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Diesel locomotive works, Varanasi

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VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE WORKS VARANASI:

VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE WORKS VARANASI BY VISHNU KUMAR 13/NR/1419 BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MESRA

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would sincerely like to thank the employees and the officers of DLW , VARANASI for their help and support during the vocational training . Despite their busy schedules, they took time out for us and explained to us the various aspects of the working of the plant, from the production shops. DLW VARANASI 2

PREFACE :

PREFACE The objectives of the practical training are to learn something about industries practically and to be familiar with the working style of a technical person to adjust simply according to the industrial environment. As, a part of academic syllabus of four year degree course in Mechanical Engineering, every student is required to undergo a practical training . I am student of 2 nd year mechanical from BIT MESRA and this report is written on the basis of practical knowledge acquired by me during the period of practical training taken at Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi . DLW VARANASI 3

INTRODUCTION :

INTRODUCTION Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) is production unit under the ministry of railways. This was setup in collaboration with American locomotive company (ALCO) USA in 1961 and the first locomotive was rolled out in 1964. This unit produces diesel electronic locomotives and DG sets for Indian railways and other customers in India and Abroad. DLW VARANASI 4

INTRODUCTION :

INTRODUCTION Subsequently a contract for transfer of technology of 4000 HP Microprocessor Controlled AC/AC Freight (GT 46 MAC) / passenger (GT 46 PAC) locomotives and family of 710 engines has been signed with electro motive division of general motors of USA for manufacture in DLW. the production of these locomotives has now started and thus DLW is the only manufacturers of Diesel Electric Locomotives with both ALCO and General motors technologies in the world. DLW VARANASI 5

PRODUCT OF DLW:

PRODUCT OF DLW DLW is an integrated plant and its manufacturing facilities are flexible in nature. these can be utilized for manufacture of different design of locomotives of various gauges suiting costomer requirments and other products. the product range avilable is as under . DLW VARANASI 6

PRODUCTS OF DLW:

PRODUCTS OF DLW WDG4 4000 HP AC/AC Frieght traffic Locomotive WDP4 4000 HPAC/AC Broad Gauge High Speed Locomotive WDG3D 3400 HP AC/AC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Micro-Processor Controlled Locomotive . WDM3C 3300 HP AC/DC Broad Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Locomotive . WDM3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed Traffic Locomotive. WDP3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge High Speed Passenger Locomotive. DLW VARANASI 7

WORKSHOPS:

WORKSHOPS These are the workshops in DLW plant. i. HWS ii. HMS iii. LMS iv. ROTOR v. HTS vi. SAS vii. EES viii. ET ix. LFS x. SMS xi. TMS xii. PS xiii. LTS x iv.LPS xv. TR xvi.TAS xvii. MA-I xviii.MA-II xix.MA-II xx.MA-II xxi.MSS xxii.MRS xxiii.CMT LAB xxiv. ELECT.LAB These all work in coordination in the overall fabrication of engine and then finally locomotive. DLW VARANASI 8

ALLOTED WORKSHOP:

ALLOTED WORKSHOP I was alloted the following workshop to perform my vocational training. HWS---heavy welding shop. ROTOR----Rotor shop. HTS------heat treatment shop. LFS------locomotive frame shop. The following slides deals with what I have learnt during My training in these workshop. DLW VARANASI 9

HEAVY WELDING SHOP :

HEAVY WELDING SHOP The heavy welding shop is the most sophisicated one among all the shops. Following types of welding are performed here:- 1. ARC WELDING Description:- a). An electric arc between the workpiece and electrode generate heat . The heat is sufficient to melt the workpieces together. DLW VARANASI 10

ELECTRICITY REQUIREMENT:

ELECTRICITY REQUIREMENT The range of welding current used can be from 5 to 500 ampere. The voltage range from 20 to 30 volts, ac or dc. Both are determined by material thickness. A 60 w bulbs draw .6 ampere of current. It can be estimated how much electrical energy is used in HWS. DLW VARANASI 11

CLASSIFICATION OF ARC WELDING:

CLASSIFICATION OF ARC WELDING Shielded metal arc welding,,,,,,,,(stick SMAW) Gas metal arc welding,,,,,,,,,,(MIG GMAW) Flux core arc welding,,,,,,,( Flux core FCAW) Gas tungsten arc welding,,,,,,,(TIG GTAW) DLW VARANASI 12

