganda - as an immediate emigration of hundreds of thousands of Hebrew persecuted in the Eastern Europe. The project is subject to the of Basel six Congress (December 1903). The Comments are highly contradictory. From the accusations of betrayal of ideals in motion to the idea that a solution would be like a 'night shelter' (Max Nordau). Resolution making the ‘Uganda Plan’ is passed by 295 votes to 178 against (all Russian Zionist delegates) and 98 abstentions. The prestige of Herzl's leadership will be seriously touched in the Congress. But its efforts on actions impendence large saving Jews from Eastern Europe recently are confirmed:

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27 Pogrom in Chisinau on 6 -7 April 1903. Hertzl in his route in the Russian Empire in 1903, finds that all the promises are to form. The manifest disdain towards the Jews is doubled by they are used as valve embezzlement discontent of the majority population towards inefficient administration empire, hunger and social misery of generalized Russian empire. Anti Czar Movements in Russia[1] will finally grind Czarist empire to his fall in 1917.  1904 - Sick and almost alone, Hertzl has a series of meetings: the Pope and King of Italy - in January, with the Zionist action - in April (to settle conflicts in the Zionist Movement). He died in the sanatorium Badlach (Austria) of pneumonia at 44 years. The news came in all communities. Thousands Hebrews have taken the way of Vienna to be with their visionary leader in him last road. The Mortuary convey endless drain on the boulevards of Vienna, the Hebrew Cemetery Sephard Rite. The silent is crowd, when the body are fit in the grave, liven suddenly. Screaming with pain, Jews break their clothes on them; the cry of thousands of desperate people, while creating an unforgettable moment, that they will remember the friends and its enemies[2]. Herzl was the first Jew who, after 1800 years, it take action and declare before the world that Jews are a people with rights of any nation, and continues through to convince millions Hebrew to follow him. A face in spite of evidence and contest of representatives Hebrew (spiritual or financial), following the vision of the organization until the Zionist Movement its materiality - World Zionist Organization. [1] another pogrom, 19-20 October 1905, also in Chisinau, will result of this diversion of such riots, in which 19 Hebrew killed will be mistreated and 56 wounded [2] As Stephen Tzveig Jew Austrian writer and publicist, proponent of assimilation of Jews and constant opponent of Herzl, assisting in the funeral recognized the value of Herzl's symbol for millions of Hebrews in Diaspora.

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28 AUTHOR NOTES ON " JEWISH MOVEMENT TO RETURN IN ERETZ ISRAEL “ Theodor Herzl was one of the few people in history to have not only predicted the future but he created it. It was the first Jew who, after 1800 years, who take declare before the world that Jews are a people with rights like any nation, and continues through to convince millions Hebrew to follow him. A Jew who is perfectly in the words of Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook: '…and the reality of our lives, all began with Herzl. Some people called him a heretic. His writings do not reflect heresy, more than show that they had faith. He wrote in his diary: 'Our people can not be a nation without faith’. Who thinks and says so is a man of faith '  Theodor Hertzl had visions of saving his people from oppression and humiliation, after the immediate concrete situations (see the case Dreyfuss). He had the genius of the possible solutions. But many of Hebrew notable of his time not have given us the vision rally danger that hover over their people, whether in Holocaust of the years '40 of the last century. After the death of Theodor Herzl, Zionist way, for 41 years until the formation of Eretz Israel, will be coordinated through confrontation and cooperation between the three major Jewish current: the political, cultural, religious.  I recall the answer of the priest initiated the god Baal, to the king Balak of Moabit, when the king invited to curses Hebrew tribes of Israel, out soon from Egyptian slavery: 'Cause It's a people by itself, without taking into account the other Nations' (Numerii 23.9.)'.

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HOPE MISSED AN ALLIANCE BETWEEN ARAB AND HEBREW - SAN REMO CHART 1920 NOTIONS:  Zionism - Hebrew Nationalist Movement, his status of Congress in Basel (1987). Its purpose was Return to the Old Jewish Israel, to restore their home ‘National Home’ and putting an end to persecution (as minority) in foreign countries. Pan Arab Movement – Nationalist Arab Movement to build Great Arab State[1], initiated by the Emir Hussein, early twentieth century, with the mentor is the Lord Lawrance and English military advisers. [1] Which would have included the current territory of Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Iemen, Palestine, Syria, Sinai. 29

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30 THE BEGHINING OF NEGOTIATIONS  On entering of English troops (led by genral. Allenby) in Palestine, in 1917 - 1918 people, comprising 560,000 Aeabs, 55,000 Hebrews, lived in an arid area and an impoverished Turkish administration, the war and blockade.  In January 1918, after the Balfour Declaration, are the contacts between the Zionist Movement delegation led by Chaim Weizmann[1] and the delegation led by Emir Feisal[2], to establish a form of autonomy to the Jews in this state.  In December 1918, both are at a luncheon given by Lord Rotchschild. Here Emir Feisal says[3]: 'No Arab can not be suspicious of Hebrew nationalism ... I say to Jews Welcome Home and we'll cooperate with them in the Arab State’. Is signed a Joint Declaration which sets out the principle directions of the relationship between Arabs and Zionist movement.  Emirati condition was that it remain secret until the Arab state independence.  Ensure free Jewish emigration and settlement in the territory of Palestine. [1] The leader of the World Zionist Congress, one of the first members of the youth organization in Berlin Chovevei Zion - Those Zion's love - the years 1870 - 1880 - which militate Return of Jewish in Eretz Israel, Zionist main negotiator between 1918 -1948; first President of Israel after May 1948 [2] The future king of Saudi Arabia. Arab rule in Feisal's vision encompassed Palestine, in whole. [3] According to notes of his T.E.Lawrence, his advisor.

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31 They offer mutual guarantees of safety in the Arab State and support, technological assistance, of the Hebrew, for the economic development of the Arab population in Palestine. A week later the Zionist agrees the essential requirements: Haifa Port area will be free for both parties; Akaba port becomes free. On 6 February 1919 Emir Feisal, advocated in his speech before the Peace Conference, which requires independence Arabia, states the agreement and a guarantee for Palestine: enclave of 'Zionist Hebrew’. His hope was that Chaim Weitzmann give total support to Arabs in their dispute with France for the Syrian coast, forming a 'Semitic Alliance’. Also, the World Zionist Organization's Declaration on Peace Conference of Paris, are the following:  Not be prejudicial in any civil rights and religious of non Jews population.  There will be no discrimination between people rights and civil on the grounds of religion or race.  Will not return to Palestina entire Jewish population (estimated at 14,000,000 at the time). Return of Jews will make of the communities of Central and Eastern Europe, areas where they lead a life of subsistence.  Financial and logistical investment will ensure a decent life and work, development of roads, railways, irrigation. Also this massive input of capital will increase the number of jobs, improving the overall standard of living of the population.  Creating "Jewish Home" in Palestine will give added security of Jews everywhere and to attract financial resources and logistics, 'as long as we need’ it to move the Semitic Alliance interests.  But England and France want both to stay in the area. The English policy was the only Middle East division between England and France, which provide the power under the oil

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32 resources. Both major powers did not want a strong Arab State, the majority owner of the oil fields.  Chaim Weitzmann was dependent on British politics ... In short the Roman dicton :'Divide et impera' has not been exceeded by our Zionist movement. Weitzmann advises the Arab does not interfere with the French coast in the Syrian issue.  In the summer of 1919 Emir Feisal interrupts meetings with the Zionist movement and cut off all negotiations with the Zionist Jews. Treaty remains secret, we are many years.  Since autumn 1919, coincidentally or not, start the Arab revolt in Palestine. Hebrew settlements are attacked, slaughtered hundreds of Hebrew. English troops on the ground involved in shape, having regard to the future interests of the British Mandate in Palestine. In these circumstances the Commission San Remo made The Palestinian map for British mandate in Palestine. They establish a natural border between Hebrew and Arabs: Jordan river. Between Jordan and the Mediterranean - Jews, from Jordan to the Arabian peninsula - Arabs. So the problem was solved in the territory and security of both parties, one side and other side of the river Jordan. Map of San Remo in 1920 resulting from the preliminary negotiations of the peace Treaty of Paris, conducted by the Zionist Mouvement (Chaim Weitzmann), Arab (Emir Feisal), England, France, in San Remo, in the latter part of 1920, before passed to the British Mandate in Palestine and Syria under French Mandate. But…  In 1921 77% of Palestine, settled in San Remo Chart, is assigned to a new state: Arab Emirate of Jordan. Thus the UK ensure their control over a territory claimed by King Feisal of Saudi Arabia, giving territory to Hussein, the future King of Jordan. New

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33 Hashemite State is supported, financially and militarily by the British Empire. Basically it was the part of Arab Palestinians - to the right of Jordan River, as the map was assigned to San Remo to Palestinian population. Tacitly Britain imposed a further division of the territory allocated to Hebrew community (Yishuv) between Hebrew and Arab Palestinians - with no opportunity to establish a natural territorial boundary - as in the original map (Jordan River). This will be one of the essential causes that have generated the fight between Arab and Jewish peoples[1] Comunities in Palestina over time, and the present situation. [1] To see the text to the address: http://www.scribd.com/doc/27497288/Hebrew-Organization-for-Self-Defence-in-Yishuv-v1-Moments-of-Zionism-IV

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34 DEATH OF 'SEMITIC ALLIANCE' - THE START ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT - 1920  Arab extremism in the Palestine has its roots in the "directive" given by Emir Feisal after the fall of negotiations between him and Chaim Weitzmann. Immediately after this time are the first Arab revolt (4 April 1920) during the Spring Festival Nabi Musa[1]. In the morning of April 4, groups of Arabs attacks Hebrew, housing, shops and synagogs of "Old Jewish Town”. The exciting anti zionist speeches from the balcony of Arab Club supported by several Arab leaders[2]. Is destroyed Religious school Torath Chaim Yeshiva (founded by Rabbi Yitzchak Winongrad in 1866) and rolls the Holy Book (Torah) broken down and disposed of. Jews are beaten and killed, reports being made even of Arabs [1] In Arabic: "The prophet Moses" - the celebration of Muslim prophet in Palestinian folklore, for seven days and consisted of a pilgrimage to Arab in Jerusalem, to the tomb of prophet (Arabs considered the area was in town Jeriho). Pilgrimage was established by Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyūb (Saladin) in the years 1150, to counteract the Christian holidays of Easter in Jerusalem. [2] One of them was Hajj Amin al-Huseini, installed later with the British support, as a Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – 1921

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35 citizens (Al-Khalil Sakakini). The reaction of Jewish self defense teams (led by Ze'ev Jabotinski) was to seek protection of the British army but british col. Storrs forfeit his gun. Then 200 volunteers from the British army restore the calm. Are arrested several dozens of Arabs, later released the two-day. Day that the violence increased in intensity. British set martial law but robberies, arson and destruction of homes continues. British soldiers withdraw, even to the Old City, Jabotinski people's can not to intervene, being trapped outside the walls. The Jews inside were not weapons. Two of Jabotinski volunteers[1] are infiltrating the neighborhood Hebrew to organize healthcare and a kind of self defense. Some British soldiers begin to dismantle the few Hebrew volunteers, at the suggestion of the Arab leaders of riot. Are Broken homes of Zionist leaders (Jabotinski and Weitzman). New Hebrew is arrested, released, then re-arrested few hours ... Silence of the three-day brings with it a balance: Hebrew 5 dead, 211 injured, Arabs 4 dead 21 wounded, seven British soldiers wounded. Three hundred Hebrew are cast out of the Old City. Paradoxical: were attacked people and houses of Orthodox Jews - bitter enemies of the Zionist movement ... in commemoration day of people Hebrew prophet Moses ... of the Palestinians Arabs  Jabotinski is arrested for weapons possession and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment. Sent to jail in Egypt and then to Accra, by pressure of the Jews organizations in England and America is switching to a year sentence. Are closed 200 participants to rebellion, of which 39 Hebrew. Ambiguous behavior of the British military authorities was determined for strengthen the British position to the League of Nations for be granted the Palestine Mandate to England.  Real motivation of the conflict generated by Emir Feisal and his men have the following long-term goals: [1] One being the father of future Yitzak Rabin

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36  To banish the Hebrew in Jerusalem.  To frighten the local population Hebrew and those who would wish to come to Palestine  A clear signal of Emir Feisal discontent over advice given by Chaim Weitzman to limit territorial claims.  From now the position of Arab leaders is centred around the following ideas: 1. Their dissatisfaction that the promise given by officials of ‘Antanta’, during the first World War was not satisfied - in fact a declaration of Independence will follow: Saudi Arabia and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. But Syria and Lebanon are under French Mandate. 2. Balfour Declaration widowhood Arab population of Palestine to self-determination. Hebrew immigrants coming in 'National Home' (Palestine) will lead to their enslavement and economic policy of the Hebrew. These ideas, which will exacerbate conflict states to full size Palestine (or more precisely what will remain after reducing them by 77%, operated by the British foundation Kingdom of Jordan) are induced from the outside:  On the other hand the supporters of the future King Feisal, which unilaterally proclaimed Syria merge (unrealized actually) and move to the development of Pan Arab and Islamic current mass hatred with the pivot against the Hbrews and Western Powers, signing the Balfour Declaration.  World Congress Zionist Commission's work is supported by resources and influence of Jews from around the world.  Subsequently comes into play after the 1933 German intelligence organizations, which, to develop 'fifth column' in the area will indoctrinate, recruit and train pro German Arabs, who will have a fundamental position anti-Zionist and anti-Hebrew.

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37 AUTHOR NOTES ON SAN REMO CHART 1920  Map of San Remo remains not only a testimony of a chance of losing peace and understanding, but as proof that people still are not as is made by God and brought to us by the prophet. Since it is difficult to actually implement a Good point because any good intent is subject to subjective pride, suspicion and intolerance towards the opponents. and taking bad decisions. That it supports millions of souls, beginning with social restrictions to violent loss of life. Those are in the hands of people who hold POWER and applies that power, in total disregard to the fate of the commands of God and His Prophets. Whether they Theban, Mosaic, Christian, Muslim ...  Spirit of community organizing of Jews, their resources and logistical financial skills common to the Jews and Arabs in the trade and business, would have led to an Semitic Alliance which clearly would have changed the world. And anyway, would not have died so many innocent people.

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38 ORGANIZATIONS FOR SELF DEFENSE IN YISHUV (HEBREW COMMUNITY IN PALESTINE)

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39 THE BEGINNING It was born in Sarajevo in Bosnia. After a period of study in Jerusalem (where become advocates of teaching Kabbala) is return in Serbia, where leads a small Hebrew Sephardic community in the town Semlim (Zemun), near Belgrade (1825). His name: Rabbi Solomon Yehuda Alkalay I Alkalay, in his work of 1834, 'Shema Yisrael' ( 'Listen to the people of Israel') starts from the idea that to deplores the Jew in exile to God by asking for expressions of His Force to be displaced again in ‘the Holy Land' should be replaced by an organized and supported financially for Return in Eretz Israel.  The Return[1]. phenomenon of the Hebrew people in Palestine, coupled with the acquisition of land, is produced in 70 years, increasing the number of Hebrew in Palestine. The price was a degradation of relations between Arab and Hebrew in Palestine. The relationship of cohabitation between them is eroded by expansion of intolerance that is causing of a massive movement of population. On the other hand an expression of disdain that those who have had the power: potentate Hebrew or Arab leaders to people who lead them towards God (either El: YHWH, Jesus, Allah). Because leaders do not know how to govern otherwise have used HATE, INTOLERANCE and confrontations ... why? God only knows!. The result was the battle between Hebrews and Arabs, to survive in Palestine. [1] To see the text at the Adress: http://www.scribd.com/doc/14072428/Moments-of-Zionism-I-Zionism-Apostles

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40 HEBREW ORGANIZATIONS FOR SELF DEFENSE IN YISHUV The phenomenon development of self defense of population in Yishuv (Hebrew population in Palestine) during 1918 - 1948 was, caused both by the conditions existing during the British occupation (1918-1920), the lack of protection from the British authorities during the British Mandate over Palestine (1920 -1948), and that the Hebrew people of Palestine have no experience of extremist attacks, which began in 1920, against the Hebrew settlements in the region. To understand where they should want Hebrew to come, we present some excerpts from 'World Zionist Organization Declaration' made on 03.02.1919, before the session Peace Conference in Paris: "I. Palestine should be placed under such political conditions, administrative and economic establishment that will ensure the 'Hebrew National House' ... being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing us - Hebrew in Palestine or the political rights enjoyed by the status of Hebrew in any other country ."... “II. Will forever be one the most complete freedom of religion for all religious creeds in Palestine. There is no discrimination among people with regard to citizenship and civil rights on grounds of religion or race. " "III. Palestine is not large enough to receive more than one of the Jews in the world. Most of the fourteen million, scattered through all countries must remain in their current locations ... Hebrew National House will be of great value to them ..., this will inspire millions of Hebrew, often before despairing , a new hope ... will have a high standard of living for our citizens Hebrew and non Hebrew in places where they live".

