CONCEPT OF KSHARA in ayurveda

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most logical concept......required more quaries....

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CONCEPT OF KSHARA Presented by: Dr.VIVEK SINGH Guided By: Dr.P.K.GOSWAMI Dr.M.PALIWAL HOD &Associate Professor Assistant Professor Dr. S.S. YADAV Dr. G.L.MEENA Assistant Professor AssistantProfessor DEPARTMENT OF SAMHITA & SANSKRIT FACULTY OF AYURVEDA INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Whatever may be the origin of Vedas whether they owe their origin to Divinity or to Humanity, they occupy a unique position of their won and enlighten us upon the early habits and customs of people and also of the medical science of our nation during the pre- Buddhista period. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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In fact of the Vedas the Rig & Atharva Veda are the preordering source of fundamental principles of Ayurveda lying scattered in vast body of vedic literature. In the vedas the medical knowledge is often said to be derived from the action of the animals. In the Vedic literature the word kshar is not available, neither any process equivalent to kshara is referred in the Vedas. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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It may be due to two causes , the first is that there was probably not known any process of kshara karma during the Vedic period or this process though present does not find mentioned in the Vedic literature. In subsequent literature i.e. during the pauranika period or post-Vedic period kshara and kshara karma is frequently mentioned. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

ETYMOLOGY:

ETYMOLOGY Kshara term formed by,… { kj ~ $.k~ && { kjfr ]” kkru rnL;ka izgj.kfefr dzh M+k;ke%A --¼y?kqfl) kar dkS0iz0Hkk04@57½ In mRrjjkepfjr 3@2 , oa e`PNdfVde ~ 5@18---- ¼ok0½ { kj ~$.k~&{ kkj ~ means lapj.k”khy ] { kkjd ] nkgd ] frDr ] pjijk ] dVq ] [ kkjh - { kkj ~ / kkrq esa lq izR ;; djus ls ß { kkj% Þ “ kCn Ckurk gSA ftldk vFkZ gksrk gS -& jl ] vdZ ] “ khjk ] jkc ] { kkjh ;] [ kV~Vk inkFkZ A 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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As above kshar ( { kj ~ ) means shatan ( “ kkru ) or destruction as it destroy an unhealthy or impure tissue. Here it also implies the destruction or removal of vitiated doshas or toxins. kshara also having the meaning of hinsa or violence, it destroy skin, flesh etc. some here substitute word { ki.k for { kj.k meaning purification of tissues. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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In Amar kosh kshara has been used in sense of kaach , or may be glass. Thus it may also means chapal (stone ), Rasa, Suta ,& Parada . { kkjks dkpks ∙Fk piyks jllwr”p ikjnsA -----v0 dks0 2@9 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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Hemchandra denote kshara as kaach , Rasa, Guna , Bhasma , Dhurt , lavana . { kkj % dkp % jlS xq.kS ] Hk’efu / kwrsZ yo.ks bfr gsepUnzsA The word Kaach is derived from dhatu dp ~ means to fasten or to shine, kaach may mean a coin, jewel, a kind of eye disease or a special kind of earth……this interpretation is found in Medinikosh and Vishwakosh . v= dkp % f”kD;s e.kh us= jksx Hksns e`nUrjs bfr fo”o % ¼esnuh½ 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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Shabdakalpadruma explains kshara as – It is derived from dhatu { kj ~ meaning to move, and having burning ability. { kkja f }A { kjrhfrA { kj ~ lapyus ToyhfrA foM  yo.k bfr jktfu?k.Vq%A ;o{ kkj % bfr f= dk. M”ks’k%A { kkj % iq - { kj ~ lapyus $ ToykfnRokrJ.k % jl fo”ks’kA ; Fkk iapra = sA -----1@135 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

DEFINITION:

