BIOFERTILIZER vipul final.

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CONTENTS Objectives Introduction Types of Biofertilizers and their Description Methods of Biofertilizer Inoculation (application) Advantages Disadvantages Constraints in Biofertilizers


OBJECTIVES After going through this Unit, you will be able to learn biofertilizers and their characteristics understand the prospects and difficulties of biofertilizers select a low cost, suitable and efficient bio-fertilizer for your organic farming. 3 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal


INTRODUCTION Generally, agricultural land gets impoverished after long term cultivation, if not supplemented properly with inputs. To supplement the soil nutrient content under conventional farming system, we need to apply high doses of agrochemicals which in turn pollute the ecosystem. Therefore, in order to make agriculture sustainable, it is necessary to implement a balanced and responsible use of organic agriculture. The principles of organic farming also outline the similar concepts where the soil health and biodiversity is built up to sustain the plant growth in longer term. 4 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

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What is Biofertilizer ? The name itself is self explanatory . Biofertilizer is a ready-to-use live formulation of such beneficial microorganisms which on application to seed, root or soil, mobilize the availability of nutrients by their biological activity. They help build up the soil micro-flora and there by the soil health. As we know, organic farming excludes the use of any chemical. Use of bio-fertilizer is recommended for improving the soil fertility in organic farming 5 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

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A simple form of classification of biofertilizers is given below: I) For Nitrogen Rhizobium for legume crops. Azotobacter l Azospirillum for non legume crops. Acetobacter for sugarcane only. Blue -Green Algae (BGA) and Azolla for low land paddy. 2) For Phosphorous Phosphatika for all crops to be applied with Rhizobium , Azotobacter , ~ zos~irillu'amnd Acetobacter . VAM(Vesicu1ar-arbuscular mycorrhiza ). 3) For Enriched Compost Cellulolytic fungal culture. Phosphotika and Azotobacter culture 6 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

Types of biofertilizer:

Types of biofertilizer Nitrogen Fixing Biofertilizers The nitrogen fixing bacteria work under two conditions, symbiotically and as free living bacteria (non-symbiotic). The symbiotic bacteria make an association with crop plants through forming nodules in their roots. The free living bacteriado not form any association but live freely and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Now let us examine the features of these microbes in details. 7 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

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Rhizobium Rhizobium lives in the root hairs of the legumes by forming nodules The name Rhizobium was established by Frank in 1889. This genus has seven distinct species based on "Cross Inoculation Group Concept". More than twenty cross-inoculations groups have been established so far. A new classification has been established for Rhizobium. That is 'slow growing rhizobia' known as Bradyrhizobium and the other group is 'fast growing rhizobia' called Rhizobium. Still this classification is discretely not distinguishable because the bacteria of one group may infect to another group. This is called "the principle of cross inoculation" which relies on the assumption that legumes within a particular infection group may be nodulated by another species of nodule forming bacteria 8 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

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Methods of Application of Rhizobium Inoculants The seed treatment has been found to be the suitable method of Rhizobium inoculation. Some adhesive is used to make proper contact between seeds and inoculants (bacteria). About 900 g soil base culture is sufficient to inoculate the seeds for one hectare area in case of legumes. A 10 % jaggery (gur) solution is used as sticker for Rhizobium cells to seed. First the solution is spread over the seeds and mixed to build up a thin coat over the seeds. After ascertaining the proper coating of slurry over the seeds, the inoculant is sprinkled over the seeds and the content is again mixed thoroughly. Then content is dried in the shade by spreading thinly on a polythene sheet at least for overnight 9 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

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This is a free living or non -symbiotic bacteria (does not form nodules but makes association by living in the rhizosphere). Azospirillum species establish an association with many plants particularly with C, plants such as maize, sorghum,sugarcane, etc. It is the most common organism and can form associative symbiosis on a large variety of plants. Azospirillum is recognized as a dominant soil microbe 10 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

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Blue Green Algae (BGA) This is another important class of biofertilizer. The Blue-green algae are small organisms and can be seen under the microscope as a single cell or large accumulation of cells(colonies) or strings of cells(trichomes). They have a similar external appearance to that of Algae and Azolla growing in a pond their requirements for light, nutrients and carbon dioxide are also similar. 11 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

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Azotobactor Azotobactor is a heterotrophic free living nitrogen fixing bacteria present in alkaline and neutral soils. Azotobactor chrococcum is the most commonly occurring species in arable soils of India. Apart from its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in soils, it can also synthesize growth promoting substances viz., auxins ,and gibberellins and also to some extent the vitamins. Many strains of Azotobactor also exhibit fungicidal properties against certain species of fungus. Response of Azotobactor has been seen in rice, maize, cotton, sugarcane, pearl millet,vegetable and some plantation crops. Field experiments carried out on Azotobacter 12 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

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Features of Azotobactor Azotobacter contributes to the moderate benefits. Azotobacter is heaviest breathing organism and requires a large amount of organic carbon for its growth. It is poor competitor for nutrients in soil. It can benefit crops by Nitrogen fixation, release of growth promoting substances, and fungicidic substances. Azotobacter is less effective in soils with poor organic matter content. It improves seed germination and plant growth. 13 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