SOME IMPORTANT TERMS:

SOME IMPORTANT TERMS ELECTRODE:- This is where the current passes from welder to workpiece . It is of two types:- 1). Contact /consumable 2). Non contact ATMOSPHERIC PROTECTION:- 1). Shielding gas 2).Flux DLW VARANASI 13

SCHEMATIC :

SCHEMATIC DLW VARANASI 14

STICK WELDING:

STICK WELDING Uses a consumable rod called metal filler coated in flux. Stick welding requires moderate to high skill. ADVANTAGES:- It is inexpensive. Can be used in all environments. Portable DLW VARANASI 15

MIG WELDING:

MIG WELDING This is similar to SMAW except that :- It uses a shielding gas supplied from external sources. It has a WIRE FEEDER which is a electromechanical device that feed required amount of filler material at a constant rate. The whole system is called roller drive system. The shielding gas consist of 75% argon and 25% carbon dioxide. DLW VARANASI 16

SCHEMATIC :

SCHEMATIC DLW VARANASI 17

MIG WELDING :

MIG WELDING ADVANTAGE This process requires low to moderate skill level. Very fast process. Easy to learn. DISADVANTAGE Weld area must be protected from external air movements. DLW VARANASI 18

FLUX CORE WELDING:

FLUX CORE WELDING Flux cored arc welding is similar to a gas metal arc welding. Electrode is tubular in shape and is filled with flux. Cored electrodes produce more stable arc improve weld contour and produce better mechanical properties. Flux is more flexible than others. DLW VARANASI 19

SCHEMATIC:

SCHEMATIC DLW VARANASI 20

ADVANTAGE:

ADVANTAGE DLW VARANASI High deposition rates Deeper penetration than SMAW High-quality Less pre-cleaning than GMAW Slag covering helps with larger out-of-position welds Self-shielded FCAW is draft tolerant. 21

FEATURES :

FEATURES Slag must be removed. More smoke and fumes than GMAW and SAW. Spatter. FCAW wire is more expensive. Equipment is more expensive and complex than for SMAW. DLW VARANASI 22

TIG WELDING:

TIG WELDING There is tungsten electrode through which current is passed.(melting point 3700 degree kelvin). Argon is used as shielding gas. Requires the highest skill. Advantage:- Nearly all metal can be welded using this process. Very precise. Disadvantage:- Very slow. DLW VARANASI 23

ADVANTAGE:

ADVANTAGE The TIG welding process is known for its consistency in producing high quality welds. The welding process is easier than other methods because the weldor can clearly see the welding zone. There is a minimal amount of smoke, fumes, and sparks created by the TIG process . The finished weld requires little, if any, grinding or preparation before it can be painted. There is usually less distortion of the workpiece because of the small heat affected zone. DLW VARANASI 24

FEATURES :

FEATURES . The TIG process can be adapted for welding in the horizontal, vertical, and overhead positions as well as the flat position. . One limitation of the TIG welding process is the low deposition rate of the filler and metal. The TIG process will deposit less filler metal per pass than of the other processes. Because of the increased time needed to complete welds on thick metal, the TIG process is used most often on thinner metals. DLW VARANASI 25

SCHEMATIC:

SCHEMATIC DLW VARANASI 26

FINALLY:

FINALLY STRESS RELIVE OF CYLINDER BLOCK. After completion of welding the cylinder block is then stress relieved at the temp. Ranging from 115 F obtaining total timing 28 Hrs ie . (1) Pre heat time 14 Hours. (2) Soaking time 04 Hrs and (3) Cooling time 10 Hrs in stress relative’s furnace capable to accommodate to B.G. block at a time. As the engine block in machined to very close tolerances. DLW VARANASI 27

FLAME CUTTING OR OXYGEN CUTTING :

FLAME CUTTING OR OXYGEN CUTTING Requires that the part to be cut be raised to a temperature of 1,500-1,600ºF Stream of pure oxygen directed onto hot metal causing it to burn rapidly Burning steel gives off iron oxide as a product of combustion Iron oxide solid at room temperature Melting point below melting point of steel so iron oxide runs off as molten slag, exposing more iron to jet DLW VARANASI 28

