blister packaging

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Pharmaceutical Blister Packaging :

Pharmaceutical Blister Packaging Submitted By vivek chauhan Supervisor Co- Supervisors Prof. K. K. Jha Arun Kumar Director Sachin Kumar Department of Pharmacy NKBR College of Pharmacy and Research Centre Meerut Hapur Road, Phaphunda, Meerut-245206 2009


INTRODUCTION Pharmaceutical packaging is the means of providing protection, presentation, identification and information, containment, and convenience to encourage compliance with and closures. Packaging Concepts Type of Packaging Materials:- The containers used for pharmaceutical products are usually made from the following basis materials; 1. Glass 2. Plastic 3. Metal 4. Paper and board

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Glass:- Type of glass:- Lime-soda glass Borosilicate glass Silicone-treated glass Sulphured glass Amber color glass Advantage of glass:- 1. protective properties 2. protection against moisture, oxygen carbon dioxide, temperature . 3.Economical glass. 4.They are transparent. 5.They are neutral after proper treatment. 6.They have good protection power.

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Disadvantage of glass:- 1. Glass is fragile. 2. Glass containers are heavy. 3.Glass containers may release alkali to aqueous preparations. PLASTIC:- Plastics are high molecular weight polymers. A plastic may be defined as a material that contains as an essential ingredient, one or more polymeric organic substance of large molecular weight . Composition of Plastic a. Polyethylene (Polythene b. Polypropylene: c. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): d. Polyamide (NYLON e. Polystyrene: f. Polytetra fluoroethylene (PTFE): g. Polymethyl methoacrylate (PMMA):

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Classification of plastic: 1. Thermoplastic Type: 2. Thermosetting Type: Advantage of plastic: A. Light in weight and can be handled easily. B. Poor conductor of heat. C. Sufficient mechanical strength. D. Transported easily. E. They are unbreakable. F. Resistance to inorganic chemicals Disadvantage of plastic: A. They are permeable to water vapour and atmospheric gases. B.They can not with stand heat without softening or distorting. C. They may adsorb chemical substance, such, preservatives for solution. D.They are relatively expensive.

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METALS:- Metals used in packaging including Tin (15%), Aluminum (60%), and Lead (25%).These metals are useful in the preparation of collapsible tubes. 1. Tin 2. Aluminum 3. Lead Type of metal containers:- a. Collapsible tubes:- b. Metal containers for tablets and capsules c. Metal foil Advantage of Metals:- 1. They are sturdy. 2. They are impermeable to light, moisture,and gas. 3. They are light in weight as compared to glass containers. 4. Labels can be printed directly on to their surface.

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Disadvantage of metals:- 1. They are expensive. 2. They may shed metal particles into pharmaceutical products 3. They are not generally used for extemporaneous dispensing 4. They react with certain chemicals of drug. PAPER AND BOARD 1. Composition:- Paper and board are composed of cellulose obtained by the mechanical or semi chemical treatment of visit able fibers dried from various sources like wood, hemp, cotton, etc. 2. Properties of paper and board:- Paper and board products are nontoxic, low cost and form a natural removal source.

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LITERATURE REVIEW Albert 9 Studied the two primary components of a blister packs are the cavity or pocket made “formable” web either plastic or aluminum and the leading, made from paper, cartoon. The product and the leading seal the product in the package. Paul H. Joe. H. 10 Studies that Blister pack is a term for several types of pre-formed plastic packaging used for small consumer goods. Blister packaging is an inexpensive option for creating packages that are durable, transparent, and tamper proof. Keitch L. smith 11 studied that the primary consideration for the design of a blister relies within the customer’s need for strength and consistency within the part. Jain U.K 12 studies that pharmaceutical packaging and technology of blister packs and packaging material. Blister package of growing improving importance and so a chapter is included on this topic. Brody A.L 13 studies the Wiley Encyclopedia of packaging technology and blister pack of tablet and capsules. Blister packaging is a process to safe the medicine and protect the other thinks.