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Acetobactor:- Acetobactor diazotrophicus is a newly discovered nitrogen fixing bacteria associated with sugarcane crop . This bacterium belongs to the alpha group of proteobacteria. It was isolated from leaf, root, bud and stem samples of sugarcane. Acetobator is located in apoplastic fluid of sugarcane stem and to some extent in xylem vessels. It is an acid and high salt tolerant and sucrose loving bacteria which can fix up to 200 kg nitrogen per hectare. 14 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

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Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) The term mycorrhiza was taken from Greek language meaning 'fungus root'. This term was coined by Frank in 1885 As indicated above, the mycorrhiza is a mutualistic association between fungal mycelia and plant roots. VAM is an endotrophic (live inside) mycorrhiza formed by aseptated phycomycetous fungi. VAM help in nutrient transfer mainly of phosphorus, zinc and sulfur. They also mobilize different nutrients like Cu(copper), K(potassium), Al(aluminum), Mn(manganese), Fe (iron)and Mg (magnesium) from the soil to the plant roots. They posses vesicles (sac like structure) for storage of nutrients and arbuscular for funneling them into root system. 15 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

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Mechanism of Action The VAM forms an association with plant roots. It penetrates in the root cortex and spreads around the roots of the plant. As the name indicates, they posses sac like structure called vesicules which stores phosphorus as phospholipids. The other structure called arbuscule helps bringing the distant nutrients to the vesicules and root. Actions of Mycorrhiza 1) Enhances the feeding areas of the plant root is as the hyphae spreads around the roots. 2) Mobilizes the nutrients from distantance to root. 3) Stores the nutrients (sp. phosphorus). 4) Removes the toxic chemicals (example : phenolics ) which otherwise hinder nutrient availability. 5) Provide protection against other fungi and nematodes 16 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

Method of biofertilizer inoculation:

Method of biofertilizer inoculation Seed Inoculation This is the most common practice of applying biofertilizers. In this method, the biofertilizers are mixed with 10 per cent solution of jaggary. The slurry is then poured over the seeds spread on a cemented floor and mixed properly in a way that a thin layer is formed around the seeds. The treated seeds should be dried in the shade overnight and then they should be used. Generally, 750 gram of biofertilizer is required to treat the legume seeds for one hectare area. 17 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

Soil Application:

Soil Application This method is mostly used for fruit crops, sugarcane, and other crops where localized application is needed. At the time of planting of fruit trees, 20 g of biofertilizer mixed with compost is to be added in the ring of one sapling. Sometime, the biofertilizers are also broadcasted in the soil but we may require four to ten times more bio fertilizers. Before broadcasting,the inoculants should be incubated with the desired amount of well decomposed granulated FYM for 24 hours. 18 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

Self Inoculation or Tubez Inoculation:

Self Inoculation or Tubez Inoculation This method is suitable for application of Azotobactor. In this method,50 litres of water is taken in a drum and 4-5 kg of Azotobacter biofertilizer is added and mixed properly. Planting materials required for one acre of land are dipped in this mixture. Similarly, if we are treating the potato, then the tubers are dipped in the mixture and planting is done after drying the materials in the shade 19 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal


ADVANTAGES There are many advantages of using the biofertilizers. They form an important association with other soil microbes and help in nutrient supply. Fixes atmospheric nitrogen. Increase availability or uptake of nutrients through solubilization or increased absorption. Stimulate plant growth through hormonal or antibiotics action or by decomposing organic waste. They are cheap, hence, reduced cost of cultivation. Improves soil properties and sustaining soil fertilityLead to soil enrichment. Are compatible with long term sustainability. Build up soil fertility in the long term. They are eco-friendly and pose no damage to the environment 20 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

Disadvantages :

Disadvantages As such there is no harmful impact of biofertilizers if it is used properly some constraints: Specific to the plants. Rhizobiurn spp. culture doesn't work well in high nitrate tolerant strains of soybean. The acceptability of biofertilizers has been rather low chiefly because they do not produce quick and spectacular responses. Require skill in production and application.Difficult to store. 21 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal


REFERENCES Bio-Fertilizers Rao Subba, K.S.(1974). Prospects of Bacterial Fertilization in India. Fertilser News, 19(12):32-38. Soil Fertility and Nutrient Alexander, M. (1985) . Introduction to Soil Microbiology (2ndE d.) Wiley Eastern Management Limited, New Delhi. RaoSubba, N.S. (2000). Soil Microbiology (Fourth Edition of Soil Microorganisms and Plant Growth).Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt . Ltd. New Delhi. Harris, P.J. (1988).Microbial Transformations of Nitrogen.(In) Russell's Soil Conditions and Plant Growth. Edited by Alan Wild. English Language Book SocietyILongman: 608-65 1. Kannaiyan, S.(2000). Biofertilizers-Key Factor in Organic Farming. The Hindu Survey of Indian Agriculture. Published by S.Rangrajaneon behalf of M/s Kasturi and Sons Ltd. At the National Press, Kasturi Building, Chennai. Verma, L.N. and Bhattacharya, P (1990). ~ertilizerNs ews, 35(12): 87-92. Jordon, D.C.11984) in Bergey 's Manual of ~~stemaiBiacc teriology, Vol. 1 (eds) J.G. Holt and N.R. Krieg): 234, Williams and Wilkins. 22 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal

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To win the game , Just remain In the game ….. Thank You… 23 BIOFERTILIZER. By. Vipul K. Panchal