DEFINITION Rk = {kj.kkr~ { k.kukr ~ ok { kkj%A ----------lq0 lw0 11 @4 fNRok fNRok ∙∙” k;kr ~ { kkj % { kjRokr ~ { kkj;R ;/ k%A -----p0fp05@58 { kj.kkR { kkj%A ------------------------------------------------p0 lw0 26@8 {kj.kkr~ v/ kksxeufdz;k;ksxkr ~ { kkj %------------pdz0 Kshara is a substance, which having the property of alleviation and erosion to degenerated or abnormal doshas , dhatus and malas . As per AFI :- kshara are alkaline substances obtained from the ash of the drugs. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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kshara is material or property Kshara is a matarial ( substance)… ;= kfJrk % deZxq.kk % dkj.ka leokf ; ; r~A rn ~ nzO;a &-------------p0 lw0 1 @51 can be proved by…. 1.Kshara having of downward movements activity. ( {kj.kkr~ v/ kksxeufdz;k;ksxkr ~ { kkjks nzO;a ---pdz0 fNRok fNRok ∙∙” k;kr ~ { kkj { kjRokr ~ { kkj;R ;/k% ----p0fp0 5 ) Acharya Cakrapani has mentioned that, the term kshara implies something which goes down. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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Acharya Caraka said that kshara has the property of ksarana , hence it gradually erodes kaphaja gulma and brings it downwards. 2. Kshara is having many rasas . rnusdjlleqRiUueusdjla dVqdyo.kHkwf;’Be~A ( p0lw0 26@8 ) dVqdLr = Hkwf;’Bks yo.kks ∙ uqjlLrFkkA ( lq0lw11@24 ) dVqdLr = Hkwf;’B bfr r= iapjls { kkjs dVqdks ∙ uqjl %] yo.kLrq Hkwf;’B bfr ; ksT;aA ( MYg.k ) 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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There are many reasons for which, kshara cannot be attributed to particular rasa. Ksharas are prepared by combination of drugs like mushkaka , apaamarga , etc. each of them having different rasas . Since in the cause, that is the raw drug, there are many rasa, the effect, that is, kshara must be in a compound form of rasas . Katu and lavana rasas are dominant in ksharas . 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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3. It is perceived by many indriyas . vusdsfUnz;kFkZlefUore~A ( p0lw026@8 ) Ksharas can be verified by smell and touch. 4. It is prepared by use of many karanas . dj.kkfHkfuoZ`Rre~A ( p0lw026@8 ) 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

GUNA KARMA OF KSHARA :

GUNA KARMA OF KSHARA ukukS’kf / kleok;kf = nks’k?u %] “ kqDyRokr ~ lkSE ;%] rL ; lkSE ;%] rL ; lkSE;L;kfi lrks nguipunkj.kkfn”kfDrjfo :)k] vkXus;kS’kf / kxq.kHkwf;’Brokr ~ dVqd m’.kLrh {.k% ikpuks foy;u % “ kks / kuks jksi.k % “ kks’k.k % LrEHkuks ys [ ku % d`E;kedQdq’Bfo’kesnlkeqigUrk iqaLRoL ; pkfrlsfor%A ( lq0lw011@5 ) 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

Method of Preparation:

Method of Preparation Rka fpdh’kZq % “ kjfn ---------------------------------------------------- lizrhoki % iDo % ikD;Lrh {. k%AA ( lq0lw0 11@11&13 ) Potent plants were collected by maintaining proper hygiene & aseptic environment. For drying ,Cut into small pieces & put them in a place, protected from wind. All dried plant material & pieces of unslaked 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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Limestone together burn them to ashes which are lighted by dried sesamum plants. Ashes of plant material & limestone seperated , collected & stored. Ashes of plant material only dissolved & stirred up in six times pure water or cow`s urine. Filtered twenty-one times in succession. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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Filterate should be boiled on gentle heat. Saturated water would appear transparent, slimy, red and irritating. Then It should be filtered through a piece of clean linen and then divided into two half. First half. Second half. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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First half. Again boiled with stirring on gentle heat. Make it not too thin nor too thick in consistency. Mridu kshara - laO;wfge ~ ( Kshara of mild potency ) 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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Second half Red hot limestone`s pieces immersed & pressed in solution. Again boiled with stirring on gentle heat. Make it not too thin, nor too thick in consistency Madhya kshara ( Kshara of middle potency) 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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FOR TIKSHANA KSHARA (KSHARA OF HIGH POTENCY & ikD ; )PREPERATION :- Powder of Danti , Dravanti , Chitraka , Langali , Putika-praval etc.added along with limestone`s pieces. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

DIFFERENT VIEWS ON PROCESSING:

DIFFERENT VIEWS ON PROCESSING All scholars gives same views as per sushruta . but sharandhara , rasatarangini indicate four times water. Rasatarangini three fold cloth filter while other scholars not mention such view. Yadav ji added concept of ash after dissolving in liquid kept for one night . Other scholar mention boiling upto onefourth quantity,before adding limestone, while Sushruta gives character of solution for adding limestone`s pieces. In API & AFI six times water added , three fold cotton cloth filter used. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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views for internally applicable kshara preperation :- ; Fkk izfrlkj.kh;L ; dk’Bnkg % ‘ k Mxq.kksndikdfL = Hkkxko”ks’kkuUrja ifjlzko.ka p] r)r~ ikuh;L;kfi ikdfof /k% lzko.ka p f} rh ; ikdotZa AA &&&& MYg.k lq0lw0 11@10 r¥~ psrj { kkjon ~ nX /ok ifjlzko;sr~A rL ; foLrjks∙U ;=AA &&&&&&&lq0lw0 11@10 Internally applicable kshara are used in two form 1. Liquid – ksharodak , ksharodak sadhit oils,etc . 2 .Solid – churna , ksharavaleh , ksharaghrita , kshara vati , gutika,etc . 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