BASIC PRINCIPLE:

BASIC PRINCIPLE DLW VARANASI Around this center hole are a number of preheating flame holes Cutting tips may be obtained in various shapes and sizes. The thicker the metal that is to be cut, the larger the size of the center hole must be. The cutting tip has a central hole through which the high pressure oxygen flows. 29

STANDARD CUTTING TIPS :

STANDARD CUTTING TIPS DLW VARANASI The standard tip has a straight bore cutting oxygen port and is typically used with oxygen pressures in the 30 to 60 p.s.i . range. 30

MULTIPLE CUTTING TORCHES :

MULTIPLE CUTTING TORCHES DLW VARANASI A number of cutting torches are mounted on the machine so that a number of parts of the same shape can be cut simultaneously. These machines can be used for straight-line or circle cutting. They can be guided by hand or a template. 31

HEAT TREATMENT SHOP :

HEAT TREATMENT SHOP In this shop hardening, stress relieving, tempering normalizing, carburizing,quenching is done by conventional and non conventional process. Here we are doing hardening of camshaft, connecting rod different small components of cylinder head. The shop is divided into two parts:- Induction section :- used for overall hardening. Furnace section:- used for overall process. DLW VARANASI 32

HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS :

HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS DLW VARANASI 33

10.4 Direct Hardening – Austenitizing and quench: :

10.4 Direct Hardening – Austenitizing and quench : Austenitizing :– again taking a steel with .6% carbon or greater and heating to the austenite region . Rapid quench to trap the carbon in the crystal structure – called martensite . (BCT) DLW VARANASI 34

Austenitizing:

Austenitizing DLW VARANASI Heat to austenite range. Want to be close to transformation temperature to get fine grain structure. 35

PowerPoint Presentation:

DLW VARANASI For this particular steel want to cool from about 1400 F to <400 F in about 1 second! 36

Quenching: :

Quenching : Depending on how fast steel must be quenched (from IT diagram), the heat treater will determine type of quenching required : Water (most severe ) Oil Molten Salt Gas/ Air (least severe) DLW VARANASI 37

Direct Hardening - Selective Hardening :

Direct Hardening - Selective Hardening Same requirements as austenitizing : Must have sufficient carbon levels (>0.4%) Heat to austenite region and quench Why do? When only desire a select region to be hardened: Knives, gears, etc. Object to big to heat in furnace! Large casting w/ wear surface Types: Flame hardening, induction hardening, laser beam hardening. DLW VARANASI 38

FLAME HARDENING :

FLAME HARDENING DLW VARANASI 39

INDUCTION HARDENING :

INDUCTION HARDENING DLW VARANASI 40

Diffusion Hardening (aka Case Hardening): :

Diffusion Hardening (aka Case Hardening ): Why do? Carbon content to low to through harden with previous processes. Desire hardness only in select area. More controlled versus flame hardening and induction hardening. Can get VERY hard local areas (i.e. HRC of 60 or greater) Interstitial diffusion when tiny solute atoms diffuce into spaces of host atoms Substitiutional diffusion when diffusion atoms to big to occupy interstitial sites – then must occupy vacancies DLW VARANASI 41

Diffusion Hardening::

Diffusion Hardening: Most Common Types : Carburizing Nitriding Carbonitriding Cyaniding DLW VARANASI 42

PACK CARBURIZING :

PACK CARBURIZING Pack carburizing most common: Part surrounded by charcoal treated with activating chemical – then heated to austenite temperature. Charcoal forms CO2 gas which reacts with excess carbon in charcoal to form CO. CO reacts with low-carbon steel surface to form atomic carbon The atomic carbon diffuses into the surface Must then be quenched to get hardness! DLW VARANASI 43

SCHEMATIC :

SCHEMATIC DLW VARANASI 44

SOFTENING AND CONDITIONING :

SOFTENING AND CONDITIONING Recrystallization Annealing Process anneal Stress relief anneal Normalizing Tempering DLW VARANASI 45

Recrystallization :

Recrystallization Done often with cold working processes. Limit to how much steel can be cold worked before it becomes too brittle . This process heats steel up so grains return to their original size prior to subsequent cold working processes . Also done to refine coarse grains DLW VARANASI 46

Annealing:

Annealing Annealing – primary purpose is to soften the steel and prepare it for additional processing such as cold forming or machining . If already cold worked - allows recrystallization. What does it do? Reduce hardness. Remove residual stress (stress relief ). Improve toughness. Restore ductility. Refine grain size. DLW VARANASI 47

PROCESS STEPS:

PROCESS STEPS Process Steps: Heat material into the asutenite region (i.e. above 1600F) – rule of thumb: hold steel for one hour for each one inch of thickness. Slowly furnace cool the steel – DO NOT QUENCH. Key slow cooling allows the C to precipitate out so resulting structure is coarse pearlite with excess ferrite. After annealing steel is quite soft and ductile DLW VARANASI 48

Annealing versus Austenitizing :

Annealing versus Austenitizing End result: One softens and the other hardens ! Both involve heating steel to austenite region . Only difference is cooling time : If fast (quenched) C is looked into the structure = martensite (BCT) = HARD. If slow C precipates out leading to coarse pearlite (with excess cementite of ferrite) = SOFT DLW VARANASI 49

OTHER FORMS OF ANNEALING:

OTHER FORMS OF ANNEALING Normalizing – use when max softness not required and cost savings desired (faster than anneal). Air cooled vs. furnace cooled . Process Anneal – not heated as high as full anneal . Stress Relief Anneal – lower temp (1,000F), slow cooled. Large castings, weldments DLW VARANASI 50

TEMPERING:

TEMPERING Almost always done following heat treat as part of the austenitizing process ! Because of lack of adequate toughness and ductility after heat treat, high carbon martensite is not a useful material despite its great strength (too brittle ). Tempering imparts a desired amount of toughness and ductility (at the expense of strength) DLW VARANASI 51

ROTOR SHOP:

ROTOR SHOP This shop deals with the maufacturing of turbocharger. Turbocharger is known as the heart of diesel locomotive. Basically in this section manufacturing of assembly and subassembly of turbocharger is being made. But the outer casing is made in heavy machine shop. Turbocharger is used for providing fresh air to the locomotive. DLW VARANASI 52

ROTOR SHOP –CONT. :

ROTOR SHOP –CONT. Due to this power and efficiency of engine is improved. For the running of turbocharger we are not using any extra energy resources generator , motor etc. for starting of turbocharger we generally use exhaust gases. DLW VARANASI 53

ROTOR SHOP-CONT. :

ROTOR SHOP-CONT. Components of turbocharger . For assembly of turbojet following parts are manufactured in rotor shop. Impeller Inducer Nose piece Stud rotor Nut Washer Thrust washer Key Oil slinger Turbine disc Turboshaft Lockplate DLW VARANASI 54

ROTOR SHOP –CONT :

ROTOR SHOP –CONT Assembly of Turbocharger :-- The assembly of turbocharger is done by dividing whole turbocharger in three parts. These are as follows- --- 1. Rotor 2 . Compressor 3 . Casing DLW VARANASI 55

ROTOR SHOP-CONT :

ROTOR SHOP-CONT 1. Rotor :-- Rotor is the inlet part of turbocharger which is comprises with following parts. TurboDisc , Rotor stud, Turbo shaft, thrust collar, Nose disc, Washer & Nut. Rotor is rotating at speed of 18000 rpm & working at high temperature due to that the rotor is made of steel . 2. Compressor:-- Compressor is the combination of impeller & inducer. Impeller is made up of Al-alloy. Impeller & inducer is use for sucking of fresh air from environment . DLW VARANASI 56

ROTOR-SHOP-CONT :

ROTOR-SHOP-CONT Casing— Casing is made of M.S. & also a special type of coating is done. Due to that coating it can easily resist the heat . For the proper working & life of Turbocharger balancing of impeller, inducer & turbine disc is done by help of Dynamics Balancing Machine . DLW VARANASI 57

ROTOR SHOP-CONT :

ROTOR SHOP-CONT Working of turbocharger- Exhaust gasses are entering form inlet strikes onto the nozzle disc. Then it will strike onto the turbine blade. Due to this the turbine starts rotating at a speed from 0-18000rpm . It will transfer the motion to compressor which is comprises with impeller & inducer. From that rotation sucking of fresh air from environment is occurring . That air is now entered in intermediate casing and blow from blower casing. DLW VARANASI 58

