Sources of Energy

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Sources of Energy By Vishav Rakesh Damathia

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SOURCES OF ENERGY: 

SOURCES OF ENERGY BY: - VISHAV, AMAN & TARUN

CONVENTIONAL / NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY : 

CONVENTIONAL / NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY The sources of Energy which have been in use for along period of time are called Conventional / Non-Renewable source of Energy. They are exhaustible except water. They are Non-Renewable except water. They cause pollution when used and emits smoke and ash . They are expensive to be stored and transmitted; as they are carried over long distances. EXAMPLES:- Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gas, etc.

NON-CONVENTIONAL / RENEWABLE SOURCE S OF ENERGY: 

NON-CONVENTIONAL / RENEWABLE SOURCE S OF ENERGY The resources which are in the process of development over the past few years are called Non-Conventional / Renewable Sources of Energy. They are in-exhaustible. They are generally pollution free . They are less expensive . EXAMPLES:- Solar, wind energy, Biogas, etc.

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Conventional / non-renewable sources of energy

CONVENTIONAL / NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY: 

CONVENTIONAL / NON-RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY FOSSIL FUELS THERMAL POWER PLANTS HYDRO POWER PLANTS BIO-MASS (Conventional) WIND ENERGY (Conventional)

PowerPoint Presentation: 

NON-CONVENTIONAL / RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY

NON-CONVENTIONAL / RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY: 

NON-CONVENTIONAL / RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY BIO-MASS(Renewable) WIND ENERGY (Renewable) SOLAR ENERGY ENERGY FROM SEA  Tidal Energy Wave Energy Ocean Thermal Energy GEOTHERMAL ENERGY NUCLEAR ENERGY  Nuclear Fission Nuclear Fusion

PowerPoint Presentation: 

CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY

FOSSIL FUELS: 

FOSSIL FUELS Coal, Oil and Gas are called "fossil fuels “ because they have been formed from the fossilized remains of prehistoric plants and animals. They provide around 66% of the world's electrical power, and 95% of the world's total energy demands

HOW FOSSIL FUELS WORK ???: 

HOW FOSSIL FUELS WORK ??? Coal is crushed to a fine dust and burnt. Oil and gas can be burnt directly. Burn fuel> heat water to make steam> steam turns turbine>turbine turns generator>electrical power sent around the country

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Coal provides around 28% of our energy, and oil provides about 40%. Crude oil (called "petroleum") is easier to get out of the ground than coal, as it can flow along pipes. This also makes it cheaper to transport.

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Natural gas provides around 20% of the world's consumption of energy.

ADVANTAGES OF USING FOSSIL FUELS: 

ADVANTAGES OF USING FOSSIL FUELS Very large amounts of electricity can be generated in one place using coal, fairly cheaply. Transporting oil and gas to the power stations is easy. Gas-fired power stations are very efficient. A fossil-fuelled power station can be built almost anywhere.

DISADVANTAGES OF USING FOSSIL FUELS: 

DISADVANTAGES OF USING FOSSIL FUELS Basically, the main drawback of fossil fuels is pollution . Burning any fossil fuel produces carbon dioxide , which contributes to the " greenhouse effect ", warming the Earth. Burning coal produces sulphur dioxide, a gas that contributes to acid rain . Oil spills are a serious problem. Mining coal can be difficult and dangerous. Strip mining destroys large areas of the landscape.

THERMAL POWER PLANT: 

THERMAL POWER PLANT Large amount of fossil fuels are burnt everyday in power stations to heat up water to produce steam which further runs the turbine to generate electricity.

ADVANTAGES OF USING THERMAL POWER PLANTS: 

ADVANTAGES OF USING THERMAL POWER PLANTS The transmission of electricity is more efficient than transporting Coal or Petroleum, over the same distance.

DISADVANTAGES OF USING THERMAL POWER PLANT: 

DISADVANTAGES OF USING THERMAL POWER PLANT They are efficient source of energy but non-renewable. It generates a lot of heat causing GLOBAL WARMING. It cause pollution.

HYDRO POWER PLANTS: 

HYDRO POWER PLANTS High-rise dams are constructed on the river to obstruct the flow of water & collect water in large reservoirs. The water level rises and the Potential Energy is converted in Kinetic energy as the water falls down. The water is carried through pipes to the turbine. The flow of water runs the turbine , which is connected to a Generator which produces Electricity . POTENTIAL ENERGY  KINETIC ENERGY  MECHANICAL ENERGY  ELECTRICAL ENERGY

ADVANTAGES OF USING HYDRO POWER PLANTS: 

ADVANTAGES OF USING HYDRO POWER PLANTS It is renewable source of energy. It an efficient source of energy. Once the dam is built, the energy is virtually free. Much more reliable than wind, solar or wave power. Water can be stored above the dam ready to cope with peaks in demand. Hydro-electric power stations can increase to full power very quickly, unlike other power stations. Electricity can be generated constantly.

