Ecology

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ecology

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Ecology:

Ecology

The study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment :

The study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment

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Ecosystem All the organisms living in an area and the nonliving features of their environment Community + Abiotic environment, interacting

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Community All the populations of the different species living and inter-acting in the same ecosystem 7-spotted lady bird ( Adephagia s eptempunctata ) Bean aphids ( Aphis fabae ) Red ant ( Myrmica rubra ) and Broom plant ( Cytisus scoparius )

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Species A group of organisms that can breed to produce fully fertile offspring Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus

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Population All the organisms in an ecosystem that belong to the same species

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Biodiversity The total number of different species in an ecosystem and their relative abundance Worcester City Museums

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Habitat The place in which an organism lives provides the kinds of food and shelter, the temperature, and the amount of moisture the organism needs to survive

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Energy and organisms Autotrophs Organisms which can synthesise their own complex, energy rich, organic molecules from simple inorganic molecules (e.g. green plants synthesis sugars from CO 2 and H 2 O)

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Heterotrophs Organisms who must obtain complex, energy rich, organic compounds form the bodies of other organisms (dead or alive)

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Detritivores Heterotrophic organisms who ingest dead organic matter. (e.g. earthworms, woodlice, millipedes) Earth worm ( Lumbricus terrestris )

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Saprotrophs Heterotrophic organisms who secrete digestive enzymes onto dead organism matter and absorb the digested material. (e.g. fungi, bacteria) Chanterelle (Cantherellus cibarius)

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Feeding relationships Predators & prey Herbivory Parasite & host Mutualism Competition Large blue butterfly ( Maculinea arion )

Biosphere :

Biosphere The part of Earth that supports life Top portion of Earth's crust All the waters that cover Earth's surface Atmosphere that surrounds Earth.

Competition:

Competition Competition caused by population growth affects many organisms, including humans Limits population size Food Space

Limiting Factor :

Limiting Factor Anything that restricts the number of individuals in a population. Includes living and nonliving features of the ecosystem

Succession:

Succession Natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary. Primary – begins in a place without soil Secondary – where soil already exists

Primary Succession:

Primary Succession

Secondary Succession:

Secondary Succession

Pioneer species:

Pioneer species A group of organisms, such as lichens, found in the primary stage of succession and that begin an area's soil-building process

Climax community:

Climax community A community that has reached a stable stage of ecological succession

Biome:

Biome Large geographic areas with similar climates and ecosystems

Includes:

Includes Tundra Taiga Desert Temperate deciduous forest Temperate rain forest Tropical rain forest, and grassland

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