Organizational Change

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Organizational Change : 

Organizational Change

Forces for Change : 

Forces for Change People Technology Information Processing & Communication Competition

Managing Planned Change : 

Managing Planned Change Goals of Planned Change: Improving the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its environment. Changing the behavior of individuals and groups in the organization. ChangeMaking things different. Planned ChangeActivities that are intentional and goal oriented. Change AgentsPersons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities.

Resistance to Change : 

Resistance to Change Forms of Resistance to Change Overt and immediate Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions Implicit and deferred Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism

Overcoming Resistance to Change : 

Overcoming Resistance to Change Tactics for dealing with resistance to change: Education and communication Participation Facilitation and support Negotiation Manipulation and cooptation Coercion

The Politics of Change : 

The Politics of Change Impetus for change is likely to come from outside change agents. Internal change agents are most threatened by their loss of status in the organization. Long-time power holders tend to implement only incremental change. The outcomes of power struggles in the organization will determine the speed and quality of change.

Lewin’s Three-Step Change Model : 

Lewin’s Three-Step Change Model UnfreezingChange efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity. RefreezingStabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces. Driving ForcesForces that direct behavior away from the status quo. Restraining ForcesForces that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium.

Action Research : 

Action Research Process Steps: Diagnosis Analysis Feedback Action Evaluation Action research benefits: Problem-focused rather than solution-centered. Heavy employee involvement reduces resistance to change. Action Research A change process based on systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate.

Organizational Development : 

Organizational Development OD Values: Respect for people Trust and support Power equalization Confrontation Participation Organizational Development (OD) A collection of planned interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being.

Organizational Development Techniques : 

Organizational Development Techniques Sensitivity Training Training groups (T-groups) that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction. Provides increased awareness of others and self. Increases empathy with others, improves listening skills, greater openess, and increased tolerance for others.

Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) : 

Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) Survey Feedback Approach The use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies among member perceptions; discussion follows and remedies are suggested. Process Consultation (PC) A consultant gives a client insights into what is going on around the client, within the client, and between the client and other people; identifies processes that need improvement.

Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) : 

Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) Team Building Activities: Goal and priority setting. Developing interpersonal relations. Role analysis to each member’s role and responsibilities. Team process analysis. Team Building High interaction among team members to increase trust and openness.

Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) : 

Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) Intergroup Problem Solving: Groups independently develop lists of perceptions. Share and discuss lists. Look for causes of misperceptions. Work to develop integrative solutions. Intergroup Development OD efforts to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other.

Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) : 

Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) Appreciative Inquiry (AI): Discovery: recalling the strengths of the organization. Dreaming: speculation on the future of the organization. Design: finding a common vision. Destiny: deciding how to fulfill the dream. Appreciative Inquiry Seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built on to improve performance.

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