DISADVANTAGES OF USING HYDRO POWER PLANTS: 

DISADVANTAGES OF USING HYDRO POWER PLANTS The Dams are very expensive to be built. Large areas of human habilitation and agricultural lands are to be sacrificed as they get submerged. Large ecosystems are destroyed. It cause a great damage to aquatic life. The vegetation which is submerged under anaerobic conditions gives rise to a large amounts of methane, which is a Green House Gas. It decreases the water level. River also gets polluted.

BIO-MASS: 

BIO-MASS The Slurry of cow dung and water is made in the mining tank from where it is fed into the digester(sealed chamber with no oxygen). Anaerobic micro-organisms that don’t require oxygen decompose complex compounds. It takes a few days to complete decomposition process and generate gases like Methane, Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen, Hydrogen Sulphide, etc. The biogas is stored in the gas tank above the Digester from which they are drawn through pipes for use. BURN BIOMASS  HEAT WATER TO MAKE STEAM  STEAM TURNS TURBINE  T URBINE TURNS GENERATOR  ELECTRICAL POWER

ADVANTAGES OF USING BIO-MASS: 

ADVANTAGES OF USING BIO-MASS It is Environment friendly. It is easily available. It is efficient source of energy. The residue left after using Slurry to produce electricity, can be used as Manure. It provides the best way for the utilization of waste. The Manure provided by waste is rich in Nitrogen & Phosphorous, which provides good fertility.

DISADVANTAGES OF USING BIO-MASS: 

DISADVANTAGES OF USING BIO-MASS Collecting the waste in sufficient quantities can be difficult. We burn the fuel, so it makes greenhouse gases. Some waste materials are not available all year round.

WIND ENERGY: 

WIND ENERGY Unequal heating of the landmass & water bodies by Solar radiations generate Air Movement and cause winds to blow. This Kinetic Energy of the wind can be used to do work. This Kinetic Energy is harnessed by windmills to do mechanical work. It is connected to a Dynamo / Generator to produce Electricity.

ADVANTAGES OF USING WIND ENERGY: 

ADVANTAGES OF USING WIND ENERGY Wind Energy is environment friendly. It is efficient source of energy. It requires no reoccurring expenses for the production of energy. Wind is free, wind farms need no fuel, so renewable source of energy Produces no waste or greenhouse gases. The land beneath can usually still be used for farming. A good method of supplying energy to remote areas. Wind farms can be tourist attractions.

DISADVANTAGES OF USING WIND ENERGY: 

DISADVANTAGES OF USING WIND ENERGY Wind Energy farms can be established at only those places where wind blows for the greater part of the year. The Wind speed should be higher than 15km/hr. to maintain the required speed of the Turbine. There should be backup facilities like Solar cells to store energy for future use. Wind Energy Farms requires a large area of land. e.g.  1 MV generator farm needs about 2 hectares of land. The initial cost of the establishment is quite high. They need a high level of maintenance because the Tower Blades are exposed to the vagaries of nature like Sun, rain, Storm and Cyclones. Can kill birds - migrating flocks tend to like strong winds. Splat! Can affect television reception if you live nearby. Noisy. A wind generator makes a constant, low, "swooshing" noise day and night.

PowerPoint Presentation: 

NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY

SOLAR ENERGY: 

SOLAR ENERGY In a sunny climate, you can get enough power to run a 100W light bulb from just one square meter of solar panel. The Energy from the Sun is called Solar Energy . The solar energy is generally absorbed with the help of Solar cells. Solar Cells really called photovoltaic" or "photoelectric" cells) convert light directly into electricity.

WORKING OF SOLAR COOKERS: 

WORKING OF SOLAR COOKERS A Black surface absorbs more heat as compared to a white or a reflecting surface under identical conditions. Solar Cookers use this property in their working. They achieve a high temperature by the use of mirrors to focus the rays of the Sun. The Sun rays fall on the mirror and gets reflected; the Black surface traps all the heat. Thus the temperature of the Surface rises and food gets cooked.

ADVANTAGES OF USING SOLAR COOKER: 

ADVANTAGES OF USING SOLAR COOKER It is pollution free. It is a Renewable source of energy. It saves precious fuels like coal, petroleum, LPG, etc. It does not let to loose the nutritious value of food. Up to 4 items can be cooked at a same time.

