Pollution of air and water


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Air and Water Pollution:

Air and Water Pollution

Air Pollution:

Air Pollution

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Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere.



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Sulfur oxides (SO x ) - especially sulphur dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula SO 2 . SO 2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulphur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of SO 2 , usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NO 2 , forms H 2 SO 4 , and thus acid rain.[2] This is one of the causes for concern over the environmental impact of the use of these fuels as power sources.

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Nitrogen oxides ( NO x ) - especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high temperature combustion. Can be seen as the brown haze dome above or plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula NO 2 . It is one of the several nitrogen oxides. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. NO 2 is one of the most prominent air pollutants.

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Carbon monoxide(CO) - is a colourless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) - a colourless, odorless, non-toxic greenhouse gasassociated with ocean acidification, emitted from sources such as combustion, cement production, and respiration

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Toxic metals , such as lead, cadmium and copper. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - harmful to the ozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use. Odors — such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes Radioactive pollutants - produced by nuclear explosions, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon.

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Ammonia (NH 3 ) - emitted from agricultural processes. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH 3 . It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous.

Water Pollution:

Water Pollution

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Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the naturalbiological communities.

Pollutants: Organic:

Pollutants: Organic

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Detergents Disinfection by-products found in chemically disinfected drinking water, such as chloroform Food processing waste, which can include oxygen-demanding substances, fats and grease Insecticides and herbicides, a huge range of organohalides and other chemical compounds Petroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuels, and fuel oil) and lubricants (motor oil), and fuel combustion byproducts, from stormwater runoff

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Tree and bush debris from logging operations Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as industrial solvents, from improper storage. Chlorinated solvents, which are dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), may fall to the bottom of reservoirs, since they don't mix well with water and are denser. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) Trichloroethylene Perchlorate Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products

Pollutants: Inorganic:

Pollutants: Inorganic

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Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants) Ammonia from food processing waste Chemical waste as industrial by-products Fertilizers containing nutrients--nitrates and phosphates--which are found in stormwater runoff from agriculture, as well as commercial and residential use [16] Heavy metals from motor vehicles (via urban stormwater runoff) and acid mine drainage Silt (sediment) in runoff from construction sites, logging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites

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