School Health Program

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SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMME: 

SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMME Mrs.Vinili Simpson M.Sc (N)

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‘ ’WHAT IS DONE TO CHILDREN THEY WILL DO TO THE SOCIETY’’ -karl maninger School children are an important group because they often form a high proportion. The child spends most of the time in the school between the ages 6years to 15years.

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The school is an ideal place for learning and growing up for the school child. School health is an important aspect of the community health.. School health refers to all activities that contribute to improve and maintain the health of the children.

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Reasons for giving school age special considerations They constitute a big sector of the population (about 1/6). This sector is easily reached through schools, as by law, children are compelled to attend schools and spend about half of their day for a period of 9 years. School pupils are considered a vulnerable group . They are growing exposed physiologic, mental and emotional stress at home or school.

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Some children attend school with different health problems , could be early discovered and treated. School pupils are very active &curious so liable to accidents. Health status of pupils is a strong determinant of their school achievement. Pupils are affected by school environment . School years are the best opportunity for health education. We can reach parents through their children.

School health services in INDIA: 

School health services in INDIA

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In the year 1959-60,a study conducted in Delhi state showed that among 8400 children examined both from urban rural areas 84% of them had defects. The most common defects observed were, A] Eye diseases B] Malnutrition C] Enlarged tonsils In 1951 there were 209671 primary schools which has been increased to 581305 in 1995. The enlargement of children went up from 19.2 million in 1951 to 108 million

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The medical examination was conducted for school children Baroda city. In 1953,the secondary education committee felt the need for medical inspection of pupils and school feeding programmes During the second five-year plan, many state government provided or school health and school feeding programme. In 1960,the Government of India constituted a school health committee to assess the health and nutrition status of school children and to recommend ways and means to improve them

PROBLEMS OF THE SCHOOL CHILD: 

PROBLEMS OF THE SCHOOL CHILD

HEALTH PROBLEMS: 

HEALTH PROBLEMS Malnutrition Infectious diseases Intestinal parasites Diseases of skin eye and ear and dental care Dental caries

BEHAVIOUR PROBLEMS: 

BEHAVIOUR PROBLEMS Antisocial problems: stealing, lying, gambling, destructiveness, sexual offences Habit disorders: nail biting, thumb sucking, bed wetting Personality disorders: temper tantrums, shyness, day dreaming, jealousy Educational difficulties: backwardness in studies, school fear, school failure, etc

OBJECTIVES OF SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES : 

OBJECTIVES OF SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES Promotion of positive health Prevention of disease Early diagnosis treatment and follow of defects Awakening health consciousness in children The provision of healthful environment Inculcate healthy habits by proper health instruction

SCHOOL HEALTH ADMINISTRATION : 

SCHOOL HEALTH ADMINISTRATION Health appraisal of school children and school personnel Remedial measures and follow up Prevention of communicable disease Healthful school environment Nutritional services

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First aid and emergency care Mental health Dental health Eye health Health education Education of handicapped children Proper maintenance and use of school health records

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School health education School health services Component Of School Health Program

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School Health Services

I-Appraisal aspects: 

I-Appraisal aspects These are organized activities, carried out to assess the physical, mental, emotional and social status of school pupils.

Purposes of school health appraisal : 

Purposes of school health appraisal To have a clear idea about the overall health status of pupils. To detect pupils who need special care because of their health status Data obtained from the appraisal is useful for planning of school health program To change the unhealthful behaviors of the pupils, parents and teachers into healthful ones To provide a baseline data for further follow up of pupils’ health status

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1- Components of Appraisal History Observation Screening tests Examination Laboratory investigations

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1-History: The pupils` past and current health events Immunization Previous illnesses, injuries and operations chronic health conditions (tonsillitis, rheumatic heart disease, and bronchial asthma) Family History: Communicable diseases ( TB) Hereditary diseases (Epilepsy, Diabetes Mellitus, and Bronchial asthma) Social habits and behaviors Smoking & physical Activities