DISADVANTAGES OF USING SOLAR COOKER: 

DISADVANTAGES OF USING SOLAR COOKER We can not cook at night. It is not useful on cloudy and rainy days. The direction of the Reflector of the Solar Cooker has to be changed from time to time to keep it facing the Sun. It takes a lot of time to cook food.

ENERGY FROM SEA: 

ENERGY FROM SEA Energy obtained from the Sea can be classified as follows:-

TIDAL ENERGY: 

TIDAL ENERGY The Rhythmic rise and fall of the ocean water due to gravitational pull of the Moon on Earth is called Tidal Energy. When water goes up, it is said to be High Tide and when it falls down, it is said to be Low Tide. This phenomenon is called High & Low Tides and the difference between in sea-levels gives us TIDAL ENERGY. These tides are used to rotate the turbine which is connected to a generator/dynamo to produce electricity.

ADVANTAGES OF USING TIDAL ENERGY: 

ADVANTAGES OF USING TIDAL ENERGY Once you've built it, tidal power is free. It produces no greenhouse gases or other waste. It needs no fuel. It produces electricity reliably. Not expensive to maintain. Tides are totally predictable.

LIMITATIONS OF TIDAL ENERGY : 

LIMITATIONS OF TIDAL ENERGY The rise and fall of sea water during High & Low Tides is not enough to generate electricity on Large Scale. Places where Tidal Energy can be generated are limited. A barrage across an estuary is very expensive to build, and affects a very wide area - the environment is changed for many miles upstream and downstream. Many birds rely on the tide uncovering the mud flats so that they can feed. there are few suitable sites for tidal barrages. Only provides power for around 10 hours each day, when the tide is actually moving in or out.

WAVE ENERGY: 

WAVE ENERGY Due to blowing of wind on the surface of Sea, very fast sea waves on its surface are formed. Due to their high speed, Sea Waves have a lot of Kinetic Energy of a moving water can be used to generate electricity.

ADVANTAGES OF USING WAVE ENERGY: 

ADVANTAGES OF USING WAVE ENERGY Wave power is a renewable Energy Source. Wave Energy Is a Clean Fuel. Wave Energy is Environmentally Friendly - it doesn't destroy the environment. There is plenty of it. Waves are always predictable. You can always produce a significant amount of energy. You don't need fuel so it doesn't cost that much . Waves are free and will not run out so the cost is in building the power station. Wave power does not produce greenhouse gases. There are very few safety risks with wave power generation.

DISADVANTAGES OF USING WAVE ENERGY: 

DISADVANTAGES OF USING WAVE ENERGY Harnessing the power of it is difficult. It can cost a lot of money and requires further research. May interfere with mooring and anchorage lines commercial and sport fishing. Waves can be big or small so you may not always be able to generate electricity. You need to find a way of transporting the electricity from the sea onto the land. Not many people have tried to generate electricity this way yet so the equipment is expensive. It is believed that harnessing wave power will eventually slow the rotation speed of the planet.

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY: 

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY The water at the surface of the ocean gets heated by the Sun and attains a high temperature, than the colder water at the deeper levels at the ocean. The energy available due to the difference in the temperature of water at the surface of Ocean and the deeper levels is called OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY. The temperature difference of 20 degrees centigrade between the surface water of the Ocean is needed. In the Ocean Thermal Energy, the warm surface water of the Ocean is used to boil a liquid like Ammonia, CFCs. The high pressure of the liquid are then used to rotate the turbines of the generator and produce electricity.

WORKING OF OCEN THERMAL ENERGY: 

WORKING OF OCEN THERMAL ENERGY

ADVANTAGES OF USING OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY: 

ADVANTAGES OF USING OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY Helps produce fuels such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methanol. Produces desalinated water for industrial, agricultural, and residential uses. Is a resource for on-shore and near-shore mariculture operations. Provides air-conditioning for buildings. Provides moderate-temperature refrigeration. Has significant potential to provide clean, cost-effective electricity for the future. Has potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions resulting from burning fossil fuels. OTEC uses clean, renewable, natural resources. Suitably designed OTEC plants will produce little or no carbon dioxide or other polluting chemicals. OTEC systems can produce fresh water as well as electricity.

DISADVANTAGES OF USING OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY: 

DISADVANTAGES OF USING OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY OTEC-produced electricity at present would cost more than electricity generated from fossil fuels at their current costs. OTEC plants must be located where a difference of about 20º C occurs year round. Ocean depths must be available fairly close to shore-based facilities for economic operation. No energy company will put money in this project because it only had been tested in a very small scale. Construction of OTEC plants and lying of pipes in coastal waters may cause localised damage to reefs and near-shore marine ecosystems.

