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SCL Mercury LoadRunner Course Material:

SCL Mercury LoadRunner Course Material

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Load Testing Importance of Load Testing Performance Testing Life Cycle LoadRunner Components Building Scripts Playback Scripts Enhancing the scripts Creating Scenario’s Running the Load Test Monitoring / Analyzing Results Publishing Reports Interview Questions Course Contents:

Load Testing:

Load Testing What is Load Testing Load testing is to test that if the application works fine with the loads that result from large number of simultaneous users, transactions and to determine weather it can handle peak usage periods. Version History Version 11.0, Version 9.52, Version 9.51, Version 9.50, Version 9.10, Version 8.1, Version 8.1, Version 8.0, Version 7.8, Version 6.5, Version 6.0

Importance of Load Testing:

Importance of Load Testing Does the application respond quickly enough for the intended users? Will the application handle the expected user load and beyond? Will the application handle the number of transactions required by the business? Is the application stable under expected and unexpected user loads? Are you sure that users will have a positive experience on go-live day?

Performance Testing Life Cycle :

Performance Testing Life Cycle Load testing typically consists of five phases: planning, script creation, scenario definition, scenario execution, and results analysis. Plan Load Test: Define your performance testing requirements, for example, number of concurrent users, typical business processes and required response times. Create Vuser Scripts: Capture the end-user activities into automated scripts. Define a Scenario: Use the LoadRunner Controller to set up the load test environment. Run a Scenario: Drive, manage, and monitor the load test from the LoadRunner Controller . Analyze the Results: Use LoadRunner Analysis to create graphs and reports, and evaluate the performance.

Performance Testing Life Cycle:

Performance Testing Life Cycle Vusers: In the scenario, LoadRunner replaces human users with virtual users or Vusers. Vusers emulate the actions of human users working with your application. A scenario can contain tens, hundreds, or even thousands of Vusers. Vuser Scripts: The actions that a Vuser performs during the scenario are described in a Vuser script. Scenario: A scenario is a file that defines the events that occur during each testing session, based on performance requirements. Transactions: To measure the performance of the server, you define transactions. A transaction represents end-user business processes that you are interested in measuring. LoadRunner Terminology:

LoadRunner Components:

LoadRunner Components The Virtual User Generator captures end-user business processes and creates an automated performance testing script, also known as a virtual user script. The Controller organizes, drives, manages, and monitors the load test. The Load Generators create the load by running virtual users. The Analysis helps you view, dissect, and compare the performance results. The Launcher provides a single point of access for all of the LoadRunner components.

Building Scripts:

Building Scripts The LoadRunner Virtual User Generator (VuGen) works on a record-and playback principle. http://localhost:1080/MercuryWebTours/

Recording Options::

Recording Options:

Building Scripts:

Building Scripts Recording Summary:

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Tree View: Script View: View Script

Playback Scripts:

Playback Scripts Set Runtime Settings: Run Log:

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Pacing Setting: Log Setting: Think Time Setting:

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View your script running in real time Click on the Start Replay button View > Test Results Test Results: Tools/General Options:

Enhancing the scripts :

Enhancing the scripts Creating Transactions Parameterization Correlation Rendezvous Point LoadRunner Function Verify web Content User Defined LR Functions

Create Transactions:

Create Transactions Transactions are used to measure the response time for a set of operations performed. Transactions should have Start and End Points, defined as: lr_start_transaction(“login"); lr_end_transaction(“login"); Example: for web scripts you want to capture time specific user actions like how long it takes to display a Web page, login, logout etc. So you put timers around each of these steps

Parameterization :

Parameterization Parameters are like script variables. They are used to vary input to the server and to emulate real users. Enable to send different sets of data. Provide accurate testing from the Controller. One script can emulate many different users on the system. Example: User Name / Password

Correlation :

Correlation Correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries. Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries) Auto Correlation : Automatic correlation is where LR set some standard rules for correlation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are created by these rules. Manual Correlation: Manual correlation, the value we want to correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate. ex: web_reg_save_param(“session ID”)

Rendezvous Point :

Rendezvous Point Rendezvous points are inserted into Vuser scripts to emulate heavy user load on the server. Rendezvous points instruct Vusers to wait during test execution for multiple Vusers to arrive at a certain point, in order that they may simultaneously perform a task. For example: to emulate peak load on the bank server, you can insert a rendezvous point instructing 100 Vusers to deposit cash into their accounts at the same time. Syntax: lr_rendezvous("rendezvous_1");

LR Functions:

LR Functions These are the Pre-defined Functions available in Load Runner Example: Lr_thinktime lr_error_message lr_output_message lr_eval_string lr_save_string lr_save_int lr_continue_on_error web_reg_find web_reg_save_param lr_abort lr_exit lr_set_debug_message

verify Web page content:

verify Web page content Create Check points: Insert/New Step: Text Check points: web_reg_find Image Check point Out Put Messages

User Defined Functions::

User Defined Functions: User Defined Functions are for Advanced Level. Create external library (DLL) with the function and add this library to VuGen bin directory. Assign user defined function as a parameter. Syntax: __declspec (dllexport) char* <function name>(char*, char*) Examples of user defined functions are as follows: GetVersion, GetCurrentTime, GetPltform are some of the user defined functions.