2-Screening Tests: 

2-Screening Tests These are tools (tests) applied to healthy pupils to detect pupils with particular health problem that requires further evaluation by a specialist. These tests are performed by heath visitors social workers and teachers

Components of the Screening tests : 

Components of the Screening tests Measuring weight and height to assess pupils’ growth Measuring visual acuity Measuring hearing acuity Detecting pupils with speech defects IQ assessment

3-Laboratory investigations: 

3-Laboratory investigations Stool analysis for parasitic infestations as ascaris, oxyurs, and schistosomiasis. Urine analysis for detection of diabetes and parasites in the rural areas as schistosomiasis. Blood analysis for hemoglobin level.

4-Comprehensive medical examination: 

4-Comprehensive medical examination School physicians and dentists carry out complete physical and dental examination. It is preferable that health visitors, teachers and parents attend this examination

5- Daily observation : 

5- Daily observation observation by parents, teachers and health visitors. Many manifestations of illnesses could be discovered from the daily observation such as Loss of interest and easy fatigability Eye problems as errors of refraction, nutritional deficiency Behavioral problems as aggression, introversion, Hyperactivity excitability or lack of confidence Manifestations of diseases : Pallor ,episodes of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and epilepsy.

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I-Prevention and control of communicable diseases II- Early detection and correction of non-communicable diseases iii-Early identification and education of children with special disabilities iV-Emergency care and first aid services Preventive Aspects

I-Prevention and control of communicable diseases: 

I-Prevention and control of communicable diseases Common communicable diseases among school pupils Food- borne diseases Diarrhea Enteric fever Infectious hepatitis A Food poisoning Diseases spread by droplet infection Common cold Mumps Chicken pox Parasitic diseases Ascaris and oxyuris Diseases spread by contact Skin diseases (Scabies, ring worm, impetigo) Eye diseases ( Ophthalmia , Trachoma)

Measures for prevention of communicable diseases at schools: 

Measures for prevention of communicable diseases at schools 1-Immunizations At the age of 5 years DT is given. At the age of 10 years TT is given At the age of 15 years the second dose of TT is given

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2- Health education Changing unhealthful health behaviors related to transmission of communicable diseases 3-Environmental sanitation Application of standards to ensure adequate environmental sanitation to avoid communicable diseases transmission.

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If a pupil is detected to have a communicable disease in a school , What are the control measures? a) Sick Pupils : should be excluded from the school b) Readmission to school after sickness: medical examination or certain investigations should precede readmission. c) Control measures for the environment

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d) Care for contacts: Observation for longest incubation period Daily observation for detection of any deviation from normal such as flushing or pallor or rash of skin, nasal discharge, red eyes, restlessness, coughing& sneezing Chemoprophylaxis might be required in some diseases (meningococcal meningitis) Mass treatment for household contacts (scabies) Health education Immunization Care for absence .

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Searching for the source of infection: It might be a teacher with open pulmonary TB or a food service personnel who is a carrier of typhoid or with infected hand lesions or skin conditions.

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During Epidemics Do We Close the School Or Keep It Opened ?? School closing is not of great value. This is because by the time of school closing, the disease is already well spread not only within the school but also within the community pupils will continue to associate with their friends whether school is closed or open. in schools, children are under supervision that enables early detection and treatment of communicable diseases.

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II- Early detection and correction of non-communicable diseases The non-communicable diseases among school-age children are: Nutritional problems: obesity, underweight, stunted growth,, vitamins, calcium and iron deficiency . Dental defects : dental caries, diseases of gums Errors of refraction : myopia, hypermetropia Hearing impairment : due to frequent, inadequately treated middle ear infections ( OM) Chronic health problems Adenoids , rheumatic heart diseases, diabetes, epilepsy, cancers and bronchial asthma Speech defects Emotional and behavioral problems

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III-Early i dentification and education of children with special disabilities:

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V-Emergency care and first aid services Definition: It is care for urgently diseased or injured pupils and staff members . It is the responsibility of school. Its purposes are Prevent further damage and complications Arrange transportation, to home or hospital, Notify the family. Every school should have an emergency care plan, supplies, facilities and available trained medical (physician, nurse) or first aid personnel (teacher, social worker, and pupils).