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Wilmington, DE 14 studied 3-D SMART™ Product Suite for Blister Packaging 3-D Scanning and drawings™ technology uniquely connects package design with production reality to establish a standard engineering design policy for pharmaceutical blister packaging Thomason, W. A. 15 studied that blister pack dramatically improve medication compliance in elderly monthly pharmacist-provided education plus provision of all medications. Donald, S.R. etal. 16 Studied from Wiley Encyclopedia that blister packs can provide excellent environmental and the product has more esthetic value. Blister Packs are very important to safe the medicine.

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E. Swain 17 studies on PVC material are used as supporting material for the blister packing PVC is present in hard form and its strength and superior resistance to sterilization effect. Thomas W 18 Studied unmanaged packages that can be used for a one-time distribution, like a template. These are ideal for sharing application templates or code samples. For example, the package created in the tutorial was an unmanaged package. Ford J B 19 Studied the packaging concept and describe that package typically consists of a number of different components. For example, it may contain user interface components, database components such as objects and triggers, Apex code, page layouts, reports and more. A package also comes in two flavors: unmanaged and managed. The following sections provide details on these concepts. Alliel , J.R. 20 .studied the advantage and disadvantage of blister packaging.The benefit of blister packaging to safe the product for envirment and thinks.

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Wheaton, I.L. 21 studied the different type of plastics. Plastics are synthetic polymer of high molecular weight. Plastic is made from one or polymers together with certain additives. The polymers commonly used as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polymethyl acryl ate.


PHARMACEUTICAL BLISTERS PACKAGING Blister packs are comnally used as unit dose packing for pharmaceuticals dosage forms such as tablets, lozenges drops, and soft and hard gelatin capsule. Blister packing is also used in the toy, hardware, cosmetic, novelties, pharmaceuticals, confectionary, food products, industries in many house hold products. Type of Packaging 1.Thermoforming 2.Cold forming

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Materials for Pharmaceutical blister packs Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC):- The most basic material for the forming web is PVC or Polyvinyl Chloride. The principal advantages of PVC are the low cost and the ease of thermoforming. Polychloro trifluoro ethylene(PCTFE):- Polychloro trifluoro ethylene or PCTFE can be laminated to PVC to obtain very high moisture barrier. General Property of Blister Packaging Material 1. Tensile strength represents 2. Tear strength 3. Impact resistance 4. Stiffness 5. Temperature resistance 6. Moisture resistance

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Blister:- New PVC materials as well as advances in coating technology have made PVdC films more suitable for a broader range of applications, and newer blister film solutions are also being explored. . Design Considerations:- The primary consideration for the design of a blister relies within the customer’s need for strength and consistency within the part. Factors affecting blister thickness: A. Material: The nature of material e.g. softening temperature, hardening time, elasticity etc. B. Process: Pressure and plug system usually produce forming produces thicker top section while in vacuum forming, it is thicker near the base and thinner at the top. C. Essential machine operation:- 1. Heating and thermoforming 2. Cold forming 3. Feeding and filling 4. Heat sealing of the bidding material 5. Punching out or guillotining the tray from the web. 6. Printing of the lidding web, 7. Batch marking,

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Automatic Blister Packing DPB-250E Flat-plate Automatic machine DPB-250F Flat-plate Automatic Blister Packing Machine DPB-250G Flat-plate Automatic Blister Packing Machine Alu - Alu Blister packaging Machine 6. Production Blister packaging Machine 7. Hard PVC Machine 8. AL- PVC Blister Packaging Machine BLISTER PACKAGING MACHINE

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Advantages of Blister Packaging :- 1. Blisters are very inexpensive to produce. 2. Can be promote products. 3. Protects and holds the product securely. 4. Many sizes available, from small unit-dose. 5. Allows products to be seen, but not touched. 6. Product is very visible. Disadvantages:- 1. Blisters require some type of a card to seal the blister to. 2. Requires heat sealing the blister to the card.