ADITIONAL MATERIAL USEFULL IN KSHARA PREPERATION :

ADITIONAL MATERIAL USEFULL IN KSHARA PREPERATION dV”kdZjk & vnX / klq / kk ik’kk.k ] HkLe”kdZjk & { kkjnzO;S % lg nX / kk”pw.kZ ik’k.k %] { khjikd & ty”kqfDr “ka[ kukHkh ] nUrh ] nzoUrh ] fp =d] yk M‐xyh ] Ikwfrd izoky ] rkyi =h ¼ewlyh½ foMyo.k ] lqofpZdk ¼LoftZ{kkj½] dud{ khjh ] opk ] vrhl etc. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

PART USED FOR KSHARA PREPaRATION:

PART USED FOR KSHARA PREPaRATION Apamarga kshara – Panchanga . Yava kshara - Yava panchanga . Palash kshara - Palash tvaka . Kadali kshara - Kadali kanda . Snuhi kshara - Snuhi panchanga . Arka kshara - Arka panchnga . Tila kshara - Tila panchanga …………etc. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

FOR DECREASED POTENCY KSHARA:

FOR DECREASED POTENCY KSHARA In case of prolonged storage or less potent drug used in preparation, potency of kshara decreased. In this condition furthur ksharodak will be added and reboiled to obtain required form. { kh.kcys rq { kkjksndekoisn ~ cydj.kkFkZe~AA lq0lw0 11 @15 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

METHOD OF TESTING:

METHOD OF TESTING Testing of kshara is done by putting Erand Nal in kshara solution.- 1. If the Erand Nal becme burnt or dagdha on account of the contact of Kshara (100 number) Ideal kshara 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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2.Dagdha occurs within 100 numbering. Ati-tikshna 3.If Erand Nal does not show any shine of burn or dagdha even inspite of contact over than 100 numbering. Mridu Kshara ;| sj. Mtukyes’k ngfr { kkjks ojks okd ~ ” krkr~A &&&& gjk.kpUnz 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

PROPERTIES OF KSHARA:

PROPERTIES OF KSHARA UkSokfrrh {. kks u e`nq % “ kqDy % “y{. kks ∙Fk fifPNy%A vfo’;Unh f”ko % “ kh?kz % { kkjks á’Vxq.k % Le`r % AA---lq0 lw011@16 rh {. kks’.kks y?kq :{ k”p Dysnh iDrk fonkj.k%A nkguks nhiu”NsRrk loZ % { kkjks∙fXulfUuHk%AA ----p0lw0 27@306 r= ukfrrh {. kks ukfre`nq % “ osr % “y{.k% “ kh?kz % fifPNy % f”k [ kjh lq [ kfuokZI;ks∙Yi:xufHk’;Unh Pskfr n”k { kkjL ; xq.kk%A -----------------------------------------------v0l0lw0 39@7 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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CHARAK SAMHITA SUSHRUTA SAMHITA ASTANGA HRIDAYA Tikshana Natitikshna (Not too strong) Natagamiitikshana Usna Not so mridu (mild) Not so mridu Laghu Shukla (whiteness) Sita Ruksha Shlakshana (sliminess) Shlakshana Kledi Picchila (sticking ) Picchila Pakta Avisyandi (not too thin) Avisyandi Vidarana Shiva ( morbid fluid) Sukhanirvapya Dahakaraka Shighrakari (rapid effective) Shighragami Dipan Shikhari Kshedana Natiruk Agni sadrisya 11 8 10 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

DOSHAS OF KSHARA:

DOSHAS OF KSHARA vfreknZo”oSR;kS’.;rS {.; iSfPNY;lfiZrk%A lkUnzrk ∙iDork ghunzO;rk nks’k mP;rsAA ( lq0lw0 11@17 ) vR;q’.kks ∙fr”khrks∙frrh {. kks∙fre`nqjfrruqjfr?kuks∙frfifPNyks folihZ ghukS’k / kks ghuikd”pfrAA ( v0la0lw039@7 ) Excessive weakness or inertness of kshara , excessive strength, sliminess, tendency to spread, thickness, unmaturity or inferior quality of the stuff or drugs are the different doshas or draw backs of kshara . 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