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41 Require setting the border is in the following coordinates: North: Mediterranean Sea south of Sidon, of Lebanon Mountains (KARAON EL) EL BIRE following the line of demarcation between the two basins: Wad El Kook and Wadi Et Teim, thence in a direction from line of demarcation between the eastern slopes of the Hermon and West. East: Hermon, NAHR MUGHANIYE following Hedjaz rail to the South Bay Akaba. South: to be negotiated with the Egyptian Government West: the Mediterranean. The peace negotiations in San Remo (Italy) will be final produce ‘Map of San-Remo 1920' for Palestine, which ensures a clear separation of the two areas (Hebrew and Arabic) with the Jordan River border. This document reminds me of the essay 'Altneuland' (Our held) written by Theodor Hertzl in October 1902. He describes a Hebrew State with an economy based on new technologies, with a European culture with a developed social protection. A free country, with a complete freedom of religion, separate from political power, in which Jews and non Jews have equal rights: 'Hebrew State is not a country of national oppression but a place where the feeling of brotherhood and equality will prevail' ; wrote Hertzl the visionary Zionist forty-five years before this time[1]. Premises were for a resolution of the Jewish [1] See the text to the Adress: http://www.scribd.com/doc/15046227/Hebrew-Fight-for-the-Return-in-Eretz-Israel-Moment-of-Zionism-II

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42 Return to the 'Promised Land', to form a multi racial state in which would be prospered both Jews and Arabs, with the technology and funds infused by the Jewish World. There were, in 1918-1920, negotiations between Chaim Weitzmann, leader of the World Zionist Congress and Emir Feisal, the future king of Saudi Arabia[2]. In 6 February 1919 Emir Feisal, advocated in his speech before the Peace Conference, which requires independence of Arabian State, the agreement and a guarantee for Palestine: enclave of ‘Zionist Hebrew’. His hope was that Weitzmann support total the Arabs in their dispute with France for the Syrian coast, forming a ‘Semitic Alliance’. Negotiations failed in 1920, once the starting 'Arab riots' in Palestine. Final strike given to the opportunity of cohabitation between Arab and Hebrew is done the British Empire. In 1921 77% of Palestine is assigned to a new state: Arab Emirate of Jordan. Thus the UK ensure their control over a territory claimed by King Feisal of Saudi Arabia, giving him to a faithful Emir Hussein, the future King of Jordan. New state is supported, financially and militarily by the British Empire. Basically it was the right of the Jordan River, as the map was assigned (San Remo Map), to Arab population of Palestine. Tacitly Britain imposed a further division of the territory allocated Hebrew community (Yishuv) ... between Hebrews and Arabs - without the opportunity to establish a natural territorial boundary - the Jordan river. [2] See the Text to the Adress: http://www.scribd.com/doc/15313646/San-Remo-Chart-1920-Hope-missed-an-SEMITIC-ALLIANCE-

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43 In 1922 the United Nations granted the British Mandate government over 23% of the territory remained of Palestina. Thus, the so-called "Pax Britanica" was the germ of long fight between Arabs and Hebrews of the territory under British Mandate: on a territory not enough for each of the two peoples; and the transformation of real social expectations in a bloody game 'of the cat and mouse' which is the almost one hundred years. Between 1920 - 1947 the rate of economic growth in Palestine was: Hebrew to 13.2% (due to infusion of labor immigrants and capital) and 6.5% at Arabs. Graduation rate of normal schools and courses was 86% in Hebrew and 22% of Arabs. During this period the Arabs of Palestine were more evolved, their life is among the highest in the area, the second after the Arabs in Lebanon. From a UN statistic that in 1939, Jews in Palestine were ranked 15, the Arabs of Palestine ranked 30 (vs. Egypt - 33 Turkey - 35). It can be concluded that in terms of socio-economically, the two communities have evolved towards social welfare. Coexistence between the vast majority of Arabs and Jews "together" there, despite the Arabs extremism and later Jews extremism. PARAMILITARY UNIT 'BAR GIORA‘ Paramilitary unit 'Bar Giora' - founded in 1907 - was the Hebrew clandestine organization, during the ‘two Alya’ - emigration of 40,000 Hebrews in Ottoman Empire - Palestine - from 1904 to 1914 - the majority coming from Russia and Poland, countries where the social instability and pogroms against the Hebrew communities were 'blooming'. Nearly half of these immigrants leave Palestine during the First World War.  Members of organization, about 100, had aimed to replace the Arab mercenaries. Hebrews pay Arabs to protect their properties. This promote penetration and theft on these

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44 properties (in which work was performed by the Arabs). Initiator has been a group of militants of the organization 'Poale Zion' - Hebrew Social Democratic Workers (Hebrew movement of workers, Marxist orientation , founded in Russia in 1901). Leaders were Itzac Ben-Zvi (the future second president of the Eretz-Israel in 1952) and Israel Schocat. They militate for a change in the optical core at the situation of that time: the result of investment bankers Edmond de Rothschild, in the period 1890 - 1910, was forming a blanket of small Hebrew landowner, owners of relatively large plantations. They use Arab agricultural workers and security guards, much 'cheaper' than the Hebrews immigrants . Consequence: during that period was a more accelerated growth of Arab population immigrated to Ottoman Palestine, than the Hebrew immigration. This migration will have major consequences in the interwar period: the purpose of increasing the number of Arabs workers - a source of 'cannon fodder' for Arab extremism. The phenomenon we meet today in European countries where extremism is recruiting Arab followers among Muslim immigration (coming to work instead of locals 'more expensive'). In the East, is recruiting in Palestinian campuses of Arab refugees in Palestinian territory, Jordan, Iran ... Everywhere where there are Arabs living in poor conditions and hatred accumulated over a period of generations wander.  For Hebrews, the only way to become a nation was, in Ottoman Palestine to work and defend their own land. Organization name was given as a symbol of Jewish independence, to name a leader of uprisings against the Romans since 68 c.e - Simon Bar Giora. They had a banner that quoted from the poem "Habiryonim (Yaakov Cohen): 'In blood and fire Judea fell, in blood and fire Judea will revive’. Members of the organization have experience in field work. Made agriculture and guard Galilee in the area Sejera and Mes'ha (Kfar Tavor). The organization will be integrated - 1909 - the organization 'Hashomer’.

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45 PARAMILITARY UNIT 'HASHOMER'  Paramilitary unit 'HaShomer' ('Man of the Guard' - 'Shomrim') - Founded in 1909 by Israel Shochat, Manya Shochat, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, Rachel Yanai, Mendel Portugali (founding members of the organization and 'Bar Giora'). The purpose was to provide security for all communities in Hebrew Palestine (Yishuv), eliminating Arab mercenaries, as many times uncertain. Dress port after Circazian, Bedouin or Druze. Acting on foot or horseback. Weapons were diverse: from the old Turkish musketry, mauser pistols and hunting weapons. In such a panoply was almost impossible to obtain bullets. Were tepid rudimentary small workshops manufacturing ammunition. Code of Conduct (written by Mendel Portugali) was to chase the intruders in the Jewish lands by gunshots fired in the air. Using direct-fire was in the case of self defense. Organization has been successful in Yishuv but aroused hatred Arabs former guards, which now incite people to attack Hebrew residents. Many veterans of the Hebrew settlements feared that the presence in the territory of Shomrim will destabilize the relationship of cohabitation with the Arab population. Ottoman authorities concerned with their suspicion. During the second World War many were exiled or killed in Anatolia. They are considered as potential members of British intelligence in the region - work less confirmed by the

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46 capture of the British 'Nili‘ group, led by Yosef Lishanski, Samuel Belkind, in which were 12 members HaShomer, but not the organization as a whole. After the First World War self defense group decide to unify in a single organization - 'Haganah'. Some of HaShomer members will join Hebrew Legion, others will join the mounted police, established by the British occupation in Palestine. ZE’EV JABOTINSKI Ze'ev Jabotinski (Vladimir Evghenievici Jabotinski ) was born on October 18 1880 in Russia, in a family of Hebrew askenazi of the middle class, in Odessa. Next primary, secondary and high school in the Russian education system. Learn Ivrid in particular. Ydish was the language they spoke in the family. Talent a journalist and it says in high school. After graduation will go in Berne and Italy (where is the Faculty of Law at the University of Rome) as a press correspondent of Russian and Hebrew newspapers. After the pogrom of April 1903 in Chishinau[1] Ze’ev Jabotinski join the Zionist Movement. Soon says its talent how leader, orator and organizer. In the face of pogroms [1] The April 6, a Russian child is found murdered in the town Dubossary. Local Anti Semitic Newspapers incite to revenge against the Jews on the grounds that it would be a ritual murder - the blood to produce matzot of Easter - that was after he was killed by a relative ... Between 7-9 April Hebrew community of Chishinau is devastated: 49 dead, 59 seriously wounded, 500 wounded, 700 houses destroyed. Is no Czarist authorities, intervention during the pogrom. Manifest disdain towards the Jews is doubled along the order they are used as valve for discontents of majority population against the inefficient administration of the empire, hunger and generalized social misery of the Russian Empire.

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47 and abuse often at Hebrew population in the area, will start in Odessa and establish the first self-organization of Hebrew communities across Russia. As happened with some Zionist leaders[1] he reached in conflict with the Hebrew local conservative leaders who postponed the process of concrete realization of the self defense teams. There were reasons both local pride and a fear of further retaliation by the Russian population. The consequence was that the pogroms of the period 1904 - 1917 found Russian Hebrew communities unprepared for self defense ... As is picturesque, he change the first name of 'Vladimir' in ‘Ze'ev’ ( 'Wolf'). Also in the year 1903 became a member of the Zionist delegation from Russia to the six Zionist Congress in Basel. After the death of Theodor Herzl (1904), will be the leader of the right circle in Congress. In 1906, in Helsinki, launches sentence autonomy local ethnic minorities, as an economic viability of maintaining social, cultural communities in Russia. Congress slogan: "Work now" refers to the whole community of life, modernization of the religious and secular Hebrew schools, the protection of people in communities. But Ze'ev Jabotinski extend this concept and the future coexistence between Arabs and Hebrew, in Palestine: "Every ethnic community will be recognized as autonomous and equal before the law." That has not been done is not his fault. In the years '30, he will become head of one of the most virulent extremist Hebrew units in Palestine: Irgun Zeva'i Le'umi (National Military Organization - Etzel, IZL - 1935). During the first World War, with Joseph Trumpeldor, will contribute to establishing a first auxiliary Hebrew battalion in British Army (1915), to be distinguished in the battles at Gallipoli. He will then initiate the formation of the three [1]See the case of Theodor Herzl in the text at the Adress: http://www.scribd.com/doc/14589893/Moment-of-Zionism-II-Hebrew-Fight-for-the-Return-in-Eretz-Israel

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48 battalions of the Hebrew Legion. Jabotinsk is distinguished in the battles of the Jordan Valley (1918) and is decorated for bravery with "Order of British Empire” members. After the war is chosen in the first Elected Legislative Assembly of Yishuv (Hebrew communities in Palestine) and the Executive Committee of the World Zionist Organization. He participate in the defense of Jews during the Arab extremist actions in April 1920 - the first 'Arab Riot' in fact an order of Emir Feisal - the future king of Saudi Arabia - as discontent over the fall of ‘Semitic Alliance’ parley with Weitzmann[1].  Irgun organization founded - 1935 - militate for a virtually free immigration (legal or not) of Jews in Eretz Israel, the opposite way of the action promoted by Chaim Weitzmann (legal immigration). Irgun units will fight against both Arabs and members of the British army for the period 1940 to 1948. [1] See the Text to the Adress: http://www.scribd.com/doc/15313646/San-Remo-Chart-1920-Hope-missed-an-SEMITIC-ALLIANCE-

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49 JOSEPH TRUMPELDOR  Joseph Trumpeldor was born on 1.12.1880 in the town of Pyatigorsk in Russia. His father, Wulf Trumpeldor, served 25 years in the Russian army, being in the child band War in the Caucasus. In fights loses an arm. Being among the few Hebrew families considered "useful Jew”, his family was allowed to settle in the area outside the residence of the West Russian Empire (Pale area), outside which the Jews were forbidden to live.  Joseph Trumpeldor came as a volunteer in the Russian Army in 1902. During the Russian-Japanese War (1904-1905), participated in defending the Port Arthur siege of the Japanese army. Loses his left hand but asked to continue fighting. After the conquest of the port is taken prisoner by the Japanese until the cessation of hostilities. Repatriated to Russia received four medals and order ‘Cross of St. George’. In 1906 also receives the captaincy rank in the reserve army of Czar (unique case - the Jews had no right to higher degrees in Russian army).  He next Faculty of Law in St. Petersburg. In the year 1911 he made Alya with a group of young Zionist from Russia to Palestine (under the Ottoman occupation), where work on a farm. Participate in the creation of the first Kibbutz (agricultural socialist community): Degania.  At the beginning of World War I, that does not accept Turkish citizenship, it is to be expelled from Alexandria (Egypt), along with other hundreds of Hebrews Russian origin (Russia are enemy of Turkey, allied with German and Austro-Hungarian empires). He meets with Ze'ev (Vladimir) Jabotiski. Together form the basis of Hebrew Legion - a way to participate in the British war effort for the release of Palestine and Eretz Israel state

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50 building. Body of Hebrew unit is formed of Horse Zion unit (Zion mule Corp). Participate in this unit (integrated in British Army) in the battles at Gallipoli. Is again wounded in the shoulder. This unit is disbanded in 1915. Together with Jabotinski moves two years for the establishment of Hebrew Legion (1917).  In 1918 he return in Petersburg. This he form self defense squads of the Hebrew communites to protect against the acts of vandalism before the gangs that haunted Russia during the Civil War (1917 to 1921). In parallel organization set up his young Hebrews preparing to come to Israel (HeHalutz).  Returned to Palestine (1919) became a founding member of the Movement of Socialist Zionist in Yishuv. He lives in Kibbutz Kfar Gilad where lead a self-Hashomer Hatzair unit area Hebrew settlements of Upper Galilee. On 1 March 1920, together with ten comrades, he comes to defend Kibbutz Tel Chai (Tel Hai). Dies, shot in the arm and stomach in the evening.  He said about him: "I am an anarchist-communist and a Zionist." He militated for the formation of a trade unionist and socialist community of Hebrews in Russia. He contributed to the generation of movement for the establishment of settlements in Hebrew socialist organization (Kibbutz), which formed the backbone of the Jewish Return and military self defense units Haganah, between 1920 – 1948.  Members Zionist movement who were in Palestine at that time were considered episodes Tel Chai as the first major battle to defend Hebrew settlements in Palestine. He also formed when changing mentality: from passivity to persecution to a new type: strong reaction and defense of their own resources, without waiting for others to come to give 'protection' (see the case - the British Mandate).

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51 Case Trumpledor[1] hero is in itself demonstrative: from a family of Russian Hebrew 'assimilated' to Russian majority population, without knowledge of childhood Jewish tradition and Yiddish language. He went to war in the imperial Russian army, where many young Hebrew attempting to evade from service in Russian army. He excelled as a soldier to defend the citadel-Port Arthur. Seriously injured required to continue fighting. After that he is prisoner in Japan. Receives military honor - "St. George Cross” and is the first Jew officer in the Russian army. All they look at all the traditional image of the Jew : inhibited and timid in front of opponent. He stood up to the last gasp kibbutz Tel Chai and drop dead 'does not matter, it is good to die for your country' (lamut tov b'ad artseinu - words related to a comrade: Pinchas Shneiurson), words that became the national slogan for the fighters of Haganah, Irgun, Palmah, Lehi organizations and later to all the people of Eretz Israel. Marking the annual Tel Chai Day (11 Adar) was established in a ceremony at the national average - in institutions and schools, in pilgrimages. Title of 'hero amputate' (ha-ha-gibor gidem) make it glory. This Day becomes a celebration of Hebrew anonymous soldier, after the establishment of Eretz Israel. The 'ritual' linked to personality of this new type of behavior the Hebrew people, was essential in forming the Eretz Israel and the behavior of reference for the thousands of 'Trumpledor' heroes and heroine who sacrifice in the battles for territorial identity, which followed. [1] In this photo is the monument to his grave.

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HEBREW LEGION  Hebrew Legion - Created in 1915 from 500 Hebrews of Russian origin, expelled from Palestine to Egypt by the Turks. Led by Ze'ev Jabotinski and Joseph Trumpeldor is officially recognized in 1917 as Battalion 38 in British Army. Will later include Hebrews from Palestine. Hebrews come from Russia reached more than 1,000 combatants. In April 1918 consisting of 39 Battalions. Hebrew came from the U.S. and Canada. Legion fought on the front in the Middle East, led by General Allenby, until the end of hostilities. At the end of the war have herd: 5000 soldiers in 5 battalions. According to statistics, made by Ze'ev Jabotinski: 34% were from the U.S., 30% of Palestine, 28% U.K., 6% from Canada, 1% in Argentina. In June 1918, volunteers from 38 Battalion began fighting with the Turkish army, about 20 mile north of Jerusalem, the Jordan Valley. Hebrew legionnaires participated in the battle of Megiddo in mid September 1918. They crossed the Jordan River by fighting, and were engaged in decisive battle of the conquest of Damascus. After the victory, most fighters were demobilized in November 1918. Some of them returned to their country of origin. Few have been established in Palestine to support Alya of Jews in Eretz Israel. Hebrew Legion army is maintained in the size of a British battalion, called 'First Judeans' badge with a distinctive sign 'Menora '[1] and the slogan' Kadima '(' Forward '). In 1921, Legion veterans are allocated land in the north Neghev desert, of where founded Avihayil moshav. Subsequently abandoned because of lack of water source. Will be embedded in 1946 in the moshav Ein Ha Oved inhabited by the Hebrews of Russia, Canada and the United States. There is now a museum of the Legion and the Veterans Legion club. [1] Six Candle Arms. 52

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53 THE BEGINNING OF ARABIC EXTREMIST MOVEMENT IN PALESTINE – 1920  Extremism in Arab Palestine has its roots in the “Directive" given by Emir Feisal after the fall of negotiations between him and Chaim Weitzmann, leader of Zionist Congress in 1920[1]. Immediately after this time are the first Arab revolt (4 April 1920) during the Spring Festival Nabi Musa[2]. After three days of confrontations: 5 Hebrew dead, 211 injured, 4 dead Arabs, 21 Arabs injured, seven British soldiers killed. Three hundred Hebrews are ejected from the Old City. Paradoxically, they were attacked homes of Orthodox Jews - bitter enemies of the Zionist movement ... during the commemoration of the Palestinians Arabs prophet Moses ... Ze’ev Jabotinski is arrested for weapons possession and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment. Sent to jail in Egypt and then to Accra. Under the pressure of Jews organizations of England and U.S.A. his conviction is switching to a year sentence. Are closed at 200 participants rebellion, 39 of which are Hebrews. [1] See the Text to the Adress: http://www.scribd.com/doc/15313646/San-Remo-Chart-1920-Hope-missed-an-SEMITIC-ALLIANCE- [2] In Arabic "The prophet Moses" - the celebration of Muslim prophet in Palestinian folklore, for seven days - was in a pilgrimage to Jerusalem to prophet tomb (regarded by the Arabs was in town Jeriho area). Pilgrimage was established by Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyūb (Saladin) in the years 1150 to counteract the Christian holidays of Easter in Jerusalem:

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54 PARAMILITARY UNIT 'HAGANAH' - 'HA HAGANAH' - 'PROTECTION' One of the most important consequences of riot in 1920 was that the Jews of Yishuv have realized that the defense from the British occupation is uncertain in the face of Arab revolt. They reacted putting into practice the idea of self paramilitary units to ensure a consistent response to the attacks of Arab extremists on the land of Palestine. So take birth in 1921 paramilitary units 'Haganah‘ ('Defense‘, in ivrid, 'HaHaganah'). These units will be accepted volens nolens by the British Mandate. This organization will convert into regular military units of the Israeli army after independence of the Eretz-Israel (14 May 1948), in 28 May 1948. Originally formed by former members of the Jewish Legion, the organization protecting farms (moshav and kibbutz), prevent people about possible imminent attacks of gangs, intervene in fights with these peoples. During 1920 -1929, Haganah has led lack of central coordination. Tenants could defend as Haganah and members of the intervention was often late. In 23-24 August 1929 is Arabs attack to Hebrew Community of Hebron, located 30 km from Jerusalem. It is the place where is located the tombs of Patriarchs and the place where King David was invested. Population (Arabic and Hebrew) coexist here over 800 years. After 1920, as in all Palestine, minor incidents provoked by Arab extremists were daily. Daily complaints were addressed by the Jews to the British Mandate over Palestine (1921-1948). August 15 is a demonstration in Jerusalem that the young Hebrews claimed right to pray at the Western Wall remnant of the Temple of Jerusalem (under the Esplanada of Mosque Al'Aqsa[1]. Demonstration, approved by british authorities, with the promise that it will secure order, [1] Built by Abd al-Malik and completed by his son al-Walid in 705 c.e.

