INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FIRE ACCIDENT: INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FIRE ACCIDENT By : Vijay Baria First Year M.Pharm Preformulation & Production Management Department of Pharmaceutics Shree Devi College of Pharmacy 11 th March 2011 CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES: CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES Class A fires:- fires that occur in ordinary material such as wood, paper rages, rubber and rubbish. Class B fires:- with flammable material like oil, paint, gasoline etc……. Class C fires:- with gases and vapours . Class D fires:- with combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, lithium, sodium etc…. Class E fires:- involved electricity in any form.. How do I tell what’s flammable?: NFPA classification system The NFPA diamond is an easy way to determine the safety risks associated with hazardous materials. To determine a materials flammability refer to the red section of the diamond. A number in this section will indicate the flammability rating of the material. The following numbering system is used to indicate flammability 0 - will not burn 1 - must be preheated to burn 2 -ignites when moderately heated 3 -ignites at normal temperature 4 -extremely flammable How do I tell what’s flammable? For example, An NFPA diamond on a can of gasoline would have a 3 in the red section indicating that gasoline could ignite at normal working temperatures. NFPA Diamond NFPA Classification System Continued...: NFPA Classification System Continued... Where can I find NFPA diamonds? Product labels Material Safety Data Sheets (ask your supervisor for them) How do I determine the flammability of chemicals that don’t use the NFPA classification system? The flashpoint of a chemical may be used to determine its flammability. Flashpoint information may be found on product labels or MSDS sheets. What’s a Flashpoint? The flashpoint of a liquid is the lowest temperature at which the liquid gives off enough vapor to be ignited. The lower the flashpoint, the greater the risk for ignition. Slide 5: Flammable and combustible liquids are potential fuel sources for fires and are present in almost every workplace. It is actually the vapor created by flammable and combustible liquids that ignites and burns. It is important to understand what materials in your work area are flammable and combustible so that you may properly store and isolate them from ignition sources. Flammable and Combustible Liquids Flammable and Combustible Liquids Continued...: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Continued... Flammable liquids are considered flammable because their flashpoints are < 100ºF. This means that flammable liquids burn easily at normal working temperatures. Combustible liquids have a flashpoint at or above 100ºF. These liquids are less hazardous than flammable liquids but still pose a risk. The volatility of flammable and combustible liquids requires special storage and handling requirements. Storing Flammable and Combustible Liquids: Storing Flammable and Combustible Liquids Flammable liquids must be stored away from ignition sources in cool, well ventilated areas away from incompatible materials Limit the amount of flammable and combustible liquids to the minimum amount necessary. As a general rule, No more than 10 gallons of flammable materials should be outside of approved flammable liquid storage cabinets or approved storage rooms. Room storage limits of flammable and combustible materials depend on various factors such as sprinklers, and storage cabinets. Refer to the table on the following slide for storage guidelines. 1. Identify the fire hazards: 1. Identify the fire hazards Identify: Sources of ignition Sources of fuel Sources of oxygen The fire triangle: The fire triangle Sources of ignition: Sources of ignition ARSON Smokers materials Naked flames Electrical, gas, portable heating equipment Hot processes- paint stripping, welding Lighting equipment Sources of fuel: Sources of fuel Flammable liquid based products Packaging materials Waste products Stationary Soft furnishings and furniture Some construction materials Sources of Oxygen: Sources of Oxygen The air around us Air conditioning Some chemicals Oxygen supplies – cylinder storage Pyrotechnics General Fire Precautions: General Fire Precautions Reduce the risk and spread of fire Ensure means of escape at all times Fire fighting measures on premises Fire detection and warnings of Action in the case of fire Training and instruction Measures to mitigate the effects Slide 14: Life Safety The primary goal of fire safety efforts is to protect building occupants from injury and to prevent loss of life. Property Protection The secondary goal of fire safety is to prevent property damage. Protection of Operations By preventing fires and limiting damage we can assure that work operations will continue. Fire Prevention Goals The Strategy of Preventing a Fire : The Strategy of Preventing a Fire A fire must have three things to ignite and maintain combustion: Fuel Heat Oxygen The basic strategy of fire prevention is to control or isolate sources of fuel and heat in order to prevent combustion. If all three are not present in sufficient quantities a fire will not ignite or a fire will not be able to sustain combustion PREVENTIVE STEPS TO AVOID FIRE ACCIDENT : PREVENTIVE STEPS TO AVOID FIRE ACCIDENT Smoking is strictly prohibited inside the factory. Do not heat a flammable liquid above its flash point. Do not allow the formation of an inflammable mixture anywhere in the plant with air or oxygen. Any gas leak in the equipment or pipeline should be brought to the notice. Before opening a line or equipment containing inflammable gas or liquid consult production superintendant. Avoid the use of open flame in the area where combustible material are handled. Toxic gases or liquids s hould not be depressurized into the atmosphere. Fire safety risk assessment: Fire safety risk assessment Identify the fire hazards Identify the people at risk Evaluate, remove or reduce, and protect from risk Record, plan, inform, instruct, and train Review Remove or reduce the hazards - sources of ignition: Remove or reduce the hazards - sources of ignition Replace potential sources of ignition with an alternative Replace naked flame and radiant heaters with fixed convector heaters or central heating Separate ignition sources and fuels Check areas after hot work has taken place Take precautions to avoid arson Remove or reduce the hazards - sources of fuel: Remove or reduce the hazards - sources of fuel Ensure flammable materials, liquids and gases are kept to a minimum and stored properly Do not keep flammable solids, liquids and gases together Remove combustible waste daily Store waste materials securely away from buildings. Remove or reduce the hazards – sources of oxygen: Remove or reduce the hazards – sources of oxygen Close all doors, windows and other openings when not required for ventilation Shut down inessential ventilation systems Do not store oxidising materials next to heat sources or flammable materials Control use of oxygen cylinders Remove or reduce the hazards – to people: Remove or reduce the hazards – to people Ensure that any risks remaining to people are controlled Provide systems to warn people and allow them to escape in the event of fire Provide adequate exits for the number of people present Fire detection and warning systems: Fire detection and warning systems System will depend on the size and layout of the building It should provide adequate warning in the event of a fire Automatic or manual? You may/will need special arrangements for people with disabilities Fire-fighting equipment and facilities: Fire-fighting equipment and facilities Can reduce the risk of a small fire (waste paper bin) developing into a larger one Controlling a fire in the early stages can reduce the risk to people There should be enough portable extinguishers suitable for the risk They should be sited throughout the premises at suitable locations Extinguishing media for each type of fires: Extinguishing media for each type of fires Class A fires:- water and foam type extinguisher Class B fires:- foam and carbon dioxide Class C fires:- carbon dioxide and dry chemical powder Class D fires:- only by dry powder extinguisher Class E fires:- dry chemical powder and carbon dioxide Dry sand can used as an extinguishing media for all fires Type Of Extinguisher: Type Of Extinguisher Soda – Acid Water-Gas/Light Water Foam Halon or Halogenated Hydro Carbon CO2 Extinguisher Dry Powder Fire Hazards—Fire Extinguisher Facts: Use for small fires ONLY! Operation: P.A.S.S. Pull the pin Aim Squeeze Sweep Fire Hazards— Fire Extinguisher Facts Fire-fighting equipment and facilities: Fire-fighting equipment and facilities Co2 Foam Powder Water Other facilities: Other facilities Can include: Access for fire engines and fire-fighters Fire-fighting shafts and lifts Fire suppression systems – sprinklers Smoke-control systems Dry or wet rising mains and fire-fighters inlets Information and communication systems Fire-fighters switches Escape routes: Escape routes Escape routes should be: Suitable Easily, safely and immediately usable at all times Adequate for the number of people Free from any obstructions, slip or trips hazards Available for access by the emergency services Escape routes: Escape routes Suitable: Fire resistant construction Escape routes should not go through other occupiers premises Doors should open in the direction of travel Be fitted with vision panels if over 60 people Signs and notices: Signs and notices Comply with British or European standards Not mixed Be fire resistant British Standard European Standard Why do we close fire doors?: Why do we close fire doors? Why we do close fire doors: Why we do close fire doors Slide 34: We don’t want to end up like this Slide 35: Or this REFERENCE: REFERENCE INDUSTRIAL PHARMACY By Dr. Shayamala Bhaskaran . PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT By C.V.S. Subramanyam . www.authorstrem.com www.scribd.com Thank You....!: Thank You....!