SCHEMATIC :

SCHEMATIC DLW VARANASI 59

TURBOCHARGER SCHEMATIC:

TURBOCHARGER SCHEMATIC DLW VARANASI 60

TURBOCHARGER SCHEMATIC:

TURBOCHARGER SCHEMATIC DLW VARANASI 61

ROTORSHOP-CONT :

ROTORSHOP-CONT The various machine tools installed in ROTOR SHOP are CNC turning centre --(twin spindle)---MW/no 3544 operations--- Turning,groving,boring,drilling,milling,taper turning. ---here it is being used for machining valve bridge. beside above--- a.) linerslip b.)spindle DLW VARANASI 62

ROTORSHOP-CONT :

ROTORSHOP-CONT Features:- Since there is specific programme for each machining operations, it is used for mass productions with less variations. Also machining time is lesser and it is fastly replacing the manually operated machines. Vertical turret lathe machine----1973 This is being used for machining for “Retainer cylinder head” iii. Horizontal milling and boring machine. iv. Radial drilling and tapping machine. DLW VARANASI 63

PowerPoint Presentation:

v. CNC horizontal machining centre . vi. Press brake system. ------These CNC,NC,MANUAL-operated machines manufacture all the items described above. DLW VARANASI 64

LOCOMOTIVE FRAME SHOP:

LOCOMOTIVE FRAME SHOP Under frame Fabrication : --- Under frames are fabricated with due care to ensure designed weld strength. Requisite camber to the under frame is provided during fabrication itself. Critical welds are tested radio-graphically . DLW VARANASI 65

LFS--SHOP:

LFS--SHOP DLW VARANASI 66

FABRICATION-WORK:

FABRICATION-WORK DLW VARANASI 67

LFS--SHOP:

LFS--SHOP Welder training and their technical competence are periodically reviewed. High Horse Power (HHP) under frame is fabricated using heavy fixtures , positioners to ensure down hand welding. Fixtures are used to ensure proper fitting of components and quality welding in subsequent stages. DLW VARANASI 68

LFS--SHOP:

LFS--SHOP DLW VARANASI 69

NOMENCLATURE OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE:

NOMENCLATURE OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE The first letter (gauge ) 1. W-Indian broad gauge (The "W" Stands for Wide Gauge - 5 Feet) 2. Y- metre gauge (The "Y" stands for Yard Gauge - 3 Feet) 3. Z-narrow gauge(2 ft 6 in) 4. N-narrow gauge (2 ft ) DLW VARANASI 70

NOMENCLATURE-CONT :

NOMENCLATURE-CONT The second letter (motive power ) D-Diesel C-DC electric (can run under DC traction only ) A-AC electric (can run under AC traction only ) CA-Both DC and AC (can run under both AC and DC tractions ), 'CA' is considered a single letter B-Battery electric locomotive (rare) DLW VARANASI 71

NOMENCLATURE--CONT:

NOMENCLATURE--CONT 1. G-goods 2. P-passenger 3. M-mixed; both goods and passenger 4. S-Used for shunting (Also known as switching engines or switchers in United states and some other countries) 5. U-Electric multiple units (used as commuters in city suburbs) 6. R-Railcars DLW VARANASI 72

NOMENCLATURE--CONT:

NOMENCLATURE--CONT The fourth letter (horse power ) For example, in "WDM 3A": "W" means broad gauge "D" means diesel motive power "M" means suitable for mixed(for both goods and passenger)service "3A" means the locomotive's power is 3,100 HP ('3' stands for 3000 HP, 'A' denotes 100 HP more) DLW VARANASI 73

ENGINES AT DLW:

ENGINES AT DLW There are two type of engine EMD (Electro motive Division) ALCO (American Locomotive ) EMD is two stroke diesel engines and ALCO is four stroke diesel engines. Turbocharger end is known as turbo or alternator or rear end and governor and accessories is known as accessory or governor or front end. DLW VARANASI 74

ENGINES AT DLW:

ENGINES AT DLW EMD engine is known as HHP (high Horse Power) or GM (general motor). EMD engine has maximum power is 4500 HP and ALCO engine has maximum Power is 3300 HP . ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------Thanks------------------------------------ DLW VARANASI 75