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55 was used by Arab extremists (the rumors that have been attacked local Arabs and were utter abuse to Prophet Muhammad) to trigger the days that followed, attacks Jews on the Western Wall. A young Jew is killed. His funeral turns into new moments of confrontation. Meeting of British, Arab, Hebrew leaders (Commissioner Harry Luke, Jamal al-Husayni, and Yitzhak Ben-Zvi) does not lead to a feasible solution. As Haganah have information that will be attacked Jewish settlement in Hebron, offer their support to the defenders. The Community of Hebron refused support by claiming that they will be protected by the local Arab (A'yan)[1]. Extremists launched rumor that Jews would attack Al'Aqsa Mosque. Gangs have attacked the Hebrew people in Hebron and the territory under the British Mandate. In Hebron there were 40 police officers (39 Arabs and a Jew). In the afternoon the day is attacked Yeshiva[2] in Hebron. A young person is killed. A two-and three-day Arabs attacked the Hebrew, houses. Are ferocious crimes, mutilations, rapes. Much of the Hebrew fleeing from the city, many of them are hidden by their Arab neighbors. Aid required to Jerusalem come too late. Totals: 67 Hebrews dead, Hebrew inhabitants stolen property, the community of Hebrew disbanded in Hebron (with minor restoration attempts in 1931 - 160 people back, but again evacuated during the Arab revolts 1936-1937) until the war of 1967 . In total, 195 Arabs and 34 Hebrew were sentenced by the courts of the British Mandate. Death sentence for 17 Arabs and 2 Hebrew, but were later switched to prison terms. Three Arabs were hung. Were offered financial compensation to families who had died by amending Arab villages which originated from criminals ... [1] It is significant Member Hagan, Baruch Katinka, who arrived one day before the massacre with 12 fighters (10 men and 2 women) in the home of Eliezer Dan. Slon Dwek banker refuses help because the Arabs, his creditors, will defend the Hebrew. Ten of them, then follow the other two are sent back to Jerusalem. [2] Jewish religious school.

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56 After 1929 self defense is reorganized by Haganah enrollment of volunteers in each location, throughout, and young adults (as an example: Ariel Sharon was 13 years 'observer‘ of the emergence of groups of bandits in moshav Kfar Malal, they lived. In 17 years he enter in Haganah troops). Are purchased weapons and organized in the Hebrew settlements small craft workshops for making ammunition and grenades. Haganah becomes a powerful military 'underground' organization. In 1936 Haganah have 10,000 fighters and 40,000 reserve. During 1936-1939 they participated actively against Arab extremist. British authority not recognized officially Haganah, but its members work with members encompassing Haganah Auxiliary Units in the British Special Forces patrol (trained and led by British colonel Orde Wingate). They receive a full military training. Haganah members were dissatisfied with the leadership position in Hebrew Yishuv, restraint (havlagah) not to initiate attacks against the localities from which came the extremist gangs. Irgun directly supports illegal emigration, some examples: 1937 - 164 illegal immigrants in Austria 1938 - 1940 in Poland and Austria; 1939 - 1980 in Poland and Romania 1940 - 2300 in Europe 1940 to 1944 - 18,000 in Europe In turn has formed the Lehi group (1940) (known as the "Stern Gang" after the name of the leader, Abraham Stern). Irgun and Lehi organizations will attack until 1948, British military objectives and centers of Arab extremism. Some of them: 6.11.1944 - Lehi kill Lord Moyne in Cairo. It was official with the highest level of British government in the area. Later, Yitzhak Shamir said that the assassination was led for his

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57 Arab extremist leaders support and affirmation in public of racial inferiority of Jews from Arab. 22.07.1946 - Irgun blow up the 'King David‘ hotel in Jerusalem, Staff of the British army: 91 dead 46 wounded. 12.01.1947 – Lehi attacked with dynamite British police station in Haifa. 4 dead and 140 wounded. 4.05.1947 - Irgun attacked fortress prison Accra. 20 prisoners Irgun and Lehi 7 prisoners are released. Are killed 9 Irgun fighters. 182 Arab prisoners manage to escape. 29.02.1948 - Lehi blow up a British militar train at Northern Rehovot: 28 soldiers dead, 35 wounded. 9.04.1948 Irgun and Lehi attacked the Arab town of Deir Yassin. Are killed between 100-120 civilians. 17.09.1948 Lehi kill U.N. mediator Folke Bernadotte, in Jerusalem. In 1939 British authorities set severe restrictions on Jews emigration in Palestine. That when the extermination of Jews began  6 years earlier in Germany and soon will expand throughout Europe, with the German occupation. Haganah takes care to ensure illegal Jews coming to Palestine (Palmach organization). By the end of the war, claimed to arrive over 100,000 Hebrew, in ships who have broken the British naval blockade of Palestine. Many other ships were stopped, both British and German naval forces (see, for example ship 'Struma'). Hebrew and Zionist organizations held numerous protest actions against this ad hoc coalition between the German and British, by reducing the rate of legal immigration. Organizations Irgun and Lehi pass to armed action. Attack such communication lines, facilities and representatives of British and Arabs. Since 1943 the leadership of the Irgun is taken by Menahem Beghin.

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58 PALMACH MILITARY UNITS  Start of the second World War the British determined to ask the Jews of Yishuv to contribute military units to the war effort.  Are formed Palmach military units, herds of Haganah. In total 12 companies (3 battalions), 19 May 1941. Palmach members were recruited mostly from Kibbutz peoples, which had a strong mutual and collective education. They held the agricultural work and were mobilized according to the actions of military units belonging. They represented the tip of the spear self defense military Yishuv. Shares had a wide range: from supporting regular English troops to military action espionage, those selected were very good knowledge of Arabic language and customs of the area. After the battle of El'Alaim, Palmach units are removed by British army, but maintain cohesion in underground. Each Kibbutz provide food and accommodation of a platoon of fighters. They provided security and worked side by side with members of Kibbutz's work field. Each have 8 days of military training, 14 days for agricultural work, 7 days off for a month. This organization provides flexibility for self defense actions and facilitate the recruitment of new members of the settlements (Kibbutz and Moshav) raising funds for arm Haganah, formation of military trained fighters and morally motivated him. Zionist Youth Movement has agreed that every young person to perform, aged between 18 and 20 years, training by members of Palmach: sports exercises, field orientation, first aid, operations detachment of self defense training with light weapons. Most were trained in performance handling explosives and sabotage, espionage and reconnaissance, communications and radio Morse, using heavy weapons. It made firing with weapons

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59 available. So many of them ready to become members of the Nahal settlements[1]. Between 1945-1946 Palmach units will attack the British infrastructure: bridges, railroad lines, police stations and radars. In 29.06.1946 british units conducted an extensive operation to disarm Hebrew units of self defense: Haganah, Palmah, Irgun, Lehi (the number of British soldiers involved, estimated between 10,000 and 25,000). Operation was a retaliation to an attack by rail (1.06.1946 - Lehi) and six officers abduction (17.06.1946 - Irgun). Were seized hundreds of weapons, mortars, grenades and thousands of hundreds of munitions related. Were arrested in 2500 fighters and leaders. In negotiations that followed the release and exchange switching of death of Hebrew fighters, Palmach and Haganah agreed stopping hostilities. They have continued sporadically by Irgun and Lehi. Palmach had a role in countering gangs of Arab fighters, who in turn preparing the removing of Jews from Palestine by triggering Civil War between Arab and Hebrew (1947-1948). In the War of Independence (1948-1949) Palmach was established three combat brigades led by Yigal Alon. They fought with regular armies of five Arab countries (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria). The structure and cohesion of Palmah and Haganah were nucleus around which was founded, the new state army Eretz Israel. Drivers Palmach unit, among which we mention: Yigal Allon, Moshe Dayan, Yitzhak Rabin, Haim Bar-Lev, Uzi Narkiss, Ezer Weizman will become political and military leaders in the new State Eretz Israel. [1] Settlements, military reinforcement, also called 'tower and stockade', which will be implanted on the main routes of access Hebrew settlements, in the years after the Declaration of Independence (15.05.1948) .

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60 CIVIL WAR BETWEEN ARAB AND HEBREW 1947 – 1948  It started after 30.12.1947, the date on which the United Nations (General Assembly Resolution 181 U.N.) established on 14.05.1948 as the date of termination of the British mandate in Palestine and approved. The Plan to share after the British Mandate in Palestine. Each state would comprise three major sections, and the Arab enclave Iaffa. Jews get 56% of territory (499,000 Hebrews and 438,000 Arabs).  Palestinians receive 42% of territory (818,000 Arabs and 10,000 Hebrew). Jerusalem and Bethleem were to be administered by the U.N. U.N. decided that by that time, the British Mandate and British military units had the role to ensure order in Palestine. That produced a great joy among the Jews of Yishuv and despair among Arabs. Neither the United Kingdom was not satisfied. Competition, circumstances or premeditated strategy, British Mandate and Arabs fighters applied the scheme to demonstrate that the territory can not self govern; to provoke a civil war between Hebrew and Arabs in Palestine ... the use of the tense between the two communities. The violence re-start. Population of 2,000,000 (Arabic and Hebrew) suffered thousands of human losses, dead and wounded, in this fight between 'cousins'.

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61 Were involved, fighters of Palestine and Arab Liberation Army who attacks Jews. Arab fighters from Egypt came under the command of Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, without any reaction from the British army ... The thousands of Arabs volunteers recruited have achieved the blockade of 100,000 Hebrew in Jerusalem. Haganah attempts to send food and to break the blockade. Has resulted thousands of Hebrew warriors, dead and wounded, hundreds of armored cars and buses destroyed. Arab attacks extend to Negev and Galilee in the North. The Hebrew defend each pocket of land.  Arab propaganda convinced that Jews would soon be 'thrown into the sea‘ failed. A hundred thousand of Palestinian Arabs refuge in camps outside of Palestine. British Gouvernement proposed annexation of Palestinian area in Arabic Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan...  Ben Gurion asked that every man and woman to be trained and incorporated into military units Haganah. Golda Meir obtain huge funds from Jews in the Diaspora and official support for Stalin for Zionist Movement. Significant quantities of military equipment arrive through the raising of arms exporters and Haganah agencies in Europe. They go to the theater of battle to March 1948. Ygal Yadim made a response plan to the announced invasion of Arab international forces in Palestine (Plan Dalet). Between 5-20 April 1918 in the battle of Jerusalem, are killed Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni. Also during this time is the Arab massacre population of Deir Yassin (made by Irgun and Lehi organizations), which, combined with the death of the Arabic leader[1] causes a new wave of Palestinian immigrants, 'caught in the middle' and depressed the inefficiency of the deeds of arms of its leaders. Is the defeat of the Arab Liberation Army from Mishmar HaEmek[2] by units Palmach fighters and the withdrawal of Arab alliance with Druze. To ensure the [1] Egyptian Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni [2] Kibbutz; basic training units Haganah since 1942

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62 link between the Jewish settlements, and Haganah, Irgun troops conquer towns Tiberias, Haifa, Safed, Beisan, Jaffa. Another 250,000 Palestinians Arabs take out the exile. Hope those remaining was the Arab Legion of Jordan, well-equipped and trained by the British. This attack Kfar Etzion on May 13 1948. In 14 May 1948, David Ben-Gurion declared independence Israel. On the same day, begin the invasion of Arab troops of the five Arab states - the first Arab-Israeli war. In 31.05.1948 In Haganah and Palmah formally declared 'Israeli Defense Force' - IDF, becoming a regular army of the Eretz Israel State.  Thus ends with lights and shadows, the history of the movement of Jewish self defense of Yishuv for 41 years. A story worthy of being told of any nation, friend or foe of the Hebrew people, because: Is an example of adaptation and organization at a rapid initial unfavorable - numerical superiority and hatred Arab extremists, since 1920, to a population (Jews of Yishuv) morally and militarily not prepared for military struggle. Is a mix of individual heroism and of the group of Hebrew fighters. If one die a leading five other were ready to take the lead. If an Arab leader die (where Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni) to neutralize an army instantly. After many years, another Arab military leader - Osama bin Laden will incorporate 'Jewish Experience’. Is a mobilization of funds and logistical resources of the Hebrew Community in all the world, well managed by different Hebrew belief, the same purpose: Return on ancestral lands. What people would not have such a group of leaders and organization to fight for his rights?!.

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63 HISTORICAL FACTS - HEBREWS, CHRISTIANS, MUSLIMS IN JERUSALEM C.1 YEARS OF ROMANS OCCUPATION -63 Pompei consul, in an attempt to oppose Caesar establish its headquarters in Damascus. To ensure its food resources occupy Jerusalem and the entire kingdom Iehuda. Encouraged by that, Pharisees party call for the removal of the monarchy and restore the Jewsh state by Rabbi Assembly (Sanhedrin of Grand Mosaic Temple from Jerusalem). In agreement with these Pompei attacked Jerusalem and after three months of resistance between the walls of the Temple, Aristobul II is taken prisoner. Hirkan II (Horkonos) is called the autonomous prince under suzerainty of Rome. The name is changed from the kingdom Iehuda in Judea. -54 - 49 Consul Crasus leads first Roman campaign against the Partes. Through Jerusalem Temple rob him. Jews revolt. Is fighting for its long with asmoreen insurgents, led by the

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64 son of Aristobul II, Alexander. He was killed and 30,000 Hebrews of Galilee are sold as slaves. -51 -30 Consul Caesar conquers Egypt and declared the queen Cleopatra. -48 Struggle between Caesar and Pompei in deciding battle of Pharsalos. Pompei was killed. Nobles of the Jews that it supports the Caesar is remarkable Hirkan Antipater (Antipatros Horkonos). Caesar called him Etnarh of Judea. Hirkan with Roman legions made available defeat of the Jews close around Ezechias and falls with its legions in Jerusalem. Appoint his son Herod (Horodos) as governor of Galilee. He quell anti Roman Jewish revolts. -44 Brutus kill Caesar is in the Senate. Antonius is Imperator. In Judea, his opponents Hirkan revolting is poisoned (-43). -40 PartI occupies Judea. King called on Antigonous. Struggle taking place between officials Judea: it supports some of the Romans, on the other parties until the year (-38) when the PartI is defeated by the Romans. -37 Herod led Sosius 16 legions in Jerusalem and Judea unifies. He is appointed by the Roman Senate 'amicus et Socius Populi' (friend and ally Roman people). -31 Imperator Antonius is defeated by Octavianus Augustus in the battle of Actium. -31 - 14 Octavianus Augustus Emperor in Rome. Ally with winners is Herod. He is named new king of Judea. Kingdom is added, available to Octavian: Gaza and Ierihon port Jafa (Iaffo). Herod take and the rank of High Priest of the Temple. Follows a period of major construction of urban infrastructure and ports: Antipatros towns are rebuilt, Sebastos, Cesareea (so named in honor of Augustus Caesar). Ports are built in Cesareea and Antedon. It organized a network of irrigation in agriculture. Great Temple of Jerusalem is rebuilt (-20, -19). Herod revenge without mercy against those who oppose them. It will kill two of their sons: one of them after a revolt anti Roman (-12), the other shortly before death

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65 (4). The religious rivalry taking place in Sanhedrin between the three main religious groups Saduceees , Pharisees, Essenes. -27 Syria becomes imperial province headed by a Legatus. Judea under various dignitaries Romans: Quirinus (-12 -9, -4 4), Varus (-6 -4). Censuses conducted by the Romans, to know what we call now the tax base, have a strong resistance to 'middle class' of Judea, and the poor. 6000 Pharisee Rabbis refusing the oath of allegiance required by the Roman authority (supported by Saducees). The country is facing a revolt that will explode after the death of Herod. -7 John the Baptiser is born, son of Rabbi Zaharia and Elizabeth. Before Jesus, he will applying to Jews a baptism in water purification Jordan. -6 Birth of Jesus during a census in Bethleem. The Child is recognized as the Messiah to the shepherds Misrael, Stephen, Chiriac; and 3 Magus: Gaspar, Melchior, and Baltazar (leds by a 'star' to stall the born to Maria). At forty days it is confirmed (according to the Mosaic Law) in the Great Temple in Jerusalem by a priest (in the presence of the Orthodox faithful mosaic Simeon and Ana viewing, both come to Temple 'at the call of the Holy Spirit'). Simeon made prediction about future mission of the child and Baby pain her mother as it will in the future from it. Then addressed osana God has fulfilled that promise to keep alive until the coming of the Messiah, he now die happy to see that. Herod asked to be killed infants by two years, for fear that this child does not become a new Judas the Maccabee[1] (it seems that two days after the departure of Joseph, Mary and Jesus of Bethleem). Family of Jesus refuge in Egypt, in the Nil Delta. [1] During the reign of Antiohus Epifanes (≈ -200) Greeks came to Jerusalem to worship the gods require. Resistance movement was initiated and led by Mathatias son John and his five sons, John said Gaddis, Simon said Thasos; Judas said Macabee, Eleazar said Abaron; Ionathan sayd Apphus. They freed the lands of Jerusalem and the Jews driving out of Judeea Greek and Hebrew that those with occupant destroying altars and gods throughout his kingdom stretched Iehuda. Follows years of heavy fighting against Jews being mobilized troops have reached hundreds of thousands of soldiers. Takes place and a siege of Jerusalem. Because of rising report Greeks in Antioch retire. Another general Nicanor is defeated in battle at Bethoron. Until the latter Maccabees will initiate an alliance with the young Roman Republic. In -146, the Romans occupying Greece. The state will benefit Judean independence between -142 and -63. Herod's fear was that the anti-Roman movement not find a leader like Maccabees. ' makabim ' in Hebrew means' one who strikes', in Greek 'one who fights’.

