AGROFORESTRY for SOIL HEALTH (Presented at IFGTB on 22-2-13)

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Slide 1:

W E L C O M E

P r e s e n t a t i o n b y::

P r e s e n t a t i o n b y: Vishnu Sankar Agriculturist Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, INDIA. E-mail ID: vishnusankar@ymail.com Blog: http://agrowmania.blogspot.com

Slide 4:

YEAR ‘FS’ All India Total ; 1997 – 2002 (6 Years) - 96,708 ; ;; 2006 – 2007 (2 Years) - 33692 Total - (1997 to 2008)-199132 What are these “FS” figures? Any guess? 2003 – 2005 (3 Years) . 52536 2008 – (1 Year alone) - 16196 Based on ‘NCRB’ data

‘FS’ stands for FARM SUICIDES :

‘FS’ stands for FARM SUICIDES

External factors that affects us: 1.Decline in investment in Agriculture. 2.Soaring input prices. 3.Explosion of cultivation costs. 4.Commercialisation of countryside. 5.Withdrawal of bank credit. 6.Shifting to very risky cash crop only cultivation. 7.Corporate hijack of Seed business. - So, the crisis is still with us. - Loan Waiver is a cosmetic solution. - Is there a way to insure us from these external factors? Yes there is a way.:

External factors that affects us: 1 . Decline in investment in Agriculture. 2.Soaring input prices. 3.Explosion of cultivation costs. 4.Commercialisation of countryside. 5.Withdrawal of bank credit. 6.Shifting to very risky cash crop only cultivation. 7.Corporate hijack of Seed business. - So, the crisis is still with us. - Loan Waiver is a cosmetic solution. - Is there a way to insure us from these external factors? Yes there is a way.

Adopt : :

Adopt : Agroforestry …... and discover profits from unlikely places.

Slide 8:

The concept of 33 % Reservation. 33:33:33 (or) 33:33:11:11:6:5

Slide 9:

The 33:33:33 concept: In your total land holding do 33 % Agriculture 33% Horticulture 33% Forestry

Slide 10:

The 33:33:11:11:6:5 concept: In your total land holding do 33 % Agriculture 33% Horticulture 11% Long duration timber plants 11% Medium duration timber plants 6% Short duration timber plants 5% Nitrogen fixing trees / plants

W i n d b r e a k s :

W i n d b r e a k s

Slide 13:

As wind break, fence. fodder and timber

Slide 14:

As wind Breaker / Shelterbelts

Slide 15:

Trees as Wind breaker Gliricidia as Windbreaker cum fence

Uses of trees in cropping systems Bund Planting :

Uses of trees in cropping systems Bund Planting Trees As wind break, fence. fodder and timber

Uses of trees in cropping systems As contour hedgerows :

Uses of trees in cropping systems As contour hedgerows For Erosion Control, Fodder and timber

F o r e s t f a r m i n g i n s h a d e::

F o r e s t f a r m i n g i n s h a d e:

F o r e s t f a r m i n g i n s h a d e::

F o r e s t f a r m i n g i n s h a d e: Cultivation of shade loving crops under the tree canopy. It will provide periodic income before harvesting the trees for wood products. The forest cover has to be periodically modified to provide the correct level of shade to the shade tolerant varieties underneath.

Uses of trees in cropping systems FOR SHADE:

Uses of trees in cropping systems FOR SHADE For shade, mulch and timber

Uses of trees in cropping systems FOR SHADE:

Uses of trees in cropping systems FOR SHADE Integrate with plants that loves shade

Slide 22:

Alley cropping

Slide 23:

Alley cropping Growing Agri, Horti, Forage crops between rows of trees Annual crop gets shelter from wind. Tree crop gets proper nutrition and irrigation. 3. Soil gets mulch from Trees 4. Farmer gets regular extra income.

Slide 24:

Alley cropping

Riparian Forest Buffers:

Riparian Forest Buffers

Slide 26:

To control soil erosion on slopes

Riparian Forest Buffers:

Riparian Forest Buffers Riparian buffers are strips of perennial vegetation (trees/shrubs/grass) planted between cropland and streams, lakes or ponds. 2. They reduce runoff by trapping sediment, filtering excess nutrients, and degrading pesticides. 3. They can also stabilize streambanks, protect floodplains and enhance wildlife habitat.

Slide 28:

Riparian Forest Buffers Buffer strip on the Riverbank

Woody Crop Plantations: :

Woody Crop Plantations: Block planting of Timber tree varieties For a good income to the farmer. Increased biological diversity to the farmland. Farmer can prefer short duration woody crops.

Slide 30:

Woody crop Plantations

Uses of trees in cropping systems FOR FUEL WOOD :

Uses of trees in cropping systems FOR FUEL WOOD MANY TREES HAVE COPPICE CAPABILITY

S I L V O P A S T U R E:

S I L V O P A S T U R E

Slide 33:

Combining trees with forage and livestock production. The overstory trees provide shade and wind shelter for grazing livestock. S I L V O P A S T U R E Trees are intentionally selected and managed Tree branches and leaves can be pruned and fed directly to livestock.

