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The study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment :

The study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment

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Ecosystem All the organisms living in an area and the nonliving features of their environment Community + Abiotic environment, interacting

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Community All the populations of the different species living and inter-acting in the same ecosystem 7-spotted lady bird ( Adephagia s eptempunctata ) Bean aphids ( Aphis fabae ) Red ant ( Myrmica rubra ) and Broom plant ( Cytisus scoparius )

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Species A group of organisms that can breed to produce fully fertile offspring Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus

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Population All the organisms in an ecosystem that belong to the same species

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Biodiversity The total number of different species in an ecosystem and their relative abundance Worcester City Museums

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Habitat The place in which an organism lives provides the kinds of food and shelter, the temperature, and the amount of moisture the organism needs to survive

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Energy and organisms Autotrophs Organisms which can synthesise their own complex, energy rich, organic molecules from simple inorganic molecules (e.g. green plants synthesis sugars from CO 2 and H 2 O)

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Heterotrophs Organisms who must obtain complex, energy rich, organic compounds form the bodies of other organisms (dead or alive)

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Detritivores Heterotrophic organisms who ingest dead organic matter. (e.g. earthworms, woodlice, millipedes) Earth worm ( Lumbricus terrestris )

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Saprotrophs Heterotrophic organisms who secrete digestive enzymes onto dead organism matter and absorb the digested material. (e.g. fungi, bacteria) Chanterelle (Cantherellus cibarius)

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Feeding relationships Predators & prey Herbivory Parasite & host Mutualism Competition Large blue butterfly ( Maculinea arion )

Biosphere :

Biosphere The part of Earth that supports life Top portion of Earth's crust All the waters that cover Earth's surface Atmosphere that surrounds Earth.


Competition Competition caused by population growth affects many organisms, including humans Limits population size Food Space

Limiting Factor :

Limiting Factor Anything that restricts the number of individuals in a population. Includes living and nonliving features of the ecosystem


Succession Natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary. Primary – begins in a place without soil Secondary – where soil already exists

Primary Succession:

Primary Succession

Secondary Succession:

Secondary Succession

Pioneer species:

Pioneer species A group of organisms, such as lichens, found in the primary stage of succession and that begin an area's soil-building process

Climax community:

Climax community A community that has reached a stable stage of ecological succession


Biome Large geographic areas with similar climates and ecosystems


Includes Tundra Taiga Desert Temperate deciduous forest Temperate rain forest Tropical rain forest, and grassland

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