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66 4 King Herod died. Arhelaus his son is appointed by Herod as a survivor. Roman Senate decided dividing the Judeea kingdom into three provinces: Herod Antipas received Galilee region and Perea; Arhelaus Judea and Samaria, Philip (son of Cleopatra and Antonius) receives Bethany, Traconitida, Auranitida and Ituria (Paneas). Philip expand Betsaida and Cesareea cities. Is sent to Jerusalem Sabinus, as procurator of the imperial goods to make an inventory of resources kingdom. Census done by the Romans and Jews servants determined revolt of population, supported by part of a rabbis. To configure a anti Roman resistance, to issue, under the leadership of Iehuda galilean Rabbi and Pharisee Sadoc. Sabinus called legions to restore 'pax Romana'. Thousands of Jews are crucified in the year 6. 5-30 5 Birth of Saul of Tarsus (located between the various sources 5 -10). From a noble Judean family, which is granted Roman citizenship, he will be trained to become rabbi at Yeshiva of Gamaliel the Elder of the Tarsus. As the youngest member Sanhedrin will notice in the persecution against Hebrew Christian communities. Will participate directly in the murder deacon Saint Stephen. Converted to Christianity, under Paul name, will develop Missionary Gospel of Jesus, between Hebrew and non Hebrew in area of Middle East and Mediterranean zone. 6 Judea declared the province is headed by a Roman procurator. Arhelaus is in exile in Galia. Quirrinus appointed procurator start inventory Arhelaus kingdom goods. Continuous uprisings led Iehuda and Sadoc. They are appointed by the Romans 'zealots'.  Family of Jesus return from Egypt to Nazareth. Support by Joseph being a carpenter handicraft, which we will learn and Jesus. In the Easter holidays, the young Jesus will dazzle Temple Rabbis of deep penetration by the teachings Tore. Ann (Hanan), is called Great Priest of the Temple.

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67 14 Romans killed emperor Augustus. Was elected emperor Tiberius (14 - 37). Will be contemporary with the birth of 'Sect of Crestus' and repression of Hebrew Christians by Mosaic Jews. He treat the disputes as an internal Mosaic Law problem. He only punish fact against Roman Law. 17 Due to the sharp opposition to the Romans in Sanhedrin, Valerius Gratus replaces Ann Iosef with Ben Caiphas (17 - 37). 26 Pontius Pilate is appointed procurator of Judea. He will defend Rome politics exploiting rivalries inside the oligarchies of Jews in Jerusalem; between Caiphas, Herod Antipa, Philip. He will fight for annihilation of revolt movements led by zealots. He gives verdict crucifixion of Jesus, at the request Sanhedrin (30). 27 John the Baptist is arrested (after he baptized Jesus in Jordan River water). Will be beheaded at the insistence wife of Herod Antipa. In detention he continue to condemn as immoral wanton morals of the royal circle. Subsequently, all follower of Jesus will take the baptism with water AS FIRST FORM OF RECOGNITION as a proponent of a community of Christians. John will be sanctified by the Christian Church of Jerusalem as the name 'Forerunner'. 28 Prophet Jesus mission starts, first in Judea and Galilee. Evangelism is equally address the needs of people through the miracle of curing the body, the spirit and moral parables. It unlocks a Hebrew faithful God who loves man as man should love sow. Also defined access to 'life then' and 'Doomsday' as criteria for evaluating the behavior of each link with God is ending a life time. As a reorganization of civil life he expected a community of Essenes manner (goods in common, in helping community members, eliminating animals sacrifices;

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68 only 'gift' is daily repentance for mistakes and giving spirit to be judged by divine kindness ). Its Mesianic works will generate a polarization of the poor and those dissatisfied with the Roman - Jewish administration acquiring, in 29-30, the movement bring accents of passive revolt. 30 Jesus is crucified on 14 Nissan, during the Easter holidays (as other springs in the 33) being charged by the Roman Jewish oligarchs as a social reformer and religious dangerous. 30 - 50 30 - 35 Formation of the first large community of Hebrew Christians in Jerusalem and Judea. Confrontation with the Jews in the Grand Temple. 32 Compact deacon Saint Stephen. Departure 'Hebrew Hellenistic Christians' in communities outside Judea (Antioch, Bere, Tarsus, etc.). 32 Converting Rabbi Saul on the Damascus road. Will be withdrawn in Tars (approximately 12 years) to not be killed by fundamentalist Jews and the Hebrew Greek Christians (for participation to compact of Stephen). 33 Emperor Tiberius related Syria Vitelius to remove the Great Rabbi Caiphas and his representative of Rome Pilate, being replaced by Senator Marcel. About Senator Marcel is said to have become a Christian follwer, after some documentary sources it would be hosted Apostle Peter in Rome. The information is provided by Francesco Paolo Rizzio, as contained in 'Facts of Peter', the end of the century II, translated into Latin under the title 'Facts of Vericeli'. 33 - 43 Conversion of Roman citizens (especially among soldiers and Roman knight) to Christianity, following Apostle Peter. 35 Roman Emperor Tiberius asked the Senate to issue a law that would declare that to be Christian is legal. Senate decide by 'is no legal to be Christian’.

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69 37 - 41 Imperator Caligula in Rome. Agrippa I becomes King of Judeea Philipia and Lisana regions. In 39 of the Rome receives Galilee and Perea, in 41 Judea and Samaria. Will obtain from the emperor Caligula to be repeated rituals mosaic and wearing the sacerdotal togs of rabbi in the Grand Temple. It will make the body with the Sanhedrin to behead the Christian Church of Jerusalem. He will destroy the independence movements of the Jews against Roman domination. 41 - 54 Claudius Imperator to Rome. We confirm Agripa I to be the king of Judeea. It will be hostile to Christianity, among both the Jews and especially the Christian expansion of its military and political elite in Rome. 42 Claudius blame the transition to Christianity of aristocratic family Aulo Plauzio and his wife Pomponia Graecina. 42 Agripa I arrest the leadership of the Church in Jerusalem for Easter. Peter manages to miraculously come out of prison. James the Great is beheaded. Jacob the Young leadership of the Christian community in Jerusalem. Peter will continue to leave Jerusalem apostolic mission. The presence of Peter in Rome is located in 42, where Eusebius say: 'At the beginning of The Principality, Providence took the hand and led Peter to Rome’. (Chronicle 2,14,6). After other documentary sources in 48-49. 44 Agrippa I dead. 44 - 52 Judea led by Roman procurators: Cuspus Fadus (44-46), Alexandrus Tiberius (46-48), Ventidus Cumanus (48-52). 48 - 50 Apostolic first mission of Saul (Apostle Paul) and Barnabe in Syria (Antioch) and Cyprus (Pisida of Antioch, Listros and Derbe - where Saul will take the name apostle Paul).

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70 49 Street disorders caused by conflicts between Hebrew Christians and Mosaic Jews in Rome. The emperor gives an edict that the Jews are Christians turn out in Rome. 49 - 50 Starts developing Mark's Gospel, (with Peter preaching in Rome, at the request of Roman Christian knights). 50 - 80 50 The Meeting Christian Church of Jerusalem. Church leaders discuss how to meet our new followers Hebrew Christian Law. Epistle issued from Jerusalem that the peoples of other rites than mosaic may convert to Christianity being exempted from the strict observance of Mosaic Law. Among others they were not obliged to cut around to be christian baptised or observe strict food rules (prohibition to food 'dirty', defined in Judaic Laws). It is not forbidden to enter the homes of another religion or to receive them as guests. The only requirements were to receive baptism of water, not to sacrifice or sacrifices to gods, to respect the Ten Commandments, to refrain from consumption of animal blood or strangle. These exceptions were not applicable to Hebrew Christians. They must also comply Mosaic Law. 50 - 53 A second apostolic mission of Paul in Macedonia (Filipium) and Greece (Thessaloniki, Corinth, Athens, Ephesus). Here, the group receives a missionary among insiders first disciple 'impure' ethnic. This is Timothy, from Listros. For not violate the position of insiders Hebrew Christians, he is baptized in the Mosaic rite. After that Christian water baptism and by the Holy Spirit. Activity intense of missionary group do not experience serious difficulties from the Romans. The opposition of mosaic Jews is directly or indirectly by inciting the local population. 52-60 Felix Antonius becomes procurator of Syria (and Iudeii). He bring Drusila on the wife, sister of Agrippa II. We quell the revolt of zealots. He will condemn to death in 58, the Grand Priest Ionathan (active participant in the movement for independence of the Jews).

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71 53-57 The third mission of Paul in Greece (Corinth and Ephesus). Establishment of School of Christian Initiation of Ephesus. In 57, to the Tarsus, Luke mentions first time eucharistic Sunday ritual in the Christian community. 54-68 Imperator Nero in Rome. He called on Agrippa II King in Galilee, Perea and Inspector of the Great Temple. 57 Easter at Jerusalem, Paul tries to eliminate disputes in the community of Hebrew Christians. Attacked in Temple of a group of Jews to be stone. Is saved by the Roman garrison. Centurion Lisias send him in Cesareea to procuratore Felix, to protect Paul of the intention of Sanhedrin to kill him. He remain in detention two years. 59 Trial of Paul before King Agrippa II takes place in Cesareea. As is Roman procuratore Festus and the delegation of Sanhedrin. Decision favorable to Paul made by the King is not agreed by the Grand Rabbi Ann. Paul ask to get sent to the trial court of Imperial Rome, which reaches 60. 62 Prefect of Rome, Burro declare no guilty the apostle Paul. Evangelical mision of Paul in Rome (60 - 67). 62 Nero says deification compulsory throughout the empire. Track those who are not complying (Greeks Stoics and Christians). Mosaic Jews in Rome use all means (including goodwill of Jews Nero's wife, Pomponia) to generate an atmosphere of suspicion and hatred against Christians in Rome. 64 To describe a fire that is recorded in his poetic, Nero organize arson Rome. After declaring guilty on Christians. Procuratore Rome, Tigellinus organize the mass arrest of Christians, killing them in the Amphitheatre of Rome. Nero provides for massacres its own gardens. 66-73 Judean against Roman domination seven years revolts. Jews revolt is the climax of

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72 rebellions were conducted since the beginning of the century, after Herod's death (4). Jerusalem is released by the common people and a rabbis. Cestius Gallus mobilize Legion XII and other cohorts to attack Jerusalem. Jews defeated Romans in the Sucot day (the feast of tents). Judea is declared independent. It forms a 'Insurrectional Government' composed of 70 members. The Jews formed three armies: the Jerusalem is led by Iosef Gurion and the Grand Rabbi Hanaan; of Edomits region led by Iehosuah Ben Tzefafa and Eleazar Ben Hnani; of Galilee led by Josef Ben Matitahu. There were a total of 100,000 warriors. Nero designate on Titus and Vespasian, the head of 600,000 troops to attack Judeean troops. The Romans landed at Accra (Acco) that you conquer. Galilee troops are defeated and Gen. Joseph Ben Matitahu is given (to be considered Hebrew traitor and his name will be removed from the history of the Jews, but will remain in history as Josefus Flavius on his 'War of the Jews'). In 70 Titus takes Jerusalem. Grand Temple is torched. It will remain only 'Complaints Wall' until today. Jews resist the various divisions. Struggle taking place inside the camp followers of the Jews in peace with the Romans and zealots of John Gishala. Simon Bar Giora manages to form an army and attacked Jerusalem but internal divisions made the Jews to be again defeated. Last fall retrenchment will be Massada, defended by Eleazar sikars. In year 73, of Easter, all defenders with their families will be suicide. Jews are sold as slaves or killed in the battles of gladiators in Syria. Some of the youngsters are enrolled in the Roman Legion 'Macedonica' (which will go on land Oltenia - Romania). Mosaic Temples are now Roman temple. Bar Giora was killed during celebrate triumph of Vespasian and Titus in Rome. The period is marked by the emergence of messianic texts in Hebrew. 'Revelation by John' for Christians (To Patros, in Greece); 'Mishna' and 'Zohar' Jews for Mosaics. Mosaic Rabbis under the leadership of Rabbi Ben Zakai and Gamaliel of Iavne (70) formed on Iavne (Iasmina) a yeshiva who are trained for resistance by the concept of 'Spiritual

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73 Hebrew State’. People are not united by the unity of territory but THROUGH IN THE UNIT. Hebrew Christians refuse to join the Jew insurgents. 67 Apostles Peter and Paul martyred at Rome. 68 Nero to commit suicide, Galba Imperator. 69 - 79 Vespasian Imperator. Vespasian and Titus will cease persecution against Christians, and in view of their refusal to join insurgents Jews. Crossings take place to Christianity in imperial family (Flavius Sabinus, Vespasian's brother). Fact mentioned in Flavius Josefus ‘Jews wars’. Propitious time for the development of the Christian Church in Rome. 81 - 284 81 - 96 Domitian Imperator. Repression of the Christian church in Rome. Domitian would seek to destroy the existence of Christianity among Roman knights and Roman aristocracy for revival of the faith in Romans goods. 97 - 105 Papa Evarist in Rome. 96 - 98 Nerva Imperator; 98-117 Traian Imperator. Will complete the expansion of empire in South-Eastern Europe and Asia Minor. Conquer Armenia, Assiria, Mesopotamia, Dacia. Christians Roman policy is more relaxed. Jerusalem is partly repopulated with Hebrew Christians, loyal to the empire. Place internal struggle and rebellion in Judea. Following a rebellion of the Jews, Simeon (who replaced James the Young at the head of the Church of Jerusalem) was killed in 107. His place is taken by John of Ephesus (107-117). Ignatius of Antioch (presbyter of Antioch Church) is taken to be torn by animals in Amphitheatre of Rome (110). Policarp will lead Christian Communities, to 156, as bishop of Smirna. 105 -115 Pope Alexander in Rome. 117-138 Publius Aelius Hadrianus Imperator. Eufrat on boundary sets, make peace with

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74 the Parti. A rebellion of the Jews of 117 is defeated by Roman troops led by Lucius Quietus. As it becomes the Legatus of Judea. Hadrianus was a great admirer of Greek culture. Expected to unify the empire by cultural synthesis with the Greek. Wanted to build a cultural commercial and civic consensus through the Roman Empire. Between 128-138 will establish residence in Athens. 115-125 Pope Sixt I in Rome, 125-136 Pope Telsefor in Rome. 127 The participation of Jews in a revolt in Egypt, Hadrianus decides liquidation of Judaism, starting with the Mosaic baptism ban During 130 year visit Jerusalem and decide to rebuild the city acted as a Roman city, called Aelia Capitolina. The Mosaic Temple to be rebuilt and dedicated to Jupiter. 132 After two years of preparation, the Jews begin their last war against Rome. Rabbi Akiva is called Ben Simon Koshiba 'Messiah' with name Bar Kohba (Son of Star), and military leader of Judea. Garrison led by Tinus Rufus and reinforcements from Syria are defeated; Jerusalem is liberated. The Jews punish the Hebrew Christians who do not join the movement against Romans. Imperator called legions of Brittany, led by Iulius Severus and leadership campaign. It first conquered Galilee. In the year 134 is conquered Jerusalem. After a long resistance and destroy fifty of fortified towns. The last citadel is Beter (135), where he dies and Bar Kohba. The Jews will hold an in caves at the Dead Sea (Ein Ghedi). Tinius Rufus will rebuild Jerusalem as a Roman city called Aelia Capitolina. The temples of Jupiter, Junona, Minerva will be built on the ruins of the Great Temple. The Aphrodita Temple is situated on Golgotha, and theTemple of Zeus in Garizim, Temple of Adonis in Bethleem. 135-155 The last Hebrew Christian Community is dispersed in Cisiordania and Syria. Will

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75 appoint Ebionites (The poors) and will adopt the 'Gospel of Jews'. Not recognized Jesus as Messiah and texts contained in Paul epistles. 136 -140 Pope Igniu; 140 -155 Pope Pius I 155 - 166 Pope Ancient in Rome. 150 Iehuda Bar Ylai of Usha form a nine Yeshiva in Tver. 155 Policarp of Smirna martyred. 162-180 Marc Aureliu Imperator. Give “Kaima Dogma” (New Decrees) against Christians because of the heretical Christian movement of Montanism. it was an early Christian movement of the early 2nd century named after its founder Montanus. Movement appears in Frigia (160). Called 'New Movement Prophecies' (Tertulian was himself montanist), has a spirit of devotion, ascesis recommends, intolerance against pagan practices and have a strong spirit against the Roman state. They opposed, Christians: Melitone, Atenagora, Apollinnare; who demand the loyalty of Christians to the Roman. Marc Aureliu will respond by issuing ‘Kaima Dogma’: the pursuit and persecution of Christians who do not comply with state laws. Peak is reached at Lyon, where thousands of Christians are killed. The Christian Church, is due soon revive his Irineu priest. 193-211 Septimiu Sever Imperator. Relax anti-Jewish policy; also cancels persecution against Christians. It advocates religious syncretism (the coexistence of religions). Appoint a chairman (Nashi) to the Jews of Tver. Nashi will be Iehuda Bar Ylai. In 212 the Jews will be given Roman citizenship (along with all peoples under the empire.). In Jerusalem the Jews returned from other territories. The most significant in number, is the back of Babylon from Persian persecution (212-241). Is also deemed to mosaism the Tadmoreens, after its defeat by the Romans (273).

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76  Papacy in Rome until the fall of the EasternRoman Empire.:  Roman Imperators:

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77 C.2 YEARS IN BYZANTINE OCCUPATION 284 - 638 Roman Empire is divided between Diocletzian (the West) and Maxentziu (the East). 311 At the end of life, Galeriu Imperator establish religious tolerance for Christians. 306-337 Constantin Maximus Imperator. 312 Constantin Maximus beat Maxentziu in the Ponte Milvio (on Tibru) under the sign of Jesus (the cross in six parts). 314-335 Silvestru Pope in Rome. 324 Constantin Maximus Beat Liciniu in the Orient. Legions of Christian soldiers participating in the release of Anatolia. Constantine declares Christianity the state religion. Start-Christian Roman empire. Empire capital is set to Constantinople. Palestine and Jerusalem under Hebrew Christians. They adopted Greek toponymies. Calvary Holy Church is built on tomb of Jesus. Hebrew Christians repopulates Jerusalem. Wall Complaints remain under the jurisdiction of the mosaic community. 325 First Ecumenical Council in Niceea. Define criteria for membership of 'Catholica Eclesia':  Acceptance of fundamental thesis: 'Jesus is the Son of God, Light from Light, true God from true God, created not generated, unitary with the Father '.  Order Episcopal seat: Rome, Alexandria, Antioch Area of jurisdiction of the three bishops worldwide, including patriarchates.  Easter date determined by mutual agreement (not observed due to calendar differences between East and West).

