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Bukhari Centre for Environment and Water Research Institute KFUPM PRESENTATION OUTLINES : PRESENTATION OUTLINES Introduction Types of Waste Problems Involved in Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment Treatment Methods Case Studies Conclusions INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION Origin Of Pharmaceutical Wastewater Quantity Generated Typical Characteristics of Antibiotic Waste ORIGIN OF PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE WATER (PWW) : ORIGIN OF PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE WATER (PWW) Spent liquors from fermentation processes (e.g. antibiotics, vitamins) Chemical waste Condenser waste from evaporation Floor and laboratory washing waste QUANTITIES GENERATED : QUANTITIES GENERATED In Ireland about 43 tons of BOD produced per day from Pharmaceutical Industry. In USA during 1983, about 3 million tons of hazardous waste produced in which 200,000 tons of sludge produced by pharmaceutical industry only. Typical Characteristic of Antibiotic Waste : Typical Characteristic of Antibiotic Waste Types of Waste : Types of Waste Helogenated/non-helogenated solvents Organic chemical residues from still bottom Sludge & tars Heavy metals Test animal remains Return pharmaceuticals Low-level radioactive waste Contaminated filters, etc. PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN PHARMACEUTICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT : PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN PHARMACEUTICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT Diverse characteristics of PWW. Different medicines produce different type of waste Variable amount of products Mixing of pharmaceutical waste with other type of waste Also, it may contain high BOD and highly variable pH Treatment Methods : Treatment Methods Physical Treatment Chemical Treatment Thermal Treatment Biological Treatment Physical treatment : Physical treatment Reverse osmosis (RO): Based on pressure application Removal of dissolved solids Depends on concentration and pH Dialysis: Based on the chemical activity of the solute Recovery of specific material from aqueous solution depends on the molecular weigh and dialysis coefficient Slide 11: Electrodialysis: Based on application of an electric field Used to separate ionized species Operates over a wide range of pH Evaporation: Based on heat energy Recovery of solvents Produces high quality effluent High cost Slide 12: Granular Activated Carbon Adsorption: Used for removal of organic contaminants (COD) Survey showed that 1 out of 25 pharmaceutical plants use GAS to treat their wastewater Filtration: Used to remove particulate contaminants Sedimentation: Suspended particles are allowed to settle and supernatant removed. Slide 13: Flocculation: Gathering of fine particles as flocculates which allows them to settle Stream Stripping : Difference in relative volatility between the organic chemicals and water are used to achieve a separation Used for recovery of solvents (1 out of 4 pharmaceutical plants and Wastewater treatment 17 out of 91 pharmaceutical plants) Chemical Treatment : Chemical Treatment Ion-exchange: Reversible interchange of ions between a solid and a liquid phase Used for the removal of trace metals, fluorides, nitrates, and manganese Neutralization: A process utilised to prevent excessively acidic or alkaline wastes discharge 1 out of 2 pharmaceutical plants use neutralization to treat their wastewater Slide 15: Reduction: treatment with sulphur dioxide to reduce the oxidants to less noxious materials Precipitin: separation of solid from aqueous waste chemically Calcination: heating of waste to a high temperature to oxidize organic matter Thermal Treatment : Thermal Treatment Incineration: controlled heating processes to covert a waste to less bulky, less toxic or less noxious Pyrolysis: thermal decomposition of waste at high temperature in the absence of oxygen Fig 3.0 : Fig 3.0 Biological Treatment : Biological Treatment Used to remove biodegradable organic matter Microorganisms converts organics into: CO2 and H2O (aerobic) CO2, CH4, and H2O (anaerobic) 1 out of 3 pharmaceutical plants use biological processes Biological Processes : Biological Processes Activated sludge: process in which microorganisms are continuously circulated and contacted with organic waste in the presence of oxygen Aerated lagoons: a basin in which organic waste stabilised by a dispersed biological growth in the presence of oxygen Common design criteria for single and two-stage activated sludge systems with nitrification capability : Common design criteria for single and two-stage activated sludge systems with nitrification capability Slide 21: Waste stabilisation ponds (Polishing ponds): large shallow basins store wastewater and purify under natural conditions in the presence of algae Trickling filters: artificial beds of rocks or other porous media through which aqueous organic waste percolated and brought into