designer food and feed

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Designer foods and feeds

Genetically modified foods:

Genetically modified foods These are foods derived from genetically modified organisms having specific changes introduced into their DNA by genetic engineering techniques.

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Modified products are produced mainly from: 1. Plants: Alteration done in plants to get desired product. 2. Animals: Alteration done in animals to get desired product.

Making gm from plants involves::

Making gm from plants involves:

Steps to use Plants as source of designed food::

Steps to use Plants as source of designed food: 1.Evolution of safety assessment procedures by: Testing of whole foods Testing of chemical substances in the diet

2.Safety assessment for foods:

2.Safety assessment for foods Consideration of sources of potential hazard: - The parent (host) traditionally bred crop. – The gene donor. – The primary gene product(s) and any resulting novel secondary metabolites. – The transformed crop.

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Consideration of types of potential hazard: toxicity including allergenicity nutritional change or antinutrient effects the remote possibility of gene transfer to bacteria or mammalian cells

Procedure has to followed before submission for approval::

Procedure has to followed before submission for approval:

post-launch monitoring:

post-launch monitoring either through epidemiological studies. by randomised controlled clinical trials.

Some gm plant products are::

Some gm plant products are: Rapeseed - Resistance to certain pesticides and improved rapeseed cultivars to be free of erucic acid and glucosinolates. Gluconsinolates, which were found in rapeseed meal leftover from pressing, are toxic and had prevented the use of the meal in animal feed. In Canada, where "double-zero" rapeseed was developed, the crop was renamed "canola" (Canadian oil) to differentiate it from non-edible rapeseed. Honey - can be produced from GM crops. Some Canadian honey comes from bees collecting nectar from GM canola plants.

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Cotton - Resistant to certain pesticides - considered a food because the oil can be consumed.The so-called Bt cotton plants that produce a chemical that kills the cotton bollworm. Rice - Genetically modified to contain high amounts of Vitamin A. Rice containing human genes is to be grown in the US. Rather than end upon as food, the rice will make human proteins useful for treating infant diarrhoea in the developing world.

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Sugar cane , Corn- Made resistant to certain pesticides. Tomatoes - Made for a longer shelf life and to prevent a substance that causes tomatoes to rot and degrade. Sweet corn - genetically modified to produces its own insecticide. Papaya - The first virus resistant papayas were commercially grown in Hawaii in 1999.Monsanto, donated technology to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, for developing a papaya resistant to the ringspot virus in India.

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Tobacco -The company Vector has a GMO tobacco being sold under the brand of Quest® cigarettes in the U.S. It is engineered to produce low or no nicotine. Soybean - Genetically modified to be resistant to herbicides.

Animals as source of designed foods:

Animals as source of designed foods Main focus on following: the process of the genetic modification the safety of the newly introduced proteins, including information on potential allergenicity occurrence and potential implications of side effects of the genetic modification possible effects of gene transfer and recombination the role of the new food in the diet the influence of food processing

Methodologies used for gene transfer:

Methodologies used for gene transfer Non heritable modifications: introduction of the gene of interest in a vector that targets the somatic cells of the animal. Heritable Modifications: injecting early embryos with solutions of DNA that contain constructs that have all of the requisite information for directing the expression of the gene(s) of interest, but rely on the cell’s internal recombinatory enzymes for integration.

Purpose of using animals:

Purpose of using animals Laboratory Models Human therapeutic agents Xenotransplantation Industrial Products Animal Health and Productivity Enhanced animal nutrition Human Foods

analysis:

analysis the transformation process of the genetic modification, including the sequence of the inserted material the copy number and place(s) of insertion stability of the integration the safety of any newly introduced proteins, including allergenicity,

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5. occurrence and implications of unintended effects 6. potential effects of gene recombination 7. the role of the new GM animal food in the diet 8. the influence of processing on the new GM food product.

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Unintended effects: Unintended effects can be divided into insertional effects, related to the place of insertion of the transgenic fragment, and secondary effects, related to the nature of the expression products of the introduced genes. These effects can be estimated by: Genomics: Microarray technology is a powerful tool to study gene expression. The technology allows comparison of expression profiles of a large number of genes under different environmental or developmental conditions.

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2. Proteomics: In general, correlation between mRNA expression and protein levels is rather poor as the rates of degradation of mRNA and proteins differ Therefore, understanding the biological complexities underlying gene functionis facilitated by analysis of many proteins simultaneously. 3. Metabolomics: The metabolome consists of the metabolites that occur within a biological entity. A multi-compositional analysis of biologically active compounds (metabolites) may also indicate the presence of unintended effects.

Other process:

Other process Toxicology Nutritional analysis Risk Characterization Post-Marketing surveillance

Conclusions:

Conclusions Current food safety regulations for traditionally food (or food additives) are less stringent compared to those applied to GM foods. Post-marketing surveillance requires large costs for limited amounts of information and should therefore be limited to exceptional cases.

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With increase in use of GMO’s nutritional aspect gain weigth than safety use. The new developments in the area of GM animals further necessitate a harmonised approach to maintain our current standard for a safe and nutritious food supply in the light of growing numbers of different (GMO-derived) foods and food ingredients and increasingly complex food supply chains.

Some gm animals are::

Some gm animals are: Enviro-Pig: Enviro-Pig has been genetically engineered with edited DNA from a pig and genetic material from mice. The result is the Enviro-Pig, a pig that is able to break down phosphorus. Normally within a normal pigs biology phosphorus can't be broken down and it comes out in their feces.

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COWS (with human genes): More recently in 2011 Chinese scientist have been breeding cows genetically engineered with genes from human beings to produce milk that would be the same as human breast milk. GOATS (that produce silk in their milk?): A company called Biosteel has genetically engineered goats to produce milk with strong spider web like silk proteins in their milk. PIGS (that glow in the dark!): In 2006 in Taiwan scientists used genetic material from a jelly fish and implanted it into pig embyros.

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Apes (with human genes): Japanese scientists have implanted human genes into marmosets and are currently using the monkeys to work on a cure for huntington's disease and strokes in humans. GLOFISH: Glofish have been ability to glow.It was the first GMO to become available as pet. Dolion : by dog and lion genes

So, what’s the bottom line?:

So, what’s the bottom line? GM foods are as safe and there is promise for more nutritious food. For some crops, environmental impacts are similar or less than conventional agriculture. GM is an important tool for the plant breeder GM technology can solve problems that can’t be solved in other ways at present. The benefits will be spread between biotech companies, farmers and consumers.

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GM or no GM is a false issue. Sustainability is the real issue. Through science and through ethics we have come to the realization that we are bound by the laws of Nature. We must obey those laws to make agriculture (and civilization) sustainable. Our agricultural practices must reflect our new awareness that many practices threaten sustainability. Food production must be equitable and sustainable, for all the peoples of the Earth.

Thank you:

Thank you BY VISHAL THAKUR Admission number V-09-04-45

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