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78  Celibate cleric (which will not only live mothers and sisters). 351-353 Uprising of the Mosaic Jews from Jerusalem. Localities Tver, Tzipori andi Bet Gallus are demolished. Jerusalem city remains open to both religions; be visiting holy places. Christians missionaryes Ilarion and Hariton urges building churches and monasteries throughout Palestine. 363 Starts the confrontation between Romans and Persia. Upsurge of Constantz II defeated. 363 - 375 Valentzian Christian Imperator. Develops Christian Bishopric of Milan under the leadership of Bishop Ambroziu (347-397). Reduces the influence of the papacy in Rome. Up to 392 a troubled period in the West, after which became Teodosiu Imperator. His intention is to keep his empire through Christian faith and its institutions. An incident illustrates the degree of intolerance which had Christian clergy to the people of first Christians. In the year 387, at Callinico town on the bank of Eufrat, Christians are fanatic torched a synagogue. Emperor Teodosiu I, although a Christian, asked the bishop of Milan, Ambrosiu, to rebuild the synagogue with the money of episcopate. Bishop of Milan, Ambrosiu, he writes: 'It will therefore be a temple of the witouth low Jews built at the expense of the Church'. (Ambrosia Letter 74) 451 Great Christian schism. Separation church: Church of Rome (Catholic), Church of Constantinople (Orthodox). Bishop Juvenal (in Jerusalem) joins the Church of Constantinople, but most Hebrew Christians join mosaic communities of Samaria. Remain a minority Christians in Jerusalem. 476 Fall of West Roman Empire. 527-565 Emperor Justinian. Will restore dominance Orthodox Christians in Jerusalem. The return of Mosaic Jews will be limited.

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79 614 Mosaic Jews of Galilee and Nazareth joins Persia help them occupy Jerusalem. Mosaic clergy will trigger a widespread persecution against the Christian population. Will be demolished many churches. Zaharia priests and Christians are fled from town. 627 Peace between Persans and Byzantines. Return Orthodox clergy is made by a procession led by Emperor Heraclius. Orthodox clergy fleed the mosaics. 638 Arab Caliphate, takes Jerusalem and Palestine. C.3. YEARS IN ARAB CALIPHATE OCCUPATION 638 - 1099 625 Arab Expansion approaching Palestine. Army, organized Prophet Mohammed, is regarded with fear by the population. Hebrew, Christian and Pagans, also send their delegations with gifts for the "Protection Act" (firman). Start fighting among Arab armies and legions Byzantine (632-638). The latter are forced to leave Syria and Palestine after the battle to Bet Shen (635) And Iarmuk Valley (636). In 638 Jerusalem is occupied by Muslim troops. Byzantine commander of troops leaving the city apart from its leadership Christian bishop Sofronie. It teaches city qualifying Omar. Provide compliance with the Treaty concluded religious tolerance and a certain practice in three denominations: Mosaic, Christian and Muslim. Territory would be conquered by the Arabs called him 'Falastin'. Due to the lack of consonant 'P' in Arabic vocabulary. 661 The Caliph Muawaia it takes Jews allies in city. Will support their colonization in Lebanon and gives the city leadership. It built the Great Mosque of Omar Temple on the ruins of Great Mosaic Temple. Mosquees are built throughout Palestine. 717 The Caliph Omar II established a regime of religious terror. He begins with fiscal measures such as tax ‘per capita’ (of the Muslim infidel). Continue with other restrictions.

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80 Were not Muslims were not allowed to build or repair church or synagogue. Not allowing its formal procession or ritual to show signs of worship (Cross, Star of David, flags, icons, etc.) in public places. Were not allowed to prevent relatives to convert to Mohammedanism. Were not allowed to adopt habits Muslim, to attend the Muslim holidays. Were not allowed to build houses higher than the Muslims. Strangely similar to those applied in the history of other regimes intolerant or xenophobic, religious based or not - inquisition, fascism, communism, etc. The caliphs of Abas dynasty made distinctive clothes for non Muslims. Jews required to wear yellow hats, the Christians blue hats, and other godless red hats. Place campaigns forced to pass Mohammedanism. Due determined opposition, both the Mosaic and Christians (which start a mass exodus from Jerusalem, for not to renounce at your faith) the Muslim stop forced conversion. Those who accept will be the first public office. It will make some wealthy Jewish family members (and much less Christians). They will constitute a factor in the support infrastructure of the Muslim. They practice they mosaic religion in great secrecy. Holy Sepulcher Church is demolished. Christian communities in Palestine are grouped in Jerusalem, Tver, Bethleeem, Nazareth and marine localities. Communities Jews are divided into Galilee, Neghev and Jerusalem. 998 Bedouins tribe of Tay are appointed to govern Palestine on behalf Caliphs. They are declared independent. Follows a period of civil wars, the came of crusaders. Phenomenon that will diminish the economic, local communities and leading to a decrease in the number of people ousted Palestina. They wil be fleed by Crusaders.

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81 C.4. YEARS IN CRUSADERS OCCUPATION 1099 - 1291 1096 The Christian Kingdoms, form an alliance (which will lead to the formation of the Roman-German Empire), under the spiritual leadership of the papacy, its expansive force channels under the banner of Holy Grave issue. Starting first Crusade. Bands of mercenaries led by nobles Francs moving to Jerusalem. In their practical extermination of non Christians. In the case of Jewish communities encountered.  Religious argument (Hebrew people come to him be killed Jesus) was facing. Jesus was killed, as we know, saw the oligarchs of Mosaic Sanhedrin and those Jews in Jerusalem, exciting the great mosaic of clergy then. Mask the fact that without the apostles Hebrew Christians, Christian peoples would not have been a Christian .... It was the period in which, for example Lucanian text 'Acts' will be 'hidden' by the Christian clergy . It was naturally the argument as 'comes' Hebrew people would not have had arguments.... Real reason was more prosaic: robbery Jews who were riches. Method will apply to almost nine hundred years.  Is the struggle for Jerusalem. Judea 30,000 fighters are defending desperately and with heroism. Most are the siege. On July 15 the city is conquered. Those caught are sold as slaves to nobles Christians. Others withdraw from Judea to Aschkelon where resistance will continue until 1153. Communities Christians has taught their area without a fight.  Crusader period left many within the Palestinian Christian churches, monasteries and forts, whose traces are found today. Many of them were turned into the mosque. Communities in Judea were grouped in rural area because crusaders here have not killed people with needed agricultural products for their troops. Jews were treated like

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82 Christians. With few exceptions they forbade the establishment in Jerusalem. Thus a group of 300 practicing rabbi fervent of mosaic cult, in France and England, are entitled to live in Jerusalem (1210-1211). Communities than are Hebrew are Aschkelon, Accra and in Galilee. Locals, be they Christians or Jews, practice agriculture, small trades. Godefroy de Bouillon is proclaimed King of Jerusalem. Franc noble Tancred become Prince of Galilee. Christian kingdom established is called 'David Regnum' and some acts 'Israel'. He stretched from Mount Hermon and Damascus in the North to the South port Eliat. 1177 Alliance between Egyptians, Syrian, Iraqi (led by Saladin - Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb), as opposed to two of the crusade, succeeded to occupy Gaza. The two crusade stop face to Damascus. 1191 A thre crusade, led by Richard the Plantagenet ( 'the Lionheart') and Philip August, succeeds to the Alliance to reconqer Arab port and fortress Accra. Disagreements have arisen between leaders of the army that they are Christian does not assert a foil escape the Arab troops. Peace is concluded with Saladin that allowed free access to centers of worship in the Arab area. 1229 A six is a crusade led by King Friderich II. Reconquer Jerusalem is not struggling, as cities Lud, Ramala, Tzipori, Nazareth. Following the Treaty of Iaffa Temple Mount remains in possession Saracens (he was the Mosque of Omar). Crusaders will resist until the arrival of Mameluke (1291). C.5. YEARS OF MAMELUKE OCCUPATION 1291 - 1516 1516 Mamelukes win crusaders at the battle of Accra. Restore the Muslim organization on autarchically. Palestine is thus isolated from the Christian kingdoms. It is forbidden to enter Christian monks, for fear that will come along with their Christian faith. Mamelukes

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83 allow the return of the Jews. This phenomenon will increase by Salv Conduct of the Vatican (1488) that the Jews persecuted by the inquisition for faith can go to Palestine. Thus begins a movement of human return of Jews in Palestine. It will take, with variations in intensity, until the twentieth century. Instead Christian communities will diminish, while more on the current Lebanon (Maronites Rite). Mameluke domination ends once the Ottoman invasion. C.6. YEAR OF OTTOMAN OCCUPATION – ZIONISM - COMING BACK GENESIS OF JEWS TO ERETZ ISRAEL 1516 - 1917 1516 Ottoman Empire troops occupy Palestine and Egypt, following the Battle of Debek. 1481-1512 Baiazid Ilderim Sultan. Return large groups of Hebrew Rite Sefard (after 1492, when they were cast out by decree of King Philip of Spain and Isabela, pressure of Christian Jesuits led by Savonarola). 1700-1777 Becomes a wave of Hebrew askenazi come from Poland, following antisemitic oppressions. Ottoman Power seeks to support Christian emigration and implantation of communities composed of Serbs, Bulgarians and Greeks. The method was to pay toTurkish treasury important amounts of money for that which has kept the Christian faith to become a 'obedient' of Austria, England or France. Thus had the opportunity to practice the cult of Christian (Catholic, Orthodox or Protestant) and to exercise a profession to ensure existence. Christians living in settlements around the religious, who were. 1789 French Revolution gives equal rights to all citizens, including Jews from communities under French jurisdiction. First Sanhedrin of the Jews in Modern Times (1805) is held in Paris.

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84 1830 – 1850 To start ALYA - Top Return movement in the realm of Jewish people, following the call Rabbi Yehuda Solomon Alkalay (rabbi of a small mosaic community Sefarde[1] near Belgrade) and Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalischer (Askenazy[2] rabbi from Germany) to active organizational, logistic (financial) and educational actions for the return to the 'promised Land'[3]. Unlike the practice rabbi to pray that Iahve (God) to give him back to the ‘Holly Land’, they advocate for the Return of the Jews in Palestine, with the support of all Jewish Communities of Galut (Hebrew Diaspora). The followers number increased. They lead these ideas in the communities of origin. Among them is the grandfather of Theodor Herzl, the Budapest Community Hebrew banker. This grandson will dedicate his life and family fortune practical realization of this goal, achieving clotting [1] Sephardic Jews are Jews rite Spanish. They were installed in Spain after having been driven out of Judea: first deportation took place in 70 and after cancellation State Jew by Roman army (134-135). Dispersal area was along the territories bordering the Mediterranean Sea. They were installed in Spain along with installation Arab caliphate (eighth century). Were expelled from Spain in 1492 (Decree of the Alhambra, given by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand, at the urging of Jesuit Bishop of Francesco de Loyola ) and later from Portugal. They emigrated to North Africa, Italy, the Middle East, the Balkan Peninsula and in southern Romania, then in England, Holland and America (the first community established around ‘Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue’ the state of Pernambuco - Brazil). They talked Ladino or Judeo-Spanish language (dialect based castilian). [2] Ashkenazi Jews having been driven out of Judea: first deportation took place in 70 and after Israel's destruction by Roman army (134-135), have emigrated to western and central Europe, especially in Germanic countries. Since the first centuries of first millennium AD. In the Middle Ages, they migrated to Eastern Europe. Ashkenazi Jews using Yiddish (Germanic idiomatic) and the Hebrew / Aramaic: the practice of religion, speech and rabbinical Everieşti more distant relationship with communities. [3] to see video on the Adress : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZeJ3USc9Mcs

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85 Movement of the Jewish Return around the World Zionist Congress in Basel (1897). 1850-1914 Actions of individual Hebrew aristocrats for Return. Development Zionist movements in European countries and the U.S. becomes the engine and main sponsor (the organization of Joint) of various stages of Return. National consciousness develops Jewish communities in Europe based on two social vectors: 1. Sequence of two states of mind in the communities in Europe: integrating the majority of Jews, and to organize resistance to the manifestations of intolerance and anti-Semitism from the Christian population. How this sequence have different times in different European countries, including the Russian Empire, Jewish communities were in a continuous search for solutions. 2. Formation of national consciousness. Jews rally around the Mosaic Faith and willingness to Return in 'The Holly Land’ to rebuild his country: Eretz Israel. A large number of immigrants have taken the road to America (where, no more than 70 years and will come before the main financial support of the Joint). Another initiative was magni Jew Moritz de Hirsh (finance, among others the construction of railways in the Balkans and East) to send 7,000 Russian Hebrew poverty in Argentina. Banker Rotchschild funds directly (1870 -1910) the creation of compact settlements in Palestine. 1897 Basel (Switzerland): the first World Zionist Congress, initiated by Theodor Herzl[1]. From a family of bankers in Budapest, graduated the faculty of law in Vienna, will enter into journalism. As press correspondent in Paris, participating in the disputations caused by ‘Dreyfuss Affaire’, during ten years in France. This makes him see that the only solution is the active Return of Jews in Israel. Write a document that will become first manifest of Zionism: 'Der Judenstaat' (Hebrew State) advocating the establishment of a modern Hebrew State, with equally rigts for all the people and religiously tolerant. Contact Hebrew [1] to see video on the Adress : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jvc549hFb1E

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86 bankers (Hirsh, Rotchschild) without success due to his and their prides (Rotchschild said in derision, not see how Israel would recover with 100,000 'Schnorrer'-bitter). Will contact the Bismark and the German Emperor Wilhelm II, the Turkish Sultan (in two trips, visiting Jewish settlements in Palestine). The Sultan propose unlimited Return of Jews from their lands in exchange to cover the huge deficit of Ottoman empire treasury. Great Hebrew bankers in Europe do not support him. Will be put to youth movements (Chovevei Zion) to nationalist intellectuals Hebrew to Jews of middle class in all European countries.  Efforts are paved by the Jewish Zionist Congress in Basel - Switzerland (1897). Defined direction of action (organizational, financial, religious, cultural) for The Return. While the organization will take the name 'World Congress Hebrew’. The Return will continue both in Hebrew youth volunteering in Europe and the emigration of families from areas subject to anti semitic movements (Russia, Galicia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus), or the revolutionary movements in Russia (1905). 1917 - 1918 On entering English troops (led by general Allenby) in Palestine people, comprising 560,000 of Arabic, Hebrew 55,000 lived in an area of arid and impoverished Turkish administration, the war and blockade. Hebrew and young families come to cultivate land in Israel. Alya of Jews extends from urban to rural areas. New returned Jews resumed agricultural occupations in very heavy conditions draining swamps, to making face to food lack and diseases (malaria in particular). Note that the first Hebrew immigrants who have established agricultural settlements in arid areas were those of Romania (led by David Moshe Iancovici). Followed those in Yemen (1882), Russia (bilumilii, since 1903), Ukraine and Bessarabia (the ‘Har Halutz’ - pioneers, 1905-1925). The latter will form the first community village, similar to the first Christian communities, forms of organization with an obvious resemblance to the Essenes model of Jesus. The first was Dgania kibutz (established at the initiative of Joseph and Miriam Baratz).

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87 C.7. YEARS IN BRITISH OCCUPATION 1917 - 1948 1918 In January, after the Balfour Declaration at the time the League of Nations in Geneva, the contacts between the representatives and leaders of the Zionist Movement (Hebrew Nationalist Movement, the Congress following the Basel -1886. The goal was her on the Jewish Return ancient Israel, to restore their national home, putting an end wanderings and persecutions - the minority - in foreign countries) and Pan Arab (Motion training nationalist Great Arab State - which would have included the current territory of Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia , Iemen, Palestine, Syria, Sinai, initiated by the Emir Hussein, early twentieth century, with the mentor on Lord Lawrance military advisers and English). 1918-1919 negotiations between President Hebrew World Congress, Chaim Weitzmann (leader Zionist World Congress, one of the first members of the youth organization in Berlin Chovevei Zion (Those who love Zion's - years 1870 - 1880 - which militate for the practical Return in Israel), mainly  negotiator between 1918 -1948; first President of Israel after May 1948)  and Emir Feisal - leader of the future of Saudi Arabia, tended by an 'Alliance Semitic' interests.  but England and France have blocked this unique moment of possible cooperation, resulting in a war 'between the cousins' which lasts until now. In the summer of 1918, Chaim Weizmann is a meeting at Akaba, the Red Sea port in the Sinai peninsula, with Feisal (emir's son Hussein and a leader of the Arab revolution in the first World War). He argues that an alliance of peace negotiations in the Paris.  Feisal hopes to support the Zionist backstage fight that went to French diplomacy with control of Syria territory. Climax (positive) appears in

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88 December 1918, at a luncheon given by Lord Rotchschild. Feisal says here (as notes of T. E. Lawrence, his advisor) 'No Arab can be suspicious of nationalism of Jews. I say Welcome Home and we will cooperate with them in the Arab countries' (Arab state, according to Feisal's including Palestine, in whole, to establish a form of autonomy granted to the Jews in this state).  Signed a Joint Declaration which sets out the principle directions of the relationship between Arab and Zionist movement. Emirati condition was that it remain secret until the Arab state independence, and in compliance with articles and conventions of both parties. Interesting is the presentation from beginning protocol: 'Royal Majesty to Emir Feisal, representing and acting on the Arab Kingdom of Hejaz, and Dr. Chaim Weizmann, representing and acting on the Zionist Organization, on behalf of common racial origin and ancient ties between people of Arab and Jew, and that achieving the best way to achieve national aspirations is through close collaboration in the development of Arab countries and Palestine, we want to confirm understanding between the two parties, the following items ... ' On what happens now or not to believe that there was such a statement ...  Ensure free Jewish emigration and settlement in the territory of Palestine. Mutual guarantees of safety in the Arab and possessions, and financial support, technological assistance, to the Hebrew for the economic development of the Arab population in Palestine. A week later the Zionist Arab agrees with the several essential requirements: Haifa Port area will be free for both parties; Akaba port becomes free.  On 6 February 1919 Emir Feisal, advocated in his speech before the Peace Conference in