CONCLUSION In the pharmaceutical industry, it is vital that the package selected adequately preserve the integrity of the product. The selection of a package therefore begins with a determination of product’s physical and chemical characteristics, it protective needs, and its marketing requirements. Blister packs are commnally used as unit dose packaging for pharmaceuticals dosage forms such as tablets, lozenges, soft and hard gelatin, drops. Blister packing is also used in the toy, hardware, and cosmetic, novelties, pharmaceuticals, confectionary, and food products industries as well as in many house hold products.

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The primary consideration for the design of a blister relies within the customer’s need for strength and consistency within the part.  For strength, male parts are stronger at the top of the part for protection, and inconsistent at the flange. Using blister packs for holding sensitive packaged articles such as tablets, capsules, and the like is known. In this connection a carrier body is produced from flat material, which within a plane region has several depressions produced by deformation of this material for holding the packaged article, and is connected two-dimensionally to an aluminum sealing foil in the plane region.


REFERENCES 1.Williams Lippincott Remington “Plastic packaging materials”;21th edition vol.1, page no.1005-1014-1054; 2005 2.Williams Lippincott Remington “Plastic packaging materials”; 20 th edition, page no. 1005-1014, 2000 3.Banker,G.S;Rhodes C.T. ;Modern Pharmaceutics “Packaging of Pharmaceutical dosage form, 4 th edition,revised , page no.587-610 2002 4.  Winfield, A.J., Richards, R.M.E, Pharmaceutical Practice, 3 rd edition, 2004, page no. 105-115. 5. Lachman, L; Liberman , H.A; Kanig , J.L.;Packaging material sciences, 32 nd edition, page no.711-730.1990 6. Allen, Loyd V.; Popovich Nicholas G, Ansel ; Howard, C.Ansel , “Packaging, labeling, storage of pharmaceuticals” 8 th edition, 2005, first Indian reprint 2007, page no.80-91

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7.Mehta, R.M. “Containers and closures for dispensed products reprint edition 2007 page no.49-65 (dispensing pharmacy ) 8. Mehta R.M. p’ceutics -I, “Packaging of pharmaceuticals”, reprint 2006, III-edition pages-75-89. 9.Albert A. Studied the primary components of a blister packs 2009 10.Paul Hook, Joe. Heimlich Blister pack for packaging 1890 11.Keitch L. smith “Design of a blister relies within the customer’s” , National instt.of packaging.1990

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12. Jain U.K Blister packs and packaging material. National instt. of packaging.1990 13. Brody A. L, and Marshm K, S, "The Wiley Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology" 1997 14. Wilmington, D.E.; Montesino Associates, LLC and Prodieco Pharmaceutical ltd. 2004 15. Thomason,W.A;Education, Blister Pack Dramatically Improve Medication Compliance the Journal of the American Medical Association.2006 16. Donald, S.R. Studied from Wiley Encyclopedia that blister packs can provide excellent environmental and the product has more esthetic value.1993

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17. E.Swain High barrier material for blister packing. Pharm.Med . Packaging news, 1995 18. Thomas W. Studied unmanaged packages that can be used for a one-time distribution, like a template. pharm technol 1991. 19. Ford J.B. “Studied the Packaging Concept” 1965 20. Alliel,J.R . “Studied the Benefits of blister packaging” 2006 21.Wheaton, I.L, “Spray technology of blister packs” June 23,24 2008 22. Dean D.A. “Plastic packaging for drug product-the regulatory Story” The society of the plastic industry manual New York, 1967 23.Martin, Alfred, 4 th edition, “Related to packaging Concept” Chun, A.H.C.reprint 2005.

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24. Thomas A.L. “A Look at solution to O-T-C tamper packages” engineering.Cahners, vol 27, no.13, December 1982. 25.Indian Pharmacopoeia “Related to the of blister packs” vol-I, 1996 26. Clamshells R.F. “Clamshell Packaging Blister pack” 2007 27. Wilmington D.E. “blister packaging machine for pharmaceutical company”1880 28. Dean, D.A., the blister packaging of pharmaceuticals. Pharma international, no.15-18. 1972

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