Medical emergencies: 

Medical emergencies Appendicitis, Gastroenteritis, Renal colic, Epileptic fits and Fainting Severe injuries or accident.

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C- Curative aspects School Health Program provides curative services to school pupils. This service is provided in School clinics provided by general practitioners (GP) A number of affiliated hospitals or services

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School Health Education

School health Education: 

School health Education It is the part of health education that is given in the school and by school health personnel. Methods of school Health Education: Formal health education. Correlated or integrated health education Health. Incidental health education

Formal health education: : 

Formal health education: Planned health information in specific periods in the timetable with formal curricula e.g. nutrition, and pollution..

Correlated or integrated health education Health: 

Correlated or integrated health education Health When a health topic is integrated to curricula such as history, Mathematics, geography, science, economics, and religion as well as extracurricular activities (art, music, physical education)

Incidental health education:: 

Incidental health education: Opportunities for incidental health education occur through the school day. Simple incidents in school can have meaning in health terms (e.g. School health appraisal, Injury of a pupil , a pupil has a communicable disease). Daily newspaper , radio and television reports frequently have health topics of interest to the pupils (e.g. new disease epidemic, a person who has reached the age of 100 years)

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Healthfull School Environment

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I- Psychosocial and emotional Environment This includes School schedules, Duration and timing of school day, Amount and timing of homework……..etc. Healthful emotional environment: through teacher-pupil relationship or pupils –pupils relationship 2- Physical Environment Safe and sanitary school facilities: Classroom ventilation, lighting, furniture…….. Play facilities ……. Garbage disposal

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Coordinated School Health Programs Health Education Addresses all dimensions of health Develops knowledge, attitudes, and skills Tailored to each grade level Motivates students Health Services Preventative Services Education Emergency Care Referral Management of acute and chronic conditions Physical Education Promotes lifelong physical activity Develops basic movement skills Develops physical fitness Enhances social and emotional ability Nutrition Services Integration of: Nutrition Education Nutritious and appealing meals Environment that promotes healthy dietary behaviors Food Safety School Environment Provides a safe physical plant, as well as a healthy and supportive environment that fosters learning. Physical Climate Emotional Climate Social Climate School Counseling/ Social Services Individuals Groups Families Cognitive Emotional Behavioral Social Needs Teacher Wellness Staff Activities: Assessment Education Fitness Community Develop partnerships among schools, families and community groups. Individuals will share and maximize resources and expertise in addressing the development of healthy children, youth, and their families.

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Health Services Addresses all dimensions of health Develops knowledge, attitudes, and skills Tailored to each grade level Motivates students Refusal Skills

Physical Education: 

Physical Education Promotes lifelong physical activity Develops basic movement skills Develops physical fitness Enhances social and emotional ability

School Health Services: 

School Health Services Preventative Services Education Emergency Care Referral Management of acute & chronic conditions

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School Nutrition Services Integration of: Nutrition Education Nutritious and appealing meals Environment that promotes healthy dietary behaviors Food Safety

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School Counseling/Social Services Individuals Groups Families Cognitive Emotional Behavioral Social Needs

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Healthy School Environment ProviAdes a safe physical plant, as well as a healthy and supportive environment that fosters learning Physical Climate Emotional Climate Social Climate

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Teacher/Staff Wellness Staff Activities: Assessment Education Fitness

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Community Develop partnerships among schools, families and community groups. Individuals will share and maximize resources and expertise in addressing the development of healthy children, youth, and their families.

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Thank You