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89 Paris, seeking independence Arabia, states the agreement and a guarantee for Palestine: enclave of 'Zionist Hebrew.’ Feisal was his hope that support Weitzmann total Arabs in their dispute with France for the Syrian coast, forming a Semitic Alliance.  Chaim Weitzmann was dependent on English politics, which had the only Middle East division between England and France, as so-called 'Seats' which provide the power and oil resources. Both major powers did not want a strong Arab State, the majority owner of the oil fields. In short the Roman 'Divide et impera' has not been exceeded by our Zionist Movement. Weitzmann advises the Arab does not interfere with the French coast in the Syrian issue.  In the summer of 1919 Feisal interrupt meetings with the Zionist leaders. He say to Hebrew emissary bear direct negotiations with the Palestinians and Arabs in the fall of 1919 cut off all negotiations with the Zionist Jews. Treaty remains secret, we are many years that any of the Arab leadership, not the Hebrew.  Since autumn 1919, coincidentally or not, start the Arab revolt in Palestine. Yisuv (Hebrew settlements) are attacked, slaughtered hundreds of Hebrew. English reacts poorly, having regard to the future interests of the British Mandate in Palestine.  In these circumstances the Commission to draw up in San Remo (1920) Map British mandate in Palestine[1]. Sets a natural boundary between Hebrew and Arabs: Jordan. Between Jordan and the Mediterranean Jews, from Jordan to the Arabian Peninsula Palestinians. So the problem of separation of the two communities was solved for both parties, one side and other side of the Jordan river. 1920-1948 Palestine under British mandate. Jews face Arab riots and British interests in the area. The British wanted to maintain their sphere of influence the new Saudi Arabia, as [1] to see video on the Adress : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vm8jiRDCBE4

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90 well as privileged access to oil resources in Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf. Therefore of Arab riots in Palestine was a sign that the 'special relationship' between British and the Zionist Movement had to be temperate.  As a result, since 1922, receiving Hebrew in Palestine is limited to 50.000-75.000 for year. More: the desire to establish a buffer state with Saudi Arabia to the United Kingdom formed the West Jordan: Jordanian State (led by the Crown Hachemites family fair, which will support economic, modern and train under the leadership of the English General Glubb). So the Palestinians part for no longer exists. The subsequent wars between the Arabs and the Hebrew are for the Jewish part of land. 1939-1945 Jewish Holocaust in Europe. The ban by the British immigration will increase enormously the number of victims. There are organizations that bring illegal groups of Hebrew in Israel and in Jerusalem organized attacks against the British army[1]. C.8. YEARS IN ERETZ ISRAEL STATE 1948 - 2005 On 15 May 1948, with the British withdrawal, Ben Gurion declared the independence of the State of Eretz Israel. In the same night starting confrontations; first Arab-Israeli War, ended by armistice on 20 July 1949. Following the confrontation will continue until today. In terms of the religious Jewish State is tolerant but reluctant to remember the Jewish origins of Christianity. From the information I have (1994), in Jerusalem there is a community of Hebrew Christians around 3,000 people from mixed marriages. Is not good seen by the mosaic Rabinate. There is also the home of Palestinian Christians (Maronite Church, like the Christians of Lebanon), especially in Bethleem, Ramala in Cisiordania. [1] to see video on the Adress : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJZal1-MGb4

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91  At present there are few current pro Jewish origin of Christianity. Mention of the Messianic Jews. Messianic Judaism is a religious movement whose adherents claim that Jesus of Nazareth (the Hebrew name 'Yeshua') is, on the one hand, the Jewish Messiah Revived, on the other hand, having a divine origin. In 1993 there were 160,000 adherents in the United States and 350,000 worldwide. In 2003 there were about 150 messianic synagogues in the United States and about 400 in the world. Messianic Jews are considered practicing authentic notice of Tore and Culture band Judas. Messianic Judaism is considered by Jews of Mosaic Rite, as all Christian rites, as a form of Christianity. Messianic Judaism was formed in Sec. XIX. Hebrew congregation of Christians were formed first in England. It was founded by 41 Christian Hebrew as' Beni Abraham. It was a form of Christianity with 'background' Judaic. In 1866 take being 'Jewish Alliance – Christians’ in Britain, whose branches are found today in Europe and the United States. Taken in 1915 being the International Alliance of Jewish - Christian in America ( 'The Hebrew-Christian Alliance of America' - HCAA). In 1925 to form the International Alliance of Jewish - Christian ('The International Hebrew-Christian Alliance' - IHCA). Messianic Judaism is reviving by Martin Chernoff (Chairman HCAA). In 1975 HCAA becomes Messianic Alliance of America ( 'Messianic Jewish Alliance of America' - MJAA), which dissociates congregation is lower (such as the Messianic Israel Alliance, First Fruits of Zion, and the Coalition of Torah Messianic Congregations observed).  Messianic Judaism is the theological study of God and Scripture from the perspective of it. Are canonical Old Testament, New Testament as a text inspired by God, St. Paul Epistolele considered fully congruent with Messianic Judaism (rejected by some congregation as canonical). Canonical texts are: Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim, the Gospels Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, Acts (Luke), Epistolele John, Peter and Paul addressed

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92 the Jews, Revelation (book of the New Testament).  Fundamental Doctrine:  God - Belief in God (Eloh) Bible omnipotent, omnipresent, eternal, creative, and infinitely benevolent.  Yehshua (Jesus) Messiah – Judean – ‘Messiah as' YHVH '(YE Ho Vau He) incarnate' the meat 'and spiritual savior.  Written Torah - Torah (Pentateuth), The Five Books of Moses are considered -for full convenantl with divinity. It is believed that Jesus preached and reaffirmed faith in the Torah.  'Be of Israel' have been, are and will remain a people of God, part of his Divine Plan premature replacement of any kind by the Church of Divine Plan.  Bible -Tanakh and apostolic Writings (B'rit Chadasa ') are of divine inspiration to Messianic Jews.  Eschatologia - Messianic Jews are followers of the following beliefs eschatologice: Day End, Second Coming of Jesus as a triumphant Messiah, the rebuilding of Israel, the rebuilding of the Third Temple, Revival of dead (and Jesus Revived)-Shabat The millennial (Jesus reign over a world with the Paradise).  Law ORAL - Oral use Torah in the Talmud, observed Jewish Law and traditions of Halaka.  There are no many converting followers. These are rare and the result of spiritual identification with Messianic Judaism, proved long and pursued the aim at the target. They believe children of Israel coming back spread among 'nations' as when Jesus come back.  Maintain compliance with the 613 Mitzvot - links. We are against animal sacrifice or Hebrew (are summoned Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Tarfon: 'if it was in sanhedrin, nobody, no date can not be killed' (Mishnah Makot 1:10). It condemns the indirect reference to his

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93 death Jesus, Stephen, and other Hebrew Christians, over time by Sanhedrin.  Practicing Torah laws lead to Sanctifify, not to save; attributed only to the Messiah.  Both Paul and Jesus have complied fully headquarters Torah. 'Do not think that I came to destroy the Law but to fulfill "(Matthew 5:17-19 17). Paul (which I often call his name with the Jews: Sha'ul) remained a faithful Pharisee Judean, disciple of Gamaliel the Elder, until his death, a continuously observed the Jewish laws and traditions. Contained in the concept 'New Perspective on Paul' have great significance in Messianic Judaism.  A recommendation Conciliation Messianic Rabbi of the Jews is compliance of Jewish holidays, the Sabbath, dietary rules.  A main objection to Jews vs. Messianic Jews consists in that, even if it is Messianic Judaism, Yehshua (Jesus) is not the Messiah. Messianic Jews are not recognized as in Eretz Israel and can not use Jewis right to make alya in the State of Israel. Jews 'Orthodox' movement regarded as a betrayal, a subversive form of apostasy, worse than any form of Christian rite expressed open. According to a quote from the Central Conference of American Rabbis (2008) 'For us, the Jewish community, anyone who claims that Jesus is his savior is no longer Jew and an apostate. They are placed outside the Jews. Whether you are called Christians or 'fulfilled Jew', 'Messianic Jew' or in any way is irrelevant. For us it is clearly a Christian’.  In this Compendium of Facts selectively hide an implicit question, as the title made famous in a novel about the early Christians of Polish Senkievici 'QUO VADIS DOMINI?.

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94 NOTE TO " HEBREWS, CHRISTIANS, MUSLIMS IN JERUSALEM"  This writing is intended to be a of documentary essay about two millennia ago facts, focused on the role of Hebrew Christians Communities in the fight for the Gospel of Jesus. Approach has some targets:  Role played by Hebrew Christians in the first hundred years of Christian Missionary.  Evolution and destruction of Hebrew Christians communities. Presenting a summary of certain historical moments during the life of Hebrew Christian Communities in Jerusalem. I do it because Gospel of Jesus and The Hebrew Christians Apostles misionary made a mutation of reference with the spiritual 'engine' THE HOPE. This time, the message sent by the early Hebrew Christians (the apostles) were given to people of 'Jerusalem and all Judea and Samaria and to the edge of the earth'. (Acts p.1.8.). Exactly: A CREDO IN ONE GOD FOR ALL PEOPLES.  Phenomenon is comparable to that made Moses, with a thousand two hundred years before that time. Moses, the great Egyptian initiated in Teba (under the name Horsasip) is completed outside Egypt intended to create 'A PEOPLE TO A RELIGION'.  Pithagora, about seven hundred years after he brings light of the same truths of initiation in the run Theban to Hellenistic area, to the Cult of Delphi. Ends its existence burned in an uprising of the 'Democrats' Greek colony of Croton (the island on the coasts of Italy). A disciple of his doctrine Zamolxe will mentor the Dacian territories. Plato would be the doctrine that will implement the following four Hellenistic 'golden ages' of space by Greek leaders as Pericle and Alexander the Great.  Jesus, formed in the same esoteric sources, preserved by the Essenes Jews to the Death Sea on the coast and in the Nil Delta, extrapolated 'People of God' from the Jewish people

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95 at ‘all nations'. It wiped out by crucifixion. Apostles will go, and spread word Gospel outside his 'chosen people'.  The desire to write started a few observations that I have seemed strange:  A nation at Hebrew, in combat with an empire (Roman) and led by a tribal and religious caste divided between the fight for its own sake or for national independence, was awaiting a 'Messaiah’ a Sent who SAVE THE JEWISH PEOPLE'.  People expect the Hebrew Messiah coming with forced supernatural, as Moses, or as reported Ezechiel power of God came to help people in Judea[1]. There he believe that Jesus, endowed with the miracle of grace to recover , should escape from human punishment (to be crucified). Then when they saw the arrest as any of them, after they received as a King in Jerusalem they have left him.  Beghin a millenary struggle between peoples who worship and believe in the same vein esoteric FAIT TO ONE GOD: whether Christian or Mosaic, more than seven hundred years followers Islam.  Long line of Christian martyrs, from the Hebrew by ethnicity, were clean-minded people in their everyday lives. As martyrs, Hebrew mosaics were righteous in their faith in God, just as Palestinians believers in God - Allah is still a people in exile of the times we live ... I WONDER: ONLY BECAUSE GOD HAS DIFFERENT NAMES?!  WHY the Unity through faith in a UNIQUE GOD is a single island in a sea of IGNORANCE and HATRED?!. [1] 'I looked and behold it came from north a all of a sudden wind, a cloud thick, and a bundle of fire, which spread around a bright light. (...) Everything is in the middle saw four living creature (...) Each of them had four faces, and each had four wings (...) their wings were attached to one another. And when they are not back in any part, but each went straight. ‘(Ezechiel p.1, 5,6,9).

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96  One possible answer is that the PRIDE OF POWER, of any origin would not want to be a free and full understanding of this esoteric common vein. Why? Because it still does not know HOW MANAGE IT! Oligarchies privileges of any kind were off with no spiritual freedom through self of each man, because no one can control, to govern its use. Therefore POWER may always used an effective instrument of disunion: IGNORANCE, and FANATICISM.  Being a Jew as a mother, a Christian by baptism, can not simply quote the Hebrew historian Shlomo Laish about tumultuous destiny of the Hebrew people: 'We thank here to emphasize one fact that it seems to apply to all questions and others that occur in our minds. An objective response which resisted all time, which was set out with thousands of years before us by a non Jew. Response of prophet Balls The Madianite[2] gave to Balak king of Moabit, when invited to curses tribes of Israel, out soon in slavery Egyptian: 'IS A PEOPLE ALONE, WITHOUT NEGLECT OTHER TRIBES' (Numerii23.9.)’. I would only add: sometimes not by its own sons.  That said the prophet indeed was a formidable instrument for the conservation of Jewish traditions: the ‘returned son’ is received with warmth and respect. He who shall not return to traditional vein mosaic neither name is mentioned. This is the core of intolerance, while the survival of Jewish communities.  Beyond this fact we tried to establish a reason. How ridiculous is the human response to God's kindness. Or more specifically: HOW PEOPLE SUCCESS TO DESTROY THEM IS PASSED BY THE PROPHETS. [2] Priest of the Temple of Madian, at the foot of the mountain of Sinai, where Moses and retired three thousand years, to atone for murder have killed an Egyptian satrap subsequently developing here 'Sepher Bereshit' - 'great book', getting his message God to free the Hebrew people from Egypt and it leads to the river Jordan to put him in possession of 'Holy Country'

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97  Text 'HEBREW CHRISTIANS FIGHT BEGININGS FOR THE GOSPEL OF JESUS' (Romanian Version) was started in 1992 in a time when trying to understand myself. He was doing a man who, angry at their own misunderstanding of life, take the pen to write, as a peasant and his digging is going to dig in the garden or field as to forget the troubles of day.  For years, the text was rewritten several times, has enriched the area of ideas, A process which was almost independent of the personal life, but that brought me and now an inner peace and happiness: to be a Hebrew Christian.  May be for an Jew mosaic ... almost certainly, this concept is a strange thing. From their point of view it means: that people never accepted, through its representatives, deviations from the fundamentals of religious mosaic. And it is normal: this way of thinking has maintained for almost two millennia cohesion in galut[1].  With all respect for this tradition, and success in 1948 by establishing the Eretz Israel State, yet still have a duty: to recognize Jehosuah - Jesus as the Christians say, a man who truly honor, honor and kindness to the Jewish People. Addenda Processing we used the text versions of the Bible and various historical sources. It was not my interest or to discuss differences. I followed the sequence of facts which would justify the request text. [1] Diaspora - dispersion throughout the mankind of the tribes of Israel.

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98 TWO KNIGHTS OF REVELATION TWENTIETH CENTURY NICOLAE BALAN AND ALEXANDRU SCHAFRAN What seemed to be impossible, debt of the two high priests, one Christian and one Mosaic, become a reality! Because two knights of the true faith, of different nations, were found in a single sentence, as children of the same people: 'People of God' and saving the lives of 700,000 Jewish souls.

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99  Nicolae Balan - Orthodox Christian priest, participating actively in the Unification Act of 1918. In 1942 Bishop of Sibiu is intimate of Marshal Ion Antonescu leader of Romania in the second World War.  Alexander Schafran - The youngest Grand Rabbi of Romania in the most difficult period: The Schoah[1] of years '30 -'40 of the twentieth century.  The extermination tactics comes from the SS extermination system applied across Europe. To focus gradually Hebrew people of the territory in some centers (see Geto Warsaw) and a gradual extermination (by appointment of 'Hebrew authorities agreed', obliged to do dirty work for the selection of those who were to be sent to the camps). Bessarabia and Transnistria have excelled in the areas where Jews from south-eastern Europe were sent to die 'disorganized': hungry and cold. In the rest of Europe, by implementing massive extermination camps organized as 'factories of death'.  In the territory of Bessarabia and Transnistria (Soviet Union occupied teritory by Romanian Army at the beginning of war – 1940-and under the Romanian state authorities jurisdiction) Shoah began much earlier. It was generated by a complex conjuncture, amid state-Semitism (Goga government introduced in 1940) but also the mood of anti-Jewish Romanian population. [1]  Schoah terms is used in Jewish tradition, which means murder without guilt of the Jews in ancient times (the Egyptian, Assirian, Roman, etc.) throughout the world during galut (diaspora of Jews outside the holy land - the country Eretz Israel). It refers to any aggression, plunder, murder, rape against a community of Hebrew regardless of its size. Each time Şhoah map has a place and time, commemorate and separately (eg the Chisinau pogrom of 1904, with the sinking ship Struma migrants in the Mediterranean, after the English Palestina banned from their land in 1942). Holocaust years '30 -'40 in Europe is the last on the list of countless moments Schoah.

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100 This manner mood was maintained by Legionary Movement[1] led by Horia Sima as a diversion in the struggle for seizure of state power. The origin of this phenomenon is the adhesion of several ethnic Hebrew to Romanian Communist Party, at that time underground. Among them were recruited by KGB spies and saboteurs (Soviet secret service) and the Comintern (Communist International Moscow affiliate). The incidents began with gunfire Romanian soldiers are drawn on the withdrawal from Bessarabia (Dorohoi summer of '40) and culminated with the explosion of the Romanian army headquarters in Odessa. Odessa Massacre - October 1940. In October 1940 the Romanian troops, supported by the German army conquered Odessa Black Sea port. Romanian army headquarters in Odessa is established in one of the few remaining intact buildings in town, former NKVD[2] [1]  Legionary Movement in Romania has come (how other movements of this kind in Europe) in First World War (1914 -1918). Young intellectuals of the time they want to revive the national spirit and to raise moral and education of Romanians. Promoted by the beginning of intellectuals, such as Nicolae Iorga, Vasile Conta, C. Radulescu Motru, Parvan Vasile Ion Eliade Radulescu, Nae Ionescu.  Movement is under the leadership of Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, becoming a real threat against the political class that is' in functions' in that time. The reaction is the measure. Legionnaires are followed, outlawed. Capital movements are killed. A two-lining the leadership of Sima, deliver legionary movement 'fifth column' of German espionage and sabotage. In '40, after the the transfer of Transylvania country to Hungary and the abdication of King Carol II, Legionary Movement bring the Romanian state power. After a short political marriage with Marshal Ion Antonescu, in January '41 seeks to overturn organizing a putsch. Supported by the Romanian army and the Germans, marshal Antonescu them deleted from the political scene (Sima and part of his receiving asylum in Germany).  Between '20 -'40 Legionary Movement organized numerous robberies, vandalism, pogroms against Jews, to draw of their part the lumpen workers, the poor peasantry and people without a roof (which have arrived in '35 -'40 in the driving of the movement ). [2] State Security of U.S.S.R

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101 headquarters in Odessa (U.R.S.S security body) . Chief of Staff receives information that the building is mined, but do not pay attention. Shortly building jumps in the air killing Romanian soldiers and officers are there. Reaction of Romanian occupation authorities was immediate, harsh and disproportionate to the all Hebrew population level in the two regions. Rumor that Jewish Communists staged mining building causing the marshal to order the killing of thousands of Hebrew in Odessa, in retaliation. Hebrew families are removed from housing, concentrated in former warehouses and some large stables. They are surrounded by the army. Buildings are sprayed with gasoline, are set alight. All who managed to escape were killed by bullet fire. One building is blown up at the time it was blown Headquarters. is Romanian soldiers killed on orders from officers, special forces accompanied SS Romanian army Hebrew population, who managed to flee the city. Local people looting abandoned homes of Hebrew and the desire to manifest in this way their commitment to 'new order '. It was a massacre that killed tens of thousands of Hebrew. Odessa Hebrew population was about 50,000 souls, with an additional Jewish refugees and whose number is unknown. Few who remained, died of starvation and cold after the fields of Transnistria. Thus the communities of Odessa Hebrew was abolished in a few days. Subsequently, hundreds of thousands of Hebrew in the two regions were exterminated by hunger and cold in in the 'boiler of hell' until death. There have been cases in which Romanian saved Hebrew: Romanian commander of Hebrew Communist camp in Vapniarka which saved the life of prisoners, on their way to Romania in 1942, before the German units guarding the bridge crossing over Nistru river. There were cases when the 'bribe' offered by the Hebrew to the Romanian Governor of Bessarabia and Transnistria, Alexianu, save point cases of Hebrew. There have been many