Is it only aushadhi or else????? :

Is it only aushadhi or else????? In our Ayurvedic classics kshara is not only used as aushadhi but also as ahara-upyogi dravya . Acharya Caraka gives two references to show that kshara can be used as regular basis with diet. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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As he described in ahara-upyogi varga in 27 th chapter( annapanavidhiadhyaya ) of Sutra Sthana as – , j.M rSy ] fiz;ky rSy ] vrlh rSy ] dqlqEHk rSy ] olk ] eTtk ] fiIiyh ] “ kq.Bh ] efjp ] ghax ] yo.k ] { kkj ] dkykthjk ] vtok;u ] / kfu;k vkfnA In Rasavimana adhyaya of Vimana Sthana , he also gives importance to kshara and said that kshara cannot be used in excess amount. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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vFk [ kyq = hf.k nzO;kf.k ukR;qi;qathrkf / kdeU;sH;ks nzO;sH ;%( r|Fkk & fiIiyh ] { kkj %] yo.kfefrA ( p0fo0 1@15 ) Therefore, people habituated with the intake of alkali and salt continuously in large quantity should give up this habit slowly. Even if the body be accustomed to these habits, the slow discontinuance of this habit does not have any harmful effect or even if it has, the harm caused is too insignificant. rLekRrs’kka rRlkRE;r % dzes.kkixeua Js;%A lkRE;efi fg dzes.kksifuoR;Zekuenks’keYinks’ka ok HkofrAA ( p0fo01@19 ) 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

Use of kshara as drug:

Use of kshara as drug l f } fo /k%&izfrlkj.kh;%] ikuh ;” pAA && lq0lw0 11@6 Lk f}/ kk & ckákH;UrjifjektZu HksnsuA &&&v0l0lw039@3 pw.kkZHk % izfrlk;Z % L;kRis ;% L;kr ~ DokFkor ~ fLFkr%A bfr { kkj };a / khekuqDrdk;sZ’kq ; kst;sr~AA &&&&&” kk -e- 11-104 { kkja rq f} fo /ka izksDra ikuh;a ik ;; sr ~ lq / kh%A ysiknkS ; kst;sr ~ izfrlkj.kh;a fHk’kXoj % AA &&&& Hkk - HkS -d- fo - Jh f} osnh 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

Use of kshara:

Use of kshara Kshara As a Drug As an ahara-upyogi dravya e.g. yavakshara , External Internal kadlikshara , Pratisarniya Paniya etc. (mainly described (mainly described in Dhanwantri in Atreya sampradaya ) sampradaya ) 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

DOMINANCE OF KSHARA KARMA OVER OTHER SURGICAL & PARASURGICAL PROCEDURE:

DOMINANCE OF KSHARA KARMA OVER OTHER SURGICAL & PARASURGICAL PROCEDURE “ kL = kuq”kL = sH ;% { kkj % iz / kkure %]& Ns |Hks|ys [;dj.kkr~ f= nks’k?uRokr ~ fo”ks’kfdz;k∙opkj.kk”p ---------------------------lq0lw0 11@3 loZ”kL = kuq”kL =k.kka { kkj % Js’Bks cgwfu ; r~A Ns |Hks|kfndekZf.k dq:rs fo’kes’ofiAA nq %[ kkopk;Z”kL = s’kq rsu fl) e;kRl pA vfrd`PNzs’kq jksxs’kq ;Pp ikus∙fi ; qT;rsAA -------------- okXHkV 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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EXTERNAL APPLICABLE KSHARA ( Pratisaraniya kshara ) Tikshna kshara . Madhyam kshara . Mridu kshara . INDICATION :- r=] izfrlk.kh;% dq’BfdfVHknnzqe. MyfdyklHkxUnjkcqZnk”kksZnq’Voz.kuk M  hpeZdhyfrydkydU;P NO;ax~e”kdckáfonzf/ kd`fefo’kkfn’kwifn ”; rsA lIrlq p eq [ kjksxs’kwiftàk∙f / kftàksidq”knUroSnHkZs’kq frl`’kq p jksfg.kh’kqAA &&&& lq0lw0 11@7 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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CONTRA-INDICATION :-1. Disease wise- vFk uSrs { kkjd`R;k%aA r |Fkk&nqcZyckyLFkfojHkh#lokZ³~x”kwuksnfjjDrfifRrxfHkZ.;`rqerhizo`) Tofjizesfg #{k{ kr { kh.kr`’.kkewPNksZinqzrDyhckio`Rrksn~o`RrQy;ksu ;% &&&&&&&&lq0lw0 11@30 2. Site wise - rFkk eeZfljkLuk;qlfU / kr#.kkfLFk lsouh / keuh xyukHkh u[ kkUr % “ ksQ % lzksrl LoYiekals’kq p izns”ks’o {. kks”p u n|knU ;= oReZjksxkr~AA &&&&&&&&&lq0 lw0 11@31 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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DOSE OF EXTERNAL APPLICABLE KSHARA- rs’kka ; FkkO;kf / kcyeqi;ksx%A &&&&&&&lq0lw0 11 @ 16 { kkjksi;ksxk % & ; ksT;Lrh {. kks ∙fuy”ys’eesnksts’ocqZnkfn’kqA e/; s’oso p e/; ks∙U ;% fiRrklzxqntUelqAA &&&&&&& MYg.k 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