Uses of trees in cropping systems FOR FODDER :

Uses of trees in cropping systems FOR FODDER

List of some fodder giving trees::

List of some fodder giving trees: Acacia auriculiformis - Kathi savukku Acacia mangium - Maan sevi karuvai Acacia l eucopholea - Velvael Albizia lebbeck - Vagai Albizzia amara - Usila maram Cassia siamea - Manja Konnai Erythrina indica - Mullu murungai Gliricidia sepium - Gliricidia Leucaena leucocephala - Subapul, Savundal Pongamia pinnata - Pungan Sesbania grandiflora - Agathi Sesbania sesban - Sesbania agathi Ficus (Aala maram), Sisu, Pani vagai,

Uses of trees in cropping systems Nitrogen fixing trees:

Uses of trees in cropping systems Nitrogen fixing trees

List of some Nitrogen fixing trees:

List of some Nitrogen fixing trees Acacia auriculiformis - Kathi Savukku Acacia mangium - Mangium Albizia lebbeck - Vagai Albizia falcataria - Kattumaram Casuarina equisetifolia - Savukku Dalbergia sissoo - Sissu Gliricidia sepium - Gliricidia Leucaena leucocephala - Subapul, Savundal Pongamia pinnata - Pungan Sesbania grandiflora - Agathi Sesbania sesban - Sesbania Agathi

Slide 38:

Trees

Slide 39:

Importance of Mulching: To preserve moisture around the basin. To increase organic carbon content of the soil. Wetness and organic matter promotes the growth of beneficial bacterial & fungal content in the soil. To suppress weed growth.

Slide 40:

Forest Nursery

Slide 41:

Steps for using Tree seeds: Scarify Inoculate Sowing

Seed Pregermination Treatment::

Seed Pregermination Treatment:

Slide 43:

Inoculation with VAM:

Slide 44:

Inoculation with VAM:

Slide 45:

Inoculation with VAM:

Inoculation Step: 1:

Inoculation Step: 1

Inoculation Step: 2:

Inoculation Step: 2

Inoculation Step: 3:

Inoculation Step: 3

Slide 49:

Direct seeding in the field Seeding in the polybag Sowing / Seeding :

TIMBER SEEDLINGS BEING RAISED IN PROTRAYS:

TIMBER SEEDLINGS BEING RAISED IN PROTRAYS agrowmania.blogspot.com

Economically important fast growing tree species as recommended by the Forest Dept::

Economically important fast growing tree species as recommended by the Forest Dept: Ailanthus excelsa - Perumaram Melia dubia - Malai vembu Kaya senegalensis - Kaya (Senegal Mahogany) Anthocephalus cadamba - Vellai Kadambu Alstronia scholaris - Aelilai palai

Economically important fast growing tree species as recommended by the Forest Dept::

Economically important fast growing tree species as recommended by the Forest Dept: Albizia richardiana - A ‘Vagai’ variety Acrocarpus fraxinifolius- Nellarai, Kalingi Casuarina junghuniana- Junguniana Savukku Bamboo (Malocanna baccifera, Bambusa nutans, B. Bamboos, B. tulda, B. vulgaris, B. Balcooa)

Trees that have gained wide spread acceptance among farmers::

Trees that have gained wide spread acceptance among farmers: Gmelina arborea - Kumil, Kumul Grewia tiliaefolia - Thadasu, Sadachi Albizia falcataria - Kattumaram Acacia auriculiformis - Kathi/elai karuvel Eucalyptus - Thaila maram

Long standing, hard wood trees that have good market value::

Long standing, hard wood trees that have good market value: Tectona grandis - Thaekku Pterocarpus santalinus - Sivappu santhanam Pterocarpus marsupium - Vengai Santalum album - S anthana maram Swietenia macrophylla - Peruvian Mahogany Swietenia mahogany - Jamaican Mahogany Haldinia cardifolia - Manja Kadambu Dalbergia latifolia - Thothakaththi, Eeti

NMMP subsidy for Medicinal value trees: :

NMMP subsidy for Medicinal value trees: No. Name Tamil Unit cost/Acre Subsidy% Emblica officinalis – Amla 26000 - Terminalia arjuna - Maruthu 18000 20 Aegle marmelos - Vilvam 16000 50 Terminalia bellirica - Thani 16000 20 Gmelina arborea - Kumil 18000 50 Azadiracta indica - Neem 15000 20 Albizzia lebbeck – Vaagai 15000 50

NMMP subsidy for Medicinal value trees: :

NMMP subsidy for Medicinal value trees: No. Name Tamil Unit cost/Acre Subsidy% Caesalpinia sappan – Pathimugam - 20 Alstronia scholaris - Aelilai palai - 50 Pterocarpus marsupium- Vengai - 50 Pterocarpus santalinus- Sivappu santhanam- 75 Santalum album - Santhanam - 75 ( Economics on cultivation cost norms for some plants are yet to be calculated by ICAR, ICFRE and Forest Department)

Slide 57:

Wish you an evergreen Agroforestry venture

Slide 58:

Welcome to my Blog : http://agrowmania.blogspot.com

Thank you:

Thank you

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