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102 more cases where the desire for plunder and rape make some residents to provide crime as a ‘lucrative business’. Israeli researcher Jean Ancel estimated between 400,000 and 700,000 population Hebrew number killed in Bessarabia and Transnistria, between 1940-1944. In the spring of 1942 word spread that would prepare the application of 'final solution to the Jewish problem' for Jewish Communities of Moldova, Wallachia and part of Transylvania under Romanian jurisdiction[1] Great Rabbi of Romania, Alexandru Schafran, hear that would take place a 'technical' meeting between German and Romanian specialists for logistics transport by rail to concentration camps in northern Europe. This meant the beginning of the deportation of about 700,000 Hebrew of Romanian 'Old Kingdom' (Wallachia and Moldova) to complex extermination camps of Poland (Auscwitz, Birkenau, Monowitz, Treblinka and other camps satellite 45). Phenomenon already ongoing in the territories occupied by German army and its allies. Knocking on doors leading politicians of the time (and Queen Mary) to stop the phenomenon, but without success. In desperation the question decides to contact the Orthodox Christian Bishop Nicolae Balan. He knew that he is a proponent of Legionary Movement ideas in Romania[2]. But he knew it could be the only person who could [1]  In the 'Old Romanian Kingdom', following ability of Jewish Romanian community leaders (Schafran, Filderman), Jews were discos, put to work in community or labor camps, but survived mostly to Shoah years '30 -'40, around 700,000. What has not happened, for example with the Jews of Hungary and Transylvania Hungarians surrendered in the year '40, when about 400.000 was kiled by nazi in concentration camp, in 11 month (1944-1945). [2]  Nicolae Balan was proponent of ideas that promote Legion alien removal (non Romanian ethnic) to hold the levers in the economy, science and education of Romanians. How Hebrew ethnics had a good part of the leverage (both at the macroeconomic level - banks, factories, trade, culture, health, education, media) and micro (various shops, retail, etc.), it was not sympathy for them. He militated for the idea of sending them to Palestine (thing passed, with all the other reasons for the Zionist movement called 'Alya' - Return on earth father, who at that time was 'choke' by the British mandate of Palestine until the establishment of Eretz Israel state, in May 1948).

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103 influence Marshal Antonescu to stop the ongoing preparations. Because there was not allowed to move to another place in Romania without the authority he decide to send an emissary to ask Balan (in Bishop in Sibiu town) to receive when coming to Bucharest. He not have too high expectations ... but, after several days it is called. As described in the autobiography, ( 'A flame coal Off'), the meeting with Romanian priest has been tense. Bishop listened motionless on the chair plea Jew. It seemed no use. Rabbi then tells him that came before God will testify that the priest has made the debt to all those leads by him. This call, we would seem to many desperate and without any sense was actually a spiritual message made by a knight of faith to the other knight. The Christian priest is suddenly on the school seat, a move up and down across the room, but none speak any word. He Stop, get phone to make phone number to the Head of State Cabinet. It requires an audience. Marshal Antonescu invites him to lunch. On the way to the car Nicolae Balan tells to Rabbi that afternoon will receive a phone call. Before closing the door tells him not to forget any time this day ...  Here's how the madness of intolerance that govern Europe, from the XX centuries, two men find in a single phrase that refers to that they serve the same God and have the same obligations from all those shepherd who, preparing a miracle. This occurs several hours after the meeting. Alexander Safran at home phone rings. Nicolae Balan tells him that the preparation for logistics transport by rail to concentration camps in northern Europe was halted shipments of Marshal Ion Antonescu ordered. Stopping was final until 23 August 1944.  For its part, Grand Rabbi of Romania returns chivalrous gesture to Nicolae Balan Patriarch in 1946. Russians occupants wanted to condemn to death the Patriarch.

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104 Alexandru Safran occurs when the authorities of that time and obtain the cancellation order. Nicolae Balan will recognize in September '46, at a ceremony of Romania unification from Cluj after service of thanksgiving to God for this, that if it had not been Alexander Safran he had to take this job (being dead).  What seemed to be impossible, has become a reality! Because the two knights of the true faith, of different nations, were found in a single sentence as children the same people: 'people of God'.

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105 NOTES TO THE " TWO KNIGHTS OF REVELATION TWENTIETH CENTURY “ Walter Johannes Stein[1] characterize Hitler sought to initiate the acquisition of transcendental conscious 'Luciferian forces' using the 'vehicle' hallucinogenic substances (peyotl or mescaline). The 'lone wolf' knew: by opportunism, cunning, brutality, blackmail of the weaknesses of others to dominate, but also having a strong sense of organization to form a gang[2] which came to power over 'German flock' (1933): humiliated in 1918, desperate and starved by the global economic crisis of 1929 -1933. In seven years transformed the German people into a horde that invaded Europe by applying the selection race, dividing people into 'Aryans' and 'second hand peoples' (untermensch) and organizing the extermination of the latter. [1] He met Adolph Hitler in repeated conversations in the period 1909-1913. He was personal adviser to British Prime Minister Sir Winston Chuchill regarding Hitler manner of think and behavior, during the two World War [2] German Workers Party - September 1919

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106 ANGELLO RONCALLI - POPE IOAN XXIII - "POPE GOOD" - MOMENTS OF LIFE Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, was born in Sotto il Monte (Bergamo - Italy) on December 25 1881. He was elected pope (with the name John XXIII) on October 28, 1958 and ruled the destinies Curia until her death - June 3, 1963. Some existential coordinates:  He was appointed holder Areópolis bishop and apostolic visitor to Bulgaria (1925-1934).  Nuncio in Turkey and Greece with the rank of archbishop (from 1935 to 1944).  Nuncio in Paris, France (1944 to 1951).  Observer of the Holy See to UNESCO (1951-1952).  Cardinal-Patriarch of Venice (1953 to 1958).

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107  Pope with the name Pope John XXIII (1958 to 1963).  Has an active mediation role in defusing "the Cuban missile crisis” (October- November 1962).  Convene and organize preliminary Vatican II (1962 - 1965) and participates to death at work.  Public its Encyclical: "Mater et Magistra", was published on 15/05/1961. "Pacem in Terris", was published on 11/04/1963.  Was beatified (declared "happy") of the Roman Catholic Curia (2000).  Is proposed (the "Wallenberg Foundation” and the "Roncalli Committee” - in 2009) to be awarded the title of "Righteous Among the Nations" by Yad Vashem (the Israeli national study Institute of the Holocaust - the mass murder of the Hebrew people from 1933 to 1945). Who is this man, with a fate similar to hundreds of thousands who remained anonymous, which during the twentieth century history fighting against intolerance, pride and hatred With my resources, I will try a documentary on significant moments in the work of this pontiff called by many 'Good Pope' and Russians 'Peasant Pope'. His parents of his large familiy: (thirteen brothers and sisters) were agricultural workers - wineyards. Angello will note at maturity his social condition that came with the metaphor: "There are only three ways in which a man may ruin: women, gambling and ... to be farmers. My father chose the most boring of the three”. Primary school is in Bergamo. Is trained in first mysteries of Christian faith and, in twelve years (1903) becomes a follower of Catholic seminary in Bergamo. Then in 1904, received a scholarship Cerasoli

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108 Foundation, which allows him to pursue studies in "Apollinaris" in Rome[1]. With a extraordinary desire for knowledge Angelo Roncalli opened the modern trends of spiritual initiation, studying the work of German philosopher Rudolf Steiner on the steps of spiritual initiation (see Appendix, John XXIII and the Masonic Movement). Complete studies and a doctorate in Canon Law is ordained in 1904. Bishop of Bergamo, Giacomo Radin-Tedeschi responsible for social problems, assess the priest and his organizational spirit. Is named his secretary. For nine years Roncalli will do hard work to help the poor in the region and mediates disputes between employers and employees, to achieve decent work and life conditions. Contact with the problems of the working class, and its origin of poor farmers give him a special competence in further understanding the situation of the many and oppressed, regardless of what nations are they, the black times to come. In The his ecclesiastical way he continued his studies in Canon Law and take Patrology, Apologetics and Church History courses (which he studied with maestro Umberto Benigni to Rome) in seminary in Bergamo. During World War is chaplain in Italian Army (1914 -1918). It is called by Pope Benedict XV to Rome where are recived in the Congregation "Propaganda Fide". In 1925 is professor at the Lateran University in Rome. His vision of the unity of Christianity to find a still of that period. In 1926, in a letter to the Orthodox clergy in Ukraine: "Catholics and Orthodox are not enemies but brothers. We have the same faith, we share [1] Comment: "Pontificia lateranense Universitaria, called by Pope John Paul II as "Pope University”, was founded by Pope Clement XIV in 1773. It includes theology and philosophy sections of Sciences of the Roman College. In 1824 receives the head Apollinaris palace. In 1853 it set up sections of Canon Law and Civil Law. John Paul II in 1981 added the Pontifical Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family issues which have the right to confer academic degrees

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109 the same sacraments, and especially the Eucharist. We divided those who were due to these disagreements are dead for centuries. To give up old disputes, and each community, to work to better our brothers, giving a good example. Later, while traveling on different paths, we achieve unity between the churches, to form together the true and only Church of our Lord Jesus Christ. "  Is called Apostolic Visitor in Bulgaria, in 1934, it involves both the preservation of the Catholic minority and the development of good ties with representatives of the Orthodox Church (the majority) through concrete gestures such as food and clothing to support the local population after a earthquake. Bulgarian Orthodox Christians responded with sympathy and affection opening papal envoy.  Is called, in 1935 Papal Nuncio in Turkey and Greece, based in Istanbul. Here, in the spirit of Christian charity to support the Armenians and the Greeks are in need under the Turkish and Muslim population. He urge them to remove the ancestral religious hatred and the recent disasters (slaughter of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire - in 1915) to build, through interreligious effort and eliminating bigotry, the modern Turkey State lead by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, founded in 1923. As an important detail he learn Turkish to say mesa Christmas in that language continuing Greek, Italian, French, Armenian. Contact with the clergy of the Orthodox rite and the Greek Orthodox tradition the reasoned steps after the reunification of the two sister Churches in Vatican II Council (1962 to 1965). His great contribution to human solidarity and support will be supporting Hebrew people, was in focus of long-term policy of extermination of the Nazi regime after 1933. Phenomenon that has spread like a flame from Germany across Europe, with the expansion of armies and intelligence German services to Turkish Republic. Angello Roncalli will seize at time 'signs of the beast' in a place seemingly removed from 'Hitler's lair', the period when Jews

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110 themselves don’t refer immensity and organizational strength of the mechanism of mass murder that was. Thus: this Christian leader started to set in a seemingly insignificant signs of the years '35 - '40, not taken into account the great political Chancellors time, and take preventive measures accordingly. It is recognized that it was the first warned in official documents the existence of Nazi death camps from January 1941. Hebrew to help people in a variety of forms: - 21 official documents to the competent authorities of the Holy See, in the period January 1941 - March 1945 on various aspects and situations of groups of Hebrew, which require support Curia. Provide the Agency for Jewish Emigration in Istanbul (led by Haim Barlas), logistics network of order 'daughters of Zion'. - Using the relations with the Turkish government (in particular Foreign Minister Memencioglu) and cooperation in its efforts to bring in Turkey 'Turkish Jews of citizenship' (granted citizenship to save them from extermination) of France remained under the government of the Vichy. - Appeal to the German ambassador in Turkey (Franz von Pappen) to allow trains 'Hebrew Turkish subjects' transit countries occupied by the Reich, to Istanbul. - Alerting the Turkish authorities and the intervention to German Ambassador Frantz von Pappen to block sea transport of Hebrew children to Germany. To note that, to the Trial of war criminals at Nuremberg in 1945, Angelo Roncalli contributed decisively for the exemption Franz von Pappen of crimes against humanity. - Steps to save Jews from Greece - Approach the next Tsar Boris of Bulgaria to protect the Jews of Bulgaria. - Steps to rescue Jews in Slovakia and Croatia.

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111 - Steps to rescue Jevs in Hungary, including via Romania. - Issue 'Certificates of Immigration' and the approach they reach the Papal Nuncio in Budapest (Archbishop Angelo Rotta) and the Papal Nuncio in Bucharest (Cardinal Casullo) to save the lives of Jews deported to Transnistria and their targeting by sea to Istanbul . - Issue 'Certificates of Baptism' to save children by sending in Hebrew extermination camps. Such a child he said: 'Becoming Catholic, you Hebrew are not less'. - Logistical support provided paramilitary units Hebrew (Palmah, Haganah, Iirgun) for transferring Hebrew immigrants from Turkey to Palestine, despite military opposition, land and naval British authorities in Palestine[1] . - Warning American diplomats in Ankara on various information on the European Holocaust, yet in its early stages, and work with them to coordinate rescue actions (through personal relationship with the U.S. ambassador - Ira Hirshman). - It should be noted that the initiative was not only Catholic prelate. He knew how to fall in huge human chain, to mobilize and organize multiple and disparate resources into an orchestra of good against evil. Shall be valued as such were saved 19,000 'Hebrew Turkish' Hebrew and 100,000 in Europe under German occupation. In 1944, appointed Apostolic Nuncio in Paris, the newly liberated France's Charles de Gaulle. It was a difficult job, Roncalli's predecessor worked with the German occupiers. Because his links in the French capital have their cultural and political personalities, Angelo Roncalli succeeds quickly eliminate "collaborators" anathema of and French Catholic priests and made good relations between the French and Vatican States. I remained in my mind his words in his speech in 1946, when 100 years come true the appearance of Our Lady in front of two children Salette (France): [1] see also: Hebrew Self Defense Organizations Yisuv – Moments of Zionism (IV)

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112 "It works much peace, but peace will not be between people while will not make peace with God, and it can not be achieved without prayer and penance".  The result of its concerted action with UNESCO officials (based in Paris) creates a climate of cooperation between the Roman Catholic Church and this international instrument to promote the values of "Declaration of Human Rights in San Francisco" (December 10, 1948). Because it is created close links with the UN, UNESCO and related organizations. Angelo Roncalli is the first ‘Vatican Observatory’ in 1951 designated by the Holy See to UNESCO. Beyond the brilliant maneuver of papal policy the Roncalli contribution is based on conviction that freedom and human rights must have alongside the with power and papal authority. The fact that you find also in the text of his Encyclical "Pacem in Terris", in the last moments of his earthly life. Result: in long terms are the periodicals meetings pontiffs and directors of UNESCO, cooperation between educational entities, legal, cultural organizations with the specialized Papal State organizations and the participation of high level of UNESCO staff at all important ceremonies in the Vatican. Actually, Roncalli opening it to all azimuths of contemporary human existence, by building on the positive, regardless of their Catholic position in our human rainbow. From the Orthodox Christians and Protestants and Anglicans, to the Mozaics to Muslims, from the Socialists (Edouard Herriot) and Communists (Giacomo Manzu Nobel laureate), to the Masonic movement (Baron Yves Marsaudon) and Atheists. He often surprised those who led the Roman Curia destiny; generated adversaries in the long run '. Angelo Roncalli will see the humor in the twilight of its existence "I am the Pope has kept his foot pressed the accelerator". Natural is the question of what did not suffer a reprimand from Pope Pius XII - th (be aware that in 1925 there was a file Holy Office that

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113 was "suspected of Modernism"). Without claiming of exegesis (for which I have not qualified) reasons should be a balance between spiritual initiation and true faith in the power of Catholic Christianity, the ability to penetrate with kindness. Understanding and organize a march to benefit common with almost any kind of partner. It was his tact to circumvent no common convictions, retaining only what could bring people together, no matter how little it is, without actually no compromise to the Gospel of Jesus and his Apostles. On January 12, 1953 is named Cardinal Patriarch of Venice. Assumes the quality of spiritual shepherd "required to carry out its mission to the children as was instructed by God." I have few data about this period about which I think was the most prolific in the synthesis of his spiritual experience. It said that actively participated in the life of the Church, social and cultural parishes subordinated. It has set up thirty new parishes. We also witness the constructive position taken in the Italian Socialist Party Congress in February 1957, held in Venice: "Is a significant to the future of our country. I would think that the main reason for your meeting is to understand the contemporary conditions and you wish to devote to do anything possible to raise the living conditions and social welfare”. Far from being a socialist advocate, Cardinal Roncalli was experience of his family farm worker, the claims experience of workers in the years 1910 - 1925 which has mediated in conflicts with employers, and loom as a working class Italian utility have resulted in a socialist party and effectively. Thing that happened in the years that followed.  In October 28,1958, 51 cardinals participating in the election of Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli as Pope John XXIII. His choice name are in memory of John the Baptist and the Apostle John. It was pervasive idea that the high-priest Catholic, aged 76 years was the result of a compromise, after the twelve rounds that preceded his election and that his

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114 presence will not bring anything new. A Baptist editor wrote to commemorate 77 years of the new pope: "Only ashes vision remains a man of 76 years" ... Few knew what dowry spiritual faith, the will was gained in this, "servus servorum Dei"- servant of the servants of God. In a surprise hit of compressed time. In any three months of installation, after participating in the "Week of Prayer for Christian Unity" (promoted in the' 50 years by Fr. Paul Couturier , called "The Unity Apostle", hoping that God Himself knows the time and form in which it will achieve full unity of the Church on earth), on January 25, 1959, when the famous conversion of St. Paul in front of eighteen cardinals gathered near the place where, by tradition, was beheaded St. Paul tomb, Pope John XXIII, successor of Saint Peter says:  "Venerable and dear colleagues sons: Trembling a bit of emotion, but with humility and firmness of purpose while, I will say now about the two meetings. I propose to call a diocesan synod and an Ecumenical Council for the Universal Church".  In fact there were three themes: Convening a Roman Diocesan Synod. Meeting an Ecumenical Council. Review and a new codification of Canon Law. The cardinal said that no word had a response to this announcement, at that time. Pope's Ioan XXIII proposal related to three existential and axiological 'concentric circles': - Unity Christian faith with the hope of combining between Catholicism and Orthodoxy. Or as Pope John XXIII said, "No we want to look for who is right or wrong: the responsibility is shared. We want only to say: Come and be together, to end division". Ecumenism: the main way for religious coexistence and peace.