Creating Scenario’s:

Creating Scenario’s Scenario’s are created on the web based Performance center or standalone Controller. Scenario Schedule: set the load behavior to accurately portray user behavior. Scenario Groups: create/configure different Vuser groups to represent typical users of your system.

Add Load Generators:

Add Load Generators Load generators are the machines that create load on the application by running Vusers. You can use a number of load generator machines, each hosting many virtual users. generators to the scenario and testing the load generator connection. Click on the Generators button

Emulate real load behavior:

Emulate real load behavior Emulate real Load behavior by changing the default load settings using the Controller Schedule Builder. Click on Edit Scheduler

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Graphical representation of the scheduler : Ramp Down Settings: Ramp UP Settings Duration Settings

Emulate different types of users:

Emulate different types of users specify how your Vusers will behave during the test, This can be done by changing the runtime settings.

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Pacing Setting: Log Setting: Think Time Setting:

Running the Load Test:

Running the Load Test Controller Run View : ➤ Scenario Groups ➤ Scenario Status ➤ Available Graphs Tree ➤ Graph Viewing Area ➤ Graph Legend

Monitoring Application Under Load:

Monitoring Application Under Load Default online graphs: Running Vusers : Whole Scenario graph displays the number of Vusers running at a given time. Transaction Response Time: Whole Scenario graph shows the amount of time it takes for each transaction to be completed. Hits per Second: Whole Scenario graph displays the number of hits (HTTP requests) made to the Web server by Vusers during each second of the scenario run. Windows Resources graph: Windows Resources graph displays the Windows resources measured during a scenario.

Monitor User Running in Real Time::

Monitor User Running in Real Time: Click on the Vusers button to visually observe the Vuser’s actions:

Summary of User Actions::

Summary of User Actions: Text summary of the events:

Check for Errors::

Check for Errors: Click View > Show Output or click the Errors link in the Scenario Status window.

How Do you know the Test is Complete?:

How Do you know the Test is Complete? At the conclusion of the test run, the Scenario Status window shows the Down status.

Test Result Analysis::

Test Result Analysis: The Analysis window contains three primary sections: ➤ Graph Tree ➤ Graph Viewing Area ➤ Graph Legend

Publishing Reports::

Publishing Reports: You can create HTML Reports or Microsoft Word Reports From the Reports menu, choose HTML Report or Microsoft Reports

Interview Questions?:

Interview Questions? What is load testing? What is Performance testing? Version History of LoadRunner tool When do you do load and performance Testing? What are the components of LoadRunner? What Component of LoadRunner would you use to record a Script? What is a rendezvous point? What is a scenario? Explain the recording mode for web Vuser script? Why do you create parameters? What is correlation? Explain the difference between automatic correlation and manual correlation? How do you find out where correlation is required? Give few examples from your projects?

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Where do you set automatic correlation options? What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web Vuser script? What is the difference between standard log and extended log? When do you disable log in Virtual User Generator, When do you choose standard and extended logs? How do you debug a LoadRunner script? How do you write user defined functions in LR? What are the changes you can make in run-time settings? Where do you set Iteration for Vuser testing? How do you perform functional testing under load? What is Ramp up? How do you set this? What is the advantage of running the Vuser as thread?

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How to stop the execution of your script on error, how do you do that? What is Throughput? What is the relation between Response Time and Throughput? Explain the Configuration of your systems? How do you identify the performance bottlenecks? If web server, database and Network are all fine where could be the problem? How did you find web server related issues? How did you find database related issues? Explain all the web recording options? What is the difference between Overlay graph and Correlate graph? - How did you plan the Load? What are the Criteria?

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What does vuser_init action contain? What does vuser_end action contain? What is think time? How do you change the threshold? Explain the following functions: lr_debug_message, lr_output_message, lr_error_message, lrd_stmt, lrd_fetch What are the types of Goals in Goal-Oriented Scenario? What is Analysis Scenario (Bottlenecks)? What is correlation? Explain the difference between automatic correlation and manual correlation? Where do you set automatic correlation options? What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web vuser script? How do you create reports in LoadRunner.

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