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY: 

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY The interior or deeper regions of the Earth’s crust are very hot. The temperature is so high that even rocks melt. If this heat is utilized as a source of energy, it is called GEOTHERMAL ENERGY. HOTSPOTS:- The place where very hot rocks occur at depth below the surface of Earth are called Hotspots.

WORKING OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY: 

WORKING OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY The extremely hot rocks present below the surface of the Earth, heat the underground water and turn it into steam. As more & more steam is formed between the rocks, it gets compressed to high pressure. A Hole is derived into hot rocks and pipe is put into it through high pressure, steam turns the turbine to generate Electricity.

ADVANTAGES OF USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY: 

ADVANTAGES OF USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Geothermal energy does not produce any pollution, and does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. The power stations do not take up much room, so there is not much impact on the environment. No fuel is needed. Once you've built a geothermal power station, the energy is almost free i.e. cheap. It may need a little energy to run a pump, but this can be taken from the energy being generated. It is economical to use.

DISADVANTAGES OF USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY: 

DISADVANTAGES OF USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY The big problem is that there are not many places where you can build a geothermal power station. You need hot rocks of a suitable type, at a depth where we can drill down to them. Sometimes a geothermal site may "run out of steam", perhaps for decades. Hazardous gases and minerals may come up from underground, and can be difficult to safely dispose of. Deep Drilling is very difficult & expensive.

NUCLEAR ENERGY: 

NUCLEAR ENERGY The energy released during nuclear reactions is called NUCLEAR ENERGY. It is obtained from two types of Nuclear Reactions that are as follows:- NUCLEAR FISSION NUCLEAR FUSION

ADVANTAGES OF USING NUCLEAR ENERGY: 

ADVANTAGES OF USING NUCLEAR ENERGY Almost O emissions (very low greenhouse gas emissions). They can be sited almost anywhere unlike oil which is mostly imported. The plants almost never experience problems if not from human error, which almost never happens anyway because the plant only needs like 10 people to operate it. A small amount of matter creates a large amount of energy. A lot of energy is generated from a single power plant. A truckload of Uranium is equivalent in energy to 10,000+ truckloads of coal. (Assuming the Uranium is fully utilized.) A nuclear aircraft carrier can circle the globe continuously for 30 years on its original fuel while a diesel fueled carrier has a range of only about 3000 miles before having to refuel. New reactor types have been designed to make it physically impossible to melt down. As the core gets hotter the reaction gets slower, hence a run-away reaction leading to a melt-down is not possible.

DISADVANTAGES OF USING NUCLEAR ENERGY: 

DISADVANTAGES OF USING NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear plants are more expensive to build and maintain. Proliferation concerns - breeder reactors yield products that could potentially be stolen and turned into an atomic weapon. Waste products are dangerous and need to be carefully stored for long periods of time. The spent fuel is highly radioactive and has to be carefully stored for many years or decades after use. This adds to the costs. Early nuclear research and experimentation has created massive contamination problems that are still uncontained. Nuclear power plants can be dangerous to its surroundings and employees. It would cost a lot to clean in case of spillages. There exist safety concerns if the plant is not operated correctly or conditions arise that were unforeseen when the plant was developed, as happened at the Fukushima plant in Japan. Mishaps at nuclear plants can render hundreds of square miles of land uninhabitable and unsuitable for any use for years, decades or longer, and kill off entire river systems.

NUCLEAR FISSION: 

NUCLEAR FISSION The nucleus of heavy atom (such as Uranium, Plutonium) when bombarded with low energy, neutron can be split apart into higher nuclei. A tremendous amount of energy is released in the NUCLEAR FISSION. 235 U + 1 n  139 Ba + 94 Kr + 3 1 n + Energy 92 0 56 36 0

PowerPoint Presentation: 

The neutrons produced in the Fission process further cause Fission of the nuclei leading to self sustaining chain reaction when all the neutrons produced during Fission of Uranium are allowed to cause further Fission. Then so much energy produced in a very short time that it can not be controlled and leads to an explosion called ATOM BOMB.

NUCLEAR FUSION: 

NUCLEAR FUSION The process in which two nuclei light elements (like that of Hydrogen) combine to form a heavy nucleus (like that of Helium) is called NUCLEAR FUSION. 2 H + 2 H  3 H + 1 n + Large amount of Energy 1 1 1 0 The energy produced in Nuclear Fusion reaction is much more than that of Nuclear Fission reaction.

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