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115 - Update ( 'Agiornamento') and reform the Church of Rome, from the Roman Curia itself. Cardinal Domenico Tardini secretary is appointed Chairman of the Preparatory Commission. Meanwhile Clement objective problems in specific pastoral and treats them in encyclicals.  15/12/1958 Increases the number of Cardinals at 75, in 1959 will be 79, in 1962 will be 87. Pope John XXIII used from pontificate instrument of collective leadership with a double objective: to streamline operations and create a team sense in the College of Cardinals.  29/06/1959 Encyclical "Ad Petri Cathedram” - announced goal which was to be projected the Vatican Council: for promoting Christian concepts of truth, love to build a world closer to peace.  18/07/1959 Remove from "Catholic Canon" reference to Islam associated with idolatry. Then it will receive the Iran Shahinschah visit Reza Pahlevi Aryamer.  1.08.1959 Encyclical "John Maria Vianney" - priest of Ars consolidates the status commemorating of priest called herd and young believers towards the priesthood.  26/09/1959 Encyclical "Grata Recordatio". It underlines the strength of the Holy Rosary Prayer in the practice of faith and bring to God Catholic Christian hopes for success of the Catholic Council.  Encyclical "On Catholic missions” throughout the world that emphasizes role missionary priests and laity involved in Christian education and training among local people a "ecclesial corpus”.  8.05.1960 - 14 Consecration of bishops from among the peoples of Africa, Asia and America.  15/05/1960 Encyclical "Mater et Magistra" - Treat relations between peoples in new

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116 social order that foreshadowed. The author says, in the beginning of a nearly 19,917 words text (English version): "Universal Church was founded by Jesus Christ so that everyone throughout the centuries come to her to be embraced with love to find fullness of life upper and guarantee salvation”. Encyclical is an analysis of contemporary issues in the life of humanity, in all major plans: the family in society and science. Recommend ways to rebuild the social relations based on trust, justice and love.  In June 1960 it established ten committees, a Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity to take, process proposals and to summarize the 'schemes' that were to be debated. He announced on February, the Council open on 11 October, 1962.  November 1960 - Get the Bishop of Canteburry Geofrey Fisher. Besides the short period of four years Roncalli recive will official visits of representatives of the main non-Catholic religions: Jewish, Muslim, Orthodox, Protestant, Baptist. Campaigning to help Catholic priests persecuted in Hungary, Yugoslavia, China. On the basis of good relations with N.S. Khrushchev, in 1962, would trigger the gradual release of Ukrainian and Romanian Greek Catholic priests from the detention camps.  22/02/1962 "Apostolic Constitution" - an expression of preserving traditions of Latin in liturgical and pastoral work of priests, brothers.  11/10/1962 Open Work Second Vatican Council. His word is a step in the establishment of faith in harmony religious diversity, "with the goal of life and the full triumph of the Christian idea and a true religious freedom ... Divine Providence will guide us towards a new order of human relations".  20/10/1962 'Cuban Missile Crisis'. U.S. intelligence services detected the missile base located the USSR in Cuba. They could launch nuclear warheads would have hit any U.S. territory, within a radius of 2000 km. in 10-30 minutes. U.S. naval and air blockade out of

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117 Cuba. Soviets directs strategic fleet to Cuba. Nuclear conflict seemed to stop us. (I remember being a teenager waiting state apocalypse, my parents and those around you - nobody made plans, even for the weekend). People and people were waiting in a cataleptic state - like the lamb the shepherd his knife near the neck. Pope John XXIII, along with Secretary-General, General U. Thant immediately start a real peace crusade 'using all the tools: from the media to mobilize his friends and those who respected him. Supports non-aligned countries call (40) to the American and Soviet leaders. The combative atmosphere that creates the two great powers understand that they can not justify the prosecution of the other starting nuclear war. Thus in 28.10. 1962 N.S. Khrushchev announces early release and repatriation ramps dismantling weapons in the U.S.S.R. In 1962 JFKennedy raises noimbrie naval blockade of Cuba and later withdraws its nuclear missiles from Turkey. The two leaders will meet in Vienna where they will lay the foundation to continue negotiations for nuclear disarmament and arms limitation (these with not much success, since when were nuclear powers and now 4 are 9). At that time, the family receives visiting personalities N.S. Khrushchev daughter (who tells him that in Russia is called the ‘Pope peasant '), wife of President Kennedy and other guests, religious and laity, as they were never at the Vatican .  11/04/1963 issue Encyclical "Pacem in Terris" Peace on Earth, - Pope say that any man, any time he wanted a equality can indeed be established only if the lawful order of God on Earth will be observed and followed - that is the requirement. - The first section sets out the nature and form of relations between individual and society, human rights and moral duties. Listing the human person the right to life, respect, freedom, education, employment. - A two-section refers to the relationship between man and the state insisting on the need to

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118 respect and implementation of collective authority of the State, in exercise of power. - A three section establishes requirements for the establishment of equality between nations and state requirements to determine the rights and duties of citizens. - The fourth section discusses the development of relations between states, to assist towards collective and mutual. Encyclical ends with the command sent to assist Catholics and non Catholic Christians in addressing various aspects of social and political life. 03/06/1963 He Dies, not before he dedicated his life to the success of Council and for cohabitation between people, nations, religions followed by grace and divine love.  Council will continue under the watch of Pope Paul VI, beginning from 21/06/1963.

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119 APPENDIX: JOHN XXIII AND ATHEISM MOVEMENT Atheism as a movement has been: A lack of systematic religious instruction, from the earliest age - to develop harmonious relationship between God and soul of the child, young person, you will become mature. A reaction to the trend displayed by the clergy, after leaving Christianity underground (the time of Constantine the Great), to accumulate wealth at the expense of those in pastoral, not redistribute a reasonable part, directly or indirectly, members of the community and the poor . A restrictive and punitive response made by the representatives of worship to people in the community, perceived by those affected as a restriction of freedom of thought and personal dignity. This form of spiritual existence has its moments of maximum impact in many religious communities. For example the Jewish Enlightenment (, Haskalla'- sec. XIX), or enlightenment in Catholic countries (sec. XIV-XX). Angello Roncalli, understood that the previous policy of the church to issue forms of penalty on atheists was an error. He opted to make 'parallel roads' and the collaboration for mutual benefit and those around him, convinced that in time, the grace of faith will come down on them and their survivors. Thing that happens.

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120 APPENDIX: JOHN XXIII AND THE MASONIC MOVEMENT. Mary Ball Martinez writes that Angelo Roncalli was known in his youth as a disciple of Rudolf Steiner was initiated in the Grand Orient Lodge in 1935, in Paris in order Rosacrucian, the Grand Orient Masonic Lodge. Participate in the work Masonic Lodge in Istanbul during the period when he was papal nuncio in Turkey (1935 -1944). From when he was papal nuncio in Paris (1947-1952) has been dubbed in 33 rosacrucian Masonic branch of the Knights of Malta (Grand Master Baron Yves Marsaudon). Time when many Catholic clergy and laity (Father Joseph Berteloot Jesuit priest Heim, Marsaudon Albert Lantoine, Herriot, Auriol, etc.) participated in the Masonic movement. Angello Roncalli stop, as Pope, string of convictions and excommunications of Catholic clergy who were belonging to the Masonic Movement. Initiate a process of relaxation of the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and the Masonic Movement, by clarifying methodological principles of coexistence. This activity fell outside the initiate Angello Roncalli vision of a rational approach, tolerant (and ultimately human common sense) between different ideologies. This message is reflected in its Enciclicals "Mater et Magistra" and "Pacem in Terris". Father Esposito metaphorically remarked that during the preparation of the Council of the Vatican (1962-1965), Angello Roncalli mobilized ecclesial community in meticulous 'construction' of the "Cathedral of Future".

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121 NOTES TO " ANGELLO RONCALLI - POPE JOHN XXIII “  Some records on the personality of Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli - Pope John XXIII. "Faith in Christ and His Church was the secrecy which led the Pope John XXIII a worldwide promoter of peace .... was a prelude and a prophecy of the experience of fatherhood that God was to us to provide in abundance through words, gestures and ecclesial ministry of Good Pope ... The grace of God has provided a promising season for the Church and society and found in obedience to the Holy Spirit, which characterized the whole life of Pope John XXIII, good soil to make germination harmony, hope, unity and peace for the good of all mankind,"said Pope Benedict XVI in celebration related to the fulfillment of 50 years to choose" Good Pope ". (October 28, 2008). Beyond these words is CONTINUITY reforms that three Popes that followed: Pope Paul VI, Pope John Paul II, Benedict XVI assured a way to "update", in doctrine, structures and action, the Roman Catholic Church, the themes of existential and axiological times today.  "John XXIII was a natural and supernatural at the same time. Nature and grace formed a single whole that were in a completely charisma and a diversity vision around him. ... He lived in the presence of God with the simplicity of one walking in his hometown." (J. Robert Nelson Director of the Institute of Religion at the Texas Medical Center in Houston, USA, 1982).  I conclude with a quote from a spiritual testament of Pope John XXIII. "I was born poor, but as a child of some honest and modest and are happy to die poor, when we divided the poor and the holy Church that fed me, which I stood, moreover, a very modest measure available in my role as priest and bishop, to the satisfaction of my life simple and modest. Thank God for the grace of poverty, that since my youth I praise: the priest of Sacred Heart, a real poverty. It gave me strength to not ever ask anything, no job, no money, no favors, neither for me nor for my family or friends" is confessed to God, Angelo Roncalli in the true tradition of Saint Francisc of Assisi, whom he revered.

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122 AFTERWORD TO HEBREW AND CHRISTIANS - FACTS  Being a Jew as my mother, a Christian by baptism, can not simply quote the Hebrew historian Shlomo Laish about tumultuous destiny of the Hebrew people: 'We thank here to emphasize one fact that it seems to apply to all questions and others that occur in our minds. An objective response which resisted all time, which was set out with thousands of years before us by a non Jew. Response of prophet Balls The Madianite[1] gave to Balak king of Moabit, when invited to curses tribes of Israel, out soon in slavery Egyptian: 'IS A PEOPLE ALONE, WITHOUT NEGLECT OTHER TRIBES' (Numerii23.9.)’. I would only add: sometimes not by its own sons.  That said the prophet indeed was a formidable instrument for the conservation of Jewish traditions: the ‘returned son’ is received with warmth and respect. He who shall not return to traditional vein mosaic neither name is mentioned. This is the core of intolerance, while the survival of Jewish communities. Beyond this fact we tried to establish a reason. How ridiculous is the human response to God's kindness. Or more specifically: HOW PEOPLE SUCCESS TO DESTROY THEM IS PASSED BY THE PROPHETS. Text 'HEBREW CHRISTIANS FIGHT BEGININGS FOR THE GOSPEL OF JESUS' (Romanian Version) was started in 1992 in a time when trying to understand myself. He [1] : Priest of the Temple of Madian, at the foot of the mountain of Sinai, where Moses and retired three thousand years, to atone for murder have killed an Egyptian satrap subsequently developing here 'Sepher Bereshit' - 'great book', getting his message God to free the Hebrew people from Egypt and it leads to the river Jordan to put him in possession of 'Holy Country'

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123 was doing a man who, angry at their own misunderstanding of life, take the pen to write, as a peasant and his digging is going to dig in the garden or field as to forget the troubles of day.  For years, the text was rewritten several times, has enriched the area of ideas, A process which was almost independent of the personal life, but that brought me and now an inner peace and happiness: to be a Hebrew Christian.  May be for an Jew mosaic ... almost certainly, this concept is a strange thing. From their point of view it means: that people never accepted, through its representatives, deviations from the fundamentals of religious mosaic. And it is normal: this way of thinking has maintained for almost two millennia cohesion in galut[1].  Beghin a millenary struggle between peoples who worship and believe in the same vein esoteric FAIT TO ONE GOD: whether Christian or Mosaic, more than seven hundred years followers Islam.  Long line Hebrew martyrs, Hebrew mosaics were righteous in their faith in God, just as Palestinians believers in God - Allah is still a people in exile of the times we live ... I WONDER: ONLY BECAUSE GOD HAS DIFFERENT NAMES?!  WHY the Unity through faith in a UNIQUE GOD is a single island in a sea of IGNORANCE and HATRED?!. One possible answer is that the PRIDE OF POWER, of any origin would not want to be a free and full understanding of this esoteric common vein. Why? Because it still does not know HOW MANAGE IT! Oligarchies privileges of any kind were off with no spiritual freedom through self of each man, because no one can control, to govern its use. [1] Diaspora - dispersion throughout the mankind of the tribes of Israel.

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Therefore POWER may always used an effective instrument of disunion: IGNORANCE, and FANATICISM.  Being a Jew as a mother, a Christian by baptism, can not simply quote the Hebrew historian Shlomo Laish about tumultuous destiny of the Hebrew people: 'We thank here to emphasize one fact that it seems to apply to all questions and others that occur in our minds. An objective response which resisted all time, which was set out with thousands of years before us by a non Jew. Response of prophet Balls The Madianite[1] gave to Balak king of Moabit, when invited to curses tribes of Israel, out soon in slavery Egyptian: 'IS A PEOPLE ALONE, WITHOUT NEGLECT OTHER TRIBES' (Numerii23.9.)’. I would only add: sometimes not by its own sons.  That said the prophet indeed was a formidable instrument for the conservation of Jewish traditions: the ‘returned son’ is received with warmth and respect. He who shall not return to traditional vein mosaic neither name is mentioned. This is the core of intolerance, while the survival of Jewish communities.  Beyond this fact we tried to establish a reason. How ridiculous is the human response to God's kindness. Or more specifically: HOW PEOPLE SUCCESS TO DESTROY THEM IS PASSED BY THE PROPHETS. Text 'HEBREW CHRISTIANS FIGHT BEGININGS FOR THE GOSPEL OF JESUS' (Romanian Version) was started in 1992 in a time when trying to understand myself. He was doing a man who, angry at their own misunderstanding of life, take the pen to write, as [1] : Priest of the Temple of Madian, at the foot of the mountain of Sinai, where Moses and retired three thousand years, to atone for murder have killed an Egyptian satrap subsequently developing here 'Sepher Bereshit' - 'great book', getting his message God to free the Hebrew people from Egypt and it leads to the river Jordan to put him in possession of 'Holy Country' 124

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125 a peasant and his digging is going to dig in the garden or field as to forget the troubles of day.  For years, the text was rewritten several times, has enriched the area of ideas, A process which was almost independent of the personal life, but that brought me and now an inner peace and happiness: to be a Hebrew Christian.  May be for an Jew mosaic ... almost certainly, this concept is a strange thing. From their point of view it means: that people never accepted, through its representatives, deviations from the fundamentals of religious mosaic. And it is normal: this way of thinking has maintained for almost two millennia cohesion in galut[1].  With all respect for this tradition, and success in 1948 by establishing the Eretz Israel State, yet still have a duty: to recognize Jehosuah - Jesus as the Christians say, a man who truly honor, honor and kindness to the Jewish People.  I have made this text respecting accessed documentation issued 37 years ago an Indian manager: "short enough to arouse interest, long enough to cover the essentials". Let those who will read to decide if I succeeded or not. Mesaroş - Anghel Vasile May 2010 [1] Diaspora - dispersion throughout the mankind of the tribes of Israel.

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126 BIBLIOGRAPHY ,A BRAND PLUCKED FLAMES' - Alexandru Schafran Publishing House ‘Hasefer’ Bukarest Romania Auschwitz – Wikipedia ‚The Spear of Destiny’ Trevor Ravenscroft Londra 1973 *** Wikipedia - 'Pope John XXIII'. Pope John XXIII, encyclical "Ad Petri Cathedral" 29/06/1959. *** Wikipedia 'Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church'. *** 'Missing in Action: Raoul Wallenberg' - Marion Marrache 9. *** Notes and telegrams exchanged between the Vatican's State Secretary and the relevant Nunciatures of the different countries during the Second World War - are published in 11 volumes edited by the Holy See under the title: "Actes et documents du Saint-Siège relatifs a la seconde guerre mondiale".

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127 VIDEO BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1 Mesaroş – Anghel Vasile " HEBREW CHRISTIANS FIGHT BEGININGS FOR THE GOSPEL OF JESUS “- Documentary Essay Link Adress: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JerGTHdcsAc 2 Mesaroş – Anghel Vasile " ZIONISM APOSTLES - MOMENT OF ZIONISM (I)” - Documentary Essay Link Adress: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GCjWIEsYQ1I Mesaroş – Anghel Vasile " THE BEGINNING OF HEBREW FIGHT FOR THE RETURN IN ERETZ ISRAEL - MOMENT OF ZIONISM (II)" - Documentary Essay Link Adress: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hi0jPzA_aFA Mesaroş – Anghel Vasile "SAN REMO CHART 1920 HOPE MISSED AN SEMITIC ALLIANCE - MOMENT OF ZIONISM (III)” - Documentary Essay Link Adress: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vm8jiRDCBE4 Mesaroş – Anghel Vasile "HEBREW ORGANIZATION FOR SELF DEFENCE IN PALESTINE (YISHUV) - MOMENTS OF ZIONISM (IV)” - Documentary Essay Link Adress: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJZal1-MGb4 Mesaroş – Anghel Vasile " HEBREWS, CHRISTIANS, MUSLIMS IN JERUSALEM – COMPENDIUM OF HISTORICAL FACTS” - Documentary Essay Link Adress: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PFvWHuseZ2c Mesaroş – Anghel Vasile " ANCIENT MOSES SOCIAL LAWS” - Documentary Essay Link Adress: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jEsLBw6mi1c Mesaroş – Anghel Vasile "ANGELO RONCALLI - POPE JOHN AL XXIII LIFE MOMENTS” - Documentary Essay Link Adress: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BshDOnkB6wY Mesaroş – Anghel Vasile "TWO KNIGHTS OF REVELATION TWENTIETH CENTURY: NICOLAE BALAN AND ALEXANDRU SCHAFRAN” - Documentary Essay Link Adress: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ghbFMay75KU

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128 To my Mother: Thaci Raisa Gherşovici To my Wife: Anghel Magdalena AMV Dessign/2010 ABOUT AUTHOR MESAROŞ -ANGHEL VASILE Editorial Profile Name: Vasile Mesaroş – Anghel Age: 62 ani Proffession: IT Trainer Studies:  University of Bucharest–Mathematics (1971)  System Analist - Post university Study - CEPECA (1975) Motivation:  Documentation of issues that I was concerned, over the past years.

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