contact with biological growth and oxygen Anaerobic digestion: closed tanks operated in the absence of oxygen Ranges of values being used in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by trickling filters : Ranges of values being used in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by trickling filters Fig 6.0 : Fig 6.0 Table 6.0: Different Type of Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment Methods and Their Efficiencies : Table 6.0: Different Type of Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment Methods and Their Efficiencies Types of treatment processes Aerobic treatment Activated sludge Aerobic fixed growth systems. Anaerobic digestion with controlled aeration Reduction in BOD, % 56 – 96 80 (Table 6.0 continued) : (Table 6.0 continued) Anaerobic digestion Trickling filters Biofiltration (consist of aerator, clarifier & filters) Advanced Biological Treatment (provide, ammonia reduction & nitrification also) 60 - 90 60 -98 >90 90 Advantages of Biological Treatment for Pharmaceutical Wastewater : Advantages of Biological Treatment for Pharmaceutical Wastewater Good treatment efficiency Addition of extra chemicals not required Less sludge production Relatively much more economical AEROBIC TREATMENT : AEROBIC TREATMENT CASE STUDY I Problem Description: A pharmaceutical and chemical company (producing drugs, diuretics, laboratory chemicals and others) discharging its waste in an evaporation pond. This was reported that this wastewater might pollute the river Nile water and groundwater resources in the near vicinity. Accordingly, the wastewater effluent must be treated to a sufficient degree to render it safe and comply with national regulatory standards Slide 28: Waste Characteristic .relatively acidic .high concentration of organic compounds .high suspended solids and phenol up to 210 mg/l Objective It was required to bring the pollutants in wastewater up to permissible concentration to protect groundwater and environment Table 13. Characteristics of Pharmaceutical Wastewater : Table 13. Characteristics of Pharmaceutical Wastewater Parameter Range Mean pH 1.87-4.4 3.31 COD 1488-6818 3861 BOD 950-4050 2126 Phenol 116.7-210 165 Oil & grease 34.5-12332 273 TSS 56-656 276 TDS 1371-7314 4388 Methodology of Treatment : Methodology of Treatment Pharmaceutical wastewater treat by Activated sludge processes (6 hr. aeration) Activated sludge processes (20 hr. aeration) Biological filters Biological filters followed by activated sludge Slide 31: Table 14. Efficiency of Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment (using activated sludge; aeration period 6hr) Parameter Treatment Efficiency Average COD 41.2-88.8 65 BOD 57.7-97.2 77.45 Oil & grease 37.5-74.9 56.2 TSS 59.2-86.4 72.8 (using activated sludge; aeration period 20hr) Parameter Treatment Efficiency Average COD 89-95 92 BOD 88-98 93 Oil & grease 90-93 91.5 TSS 87-98 92.5 Slide 32: Table 15. Efficiency of Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment (using biological filter) Parameter Treatment Efficiency Average COD 43-88 65.5 BOD 58-87 72.5 Oil & grease 15-49 32 TSS 13-97 55 (using biological filter followed by activated sludge) Parameter Treatment Efficiency Average COD 90-96 93 BOD 81-96 88.5 Oil & grease 70-100 85 TSS 51-94 72.5 Recommendation of StudyFinally they recommended extended aeration activated sludge processes having the following design criteria to get the desired treatment standard (Act 48/82) : Recommendation of StudyFinally they recommended extended aeration activated sludge processes having the following design criteria to get the desired treatment standard (Act 48/82) Design flow = 14,000 m3/d Retention period in primary settling tanks = 3 hrs Retention period in aeration tanks = 20 hrs Sludge recycling ratio = 25% MLVSS in aeration tanks = 2000-3000 mg/l Retention period in final sedimentation tank = 3 hrs CASE STUDY II : CASE STUDY II Problem Description: A pharmaceutical industry engaged in the production of various type of allopathic medicines at Bombay. Treatment of this pharmaceutical waste using Oxidation Ditch Processes was under consideration (experimental set-up was already existed in the lab). Investigation carried out to improve the efficiency of processes Specific Objectives of the Study : Specific Objectives of the Study Evaluate the effect of coagulants (FeSO4, FeCl3 & Alum) on SS and COD removal efficiency. Evaluate the performance of Oxidation Ditch processes at various organic loading Determine basic performance of biological treatment in terms of effluent quality & sludge property Table 16. Characteristics of Pharmaceutical Wastewater : Table 16. Characteristics of Pharmaceutical Wastewater Parameter Range Mean COD 2000-3000 2700 BOD 1200-1700 1500 TSS 300-400 400 Phenol 65-72 65 Volatile acids 50-80 60 Alkalinity 50-100 60 pH 605-7.0 7.0 Conclusions of the study : Conclusions of the study Physicochemical treatment is not necessary because the doses of coagulants required were high and the COD reduction was marginal