c.i engine alternate fuel

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Alternate fuel


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ABSTRACT I n this thesis an experimental investigation on the performance of surface ignition four stroke C.I.engine fueled with pure diesel (D100) and ethanol-diesel blends containing 10%,20%,25% and 30% by volume of ethanol are evaluated. The ethanol – diesel fuel affects blend stability, viscosity, lubricity, corrosiveness and safety. The tests are carried out on a ceramic heater headed diesel engine under steady state operating conditions single cylinder on two specified speeds of 1250 rpm, 1500 rpm.


INTRODUCTION The diesel engine is the engine of choice for heavy-duty applications in agriculture, construction, industrial, and on-highway transport for over 50 years. Its early popularity could be attributed to its ability to use the portion of the petroleum, crude oil that had previously been considered a waste product from the refining of gasoline. Later, the diesel’s durability, high torque capacity, and fuel efficiency assured its role in the most demanding applications. Diesel is one of the fuels that can be refined from crude oil. Diesel fuel is considered a mid-weight petroleum product. .


Ethanol fuel is the most common biofuel worldwide, particularly in Brazil. Alcohol fuels are produced by fermentation of sugars derived from wheat, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane, molasses and any sugar or starch that alcoholic beverages can be made from (like potato and fruit waste, etc. The ethanol production methods used are enzyme digestion (to release sugars from stored starches), fermentation of the sugars, distillation and drying. ETHANOL

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Engine performance for n- butanol additive at different speeds The test results of the brake specific fuel consumptions (BSFCs) with the engine power outputs, when the engine fuelled by different blends and diesel fuel are studied. The experiments given that the engine power could be same when fuelled by different fuel blends with some extent increases of fuel consumption. The ratio of ethanol- diesel blends gives various fuel consumption according to the percentage of ethanol present in the diesel fuel . If more ethanol is added with diesel gives more fuel consumption. The results of the thermal efficiencies of engine with the engine power on two tested speeds when fuelled by different fuel blends and the pure diesel are studied.

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The exhaust emissions are measured in terms of CO, HC, Particulates and oxides of nitrogen ( NOx ) emissions. The results for diesel fuel as well as ethanol-diesel blends are given below. The NOx emissions of the engine operating on diesel and ethanol-diesel blends are also given below. It shows that as the percentage of ethanol in the blends increased, NOx emission is reduced This is because the air-fuel ratio in the case of ethanol-diesel blends was lower as compared to diesel alone. Also, the latent heat of vaporization of ethanol lowers same temperature resulting in lower NOx emissions. Exhaust Emissions

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Further investigations are recommended to find out the optimized percentage of the additive to the blends to solve the problem of the stability, for example 8% or 10% solvent addition may be used for further tests. FUTURE RESEARCH WORK

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Ethanol fuel has an extremely low cetane number, whereas the diesel engine is prefer to high cetane number fuels which makes auto-ignition easily and gives small ignition delay. LIMITATIONS

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An experimental investigation was conducted on the solubility and physical properties of the blends of ethanol with diesel and the effects of the application of these blends on the ceramic heater surface ignition engine performance parameters and emissions . The tested blends were from 10% to 30% of ethanol by volume; and also with 5% of the additive of Formaldehyde. CONCLUSIONS

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