INTERNAL APPLICABLE KSHARA:

INTERNAL APPLICABLE KSHARA Yavakshara Kshara dvaya – svarji kshara , yava kshara Ksharatraya – svarji kshara , yava kshara , tankana kshara Kshara shataka – laangli , tilnala , mokshaka , shigru , mayuraja and yavaja kshara Ksharashtaka – tilnal , palasha , mokshaka , shigru , mayurajakshara and kshara traya 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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Vriksha kshara – the ksharas obtained from vegetable drugs, viz., tila , apaamaarga , kadali , palaasha , shigru , mokshaka , mulaka , aardraka and chinchaakshara are included. Khanija kshara – tankana kshara , sarja kshara , surya kshara Kshara dashaka – in this group also vegetable kshara viz., chukrikaa , pilu , palaasha , mulaka , shigru , chitraka , nimba , mochaka , shikhari and ikshu kshara are included. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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DOSES FORM :- ikuh ;% ikukgZ %] { kkjksndfeR;FkZ %] ;s p ∙ U;sfiikD;lfTkZdk ;o{ kkjk ; Fkkjksxa oDrO;kLrs’kka pw.kZ oVdkoysgkfn’kq iz;ksx drZO ;%AA &&&&&&&& MYg.k STABILITY PERIOD ( saviryata avadhi ) :- 1- 5 years .if proper air tight glass packing done. ANUPANA :- as per disease. 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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INDICATION :- Ikkuh;Lrq xjxqYeksnjkfXul ³~xth.kZkjkspdkukg “ kdZjk”eZ;kH;kUrjfonzf / kd`fefo’kk”kZLlwi;qT;rsAA &&&&&&&lq0lw0 11@8 CONTRA- INDICATION :- vfgrLrq jDrfiRrTofjr fiRrizd`fr cky o`) nqcZy Hkze en eqPNZk frfejijhrsH;ks∙U;sH ;” pSofo / ksH ;%AA &&&lq0lw0 11@9 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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DOSE OF INTERNAL APPLICABLE KSHARA :- ikuh ;{ kkjksndizek.keqRrek ek =k iya ] e/; ek d’kZ =;e~] v/ kek v/ kZiye ~] vU ;= xqYekfn’o /; k;s’kqA &&&&&&& MYg.k Ekk =k rq iyf = d’kZk / kZiy : ik mRree /; ek / kecys’kq &&&&&&&pdzik.kh rs’kka ; FkkO;kf / kcyeqi;ksx%A &&&&&&&lq0lw0 11 @ 16 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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, dkUrja }; Urja ok «; ga foJE ; ok iqu%A “ kjhjcynks’kk.kka o`f ) { ki.kdks fon%AA &&&&&&&&& pjd xqYefpfdRlk nks’kizd`fr xqYerqZ;ksxa cq )ok dQksYc.ksA cy nks’k izek.kK % { kkja xqYes iz;kst;sr~AA &&&&&&&&&& pjd xqYefpfdRlk 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

IMPORTANCE OF PRECAUTION IN KSHARA USE:

IMPORTANCE OF PRECAUTION IN KSHARA USE fo’kkfXu”kL = k”kfue`R;qdYi % { kkjks HkoR;Yiefriz;qDr%A l / kherk lE;xuqiz;qDrks jksxkfUugU;knfpjs.k ? kksjku~AA &&&&&lq0lw0 11 @ 33 6/25/2012 Departmental seminar

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Monday, June 25, 2012 Dr.vivek singh,MD(Ay) in samhita 48

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