Oxidation Ditch Process showed a removal efficiency in the range of 86 to 91% for COD removal and about 50% for phenol removal. Recommended design criteria : solid retention times of 8 to 16 days hydraulic residence time of about 1 to 3 days removal rates of 0.19 to 0.24 day-1 ANAEROBIC TREATMENT : ANAEROBIC TREATMENT Anaerobic treatment of pharmaceutical waste is common in different countries because of lack of biodegradability toxic and malodorous nature of pharmaceutical waste Commonly Used Anaerobic Systems : Commonly Used Anaerobic Systems Upflow filters Membrane reactors Continuously-stirred reactors Fluidized bed reactors CASE STUDY: Treatment of Herbal Pharmaceutical Wastewater (HPW) (Nandy and Kaul, 1991). : CASE STUDY: Treatment of Herbal Pharmaceutical Wastewater (HPW) (Nandy and Kaul, 1991). Problem Description: Use of the Herbal pharmacy is common in several Asian countries. The waste generated during the production of herbal medicine usually contains high COD and low pH. The factory investigated produces about 700 herbal products. Objective of Study: to treat herbal PWW using anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor system Table 9.0. Characteristics of Herbal Pharmaceutical Wastewater : Table 9.0. Characteristics of Herbal Pharmaceutical Wastewater Parameter Range Mean COD 5,000-60,000 32,500 TSS 700-12,200 6,450 Phenol 65-72 65 Ammonia-N 40-320 180 Lignin 450-6,500 3,475 pH 4.2-4.5 4.35 Table 11.0. Reactor System Perform Data : Table 11.0. Reactor System Perform Data Parameter Values (Range) Influent Conc. 5,000-60,000 mgCOD/l HDT 0.54-5.0 day OLR 1.0 - 36.0 Kg COD/m3 Removal Efficiency 54 - 97 % Biogas Yield 0.33 - 6.0 m3 CH4/m3-d Methane Content 62.0 - 66.5 % Result/Conclusions of the Study : Result/Conclusions of the Study They got about 90% of substrate removal efficiency Loading rate of 16 kg /m3-d found optimum Increase in HRT results in increase of substrate removal efficiency. An optimum HRT of 2.5 days recommended CASE STUDY IV: Study on anaerobic filters for the treatment of PWW, Sachs et al. (1982) : CASE STUDY IV: Study on anaerobic filters for the treatment of PWW, Sachs et al. (1982) Background of the Study: A number of studies show that anaerobic treatment of PWW gives better results (Nemerow 1978; Trubnick and Rudolf 1948) Young and McCarty (1968), compared the anaerobic filters with other existing biological processes and pointed out following distinct advantages Slide 45: The anaerobic filter is ideally suited for the treatment of soluble wastes. No effluent or solids recycle is required with the anaerobic filter because biological solids remain in the filter and are not lost with the effluent. The accumulation of high concentrations active solids in the filter permits the treatment of dilute wastes. Very low volumes of sludge produce. Effluent is essentially free of SS. Objectives of Study : Objectives of Study Study the physical characteristics, chemical composition and variations of wastewater from chemically synthesised pharmaceutical production Apply that waste to the anaerobic filter and determine its treatability Compare this waste in terms of composition and treatability with others examined in previous studies Investigate possible waste toxicity Subject the filter to shock loading conditions to determine the effect on performance. Methodology : Methodology Waste from two pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities were used and studied to treat Anaerobic Filters were used to treat the waste Investigate the waste toxicity by using constant hydraulic and organic loading while varying the percentages of methanol and pharmaceutical waste in the feed; and Finally compared the treatment efficiency with other anaerobic treatment processes Table 12. Characteristics of Pharmaceutical Wastewater : Table 12. Characteristics of Pharmaceutical Wastewater Parameter Sample I Sample II COD 70,700 87,800 BOD 30,000 15,000 TS 42,120 28,218 DVS 24,510 15,240 Acidity 51,250 53,860 Alkalinity 0 0 pH 1.5 1.6 Results of the study : Results of the study Anaerobic filter giving 70 – 80% COD removal efficiency and 94% BOD5 removal efficiency Anaerobic filters give 33% better performance as compared to aerobic extended aeration system Very low volumes of sludge produce Remove colour with higher efficiency Conclusions of Presentation : Conclusions of Presentation A number of physical, chemical and biological treatment processes are available to treat PWW Biological Treatment of PWW is difficult due to Toxic effect to both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Less amenable to treatment Conclusions of Presentation (continued) : Conclusions of Presentation (continued) Treatment of PWW using anaerobic filter is much better because of Rapid acclimatisation of bacteria Faster treatment Effluent quality as good or better than aerobic extended aeration system Less sludge production Methane generation gives additional benefit Slide 52: Thank You You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.