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DIABETIC IMPACT Today , every third person we meet seems to be suffering from diabetes. According to the world health organization (WHO), more than 70% of people that is an estimated number of 50.8 million people living in low and middle income countries, are affected with diabetes while the global prevalence of diabetes is 6.4%. It is varied from10.2% in the western pacific to 3.8%.

Diabetes Populations:

Diabetes Populations An estimated 285 million people, corresponding to 6.4% of world adult population had been suffering with diabetes in 2010. The number is expected to grow to 438 million by 2030, indirectly 7.8% of the world adult population. India has the world’s largest diabetic population, followed by china with 43.2 million in 2010 and 74 million by 2025. Diabetes is one of the major cause of premature illness and death worldwide around 3.2 million every year. One in 20 deaths is attributable to diabetes, 8700 death every day, six deaths every minute. Atleast one in 10 deaths among adults between 35 to 64 years old is attributable to diabetes


HISTORY OF DIABETES FIG : Egyptian papyrus ebres Knowledge of diabetes date back to countries before Christ, the Egyptian papyrus ebres by physician hey-Ra (1552B.C.) described an illness associated with the passage of much urine. Celsus (30B.C. TO 50 AD) recognized the disease, but it was not until two centuries later that another Greek physician the renowned aretaeus of Cappadocia gave the name diabetes (a siphon). He made the first complete clinical description, as it is “a melting down of the flesh and limbs into urine,

Greek physician Galen of Pergamum:

Greek physician Galen of Pergamum In 160 AD the greek physician Galen of Pergamum mistakenly diagnosed diabetes as an ailment of the kidneys. In the 3 rd to 6 th century AD scholars in china, Japan and India wrote as a condition with polyuria in which the urine was sweet and sticky. However, although it had been known for centuries that diabetes urine tastes as sweet, it remained for willis in 1674 to add the observation “ as if imbued with honey and sugar

Avicenna- Diabetic word :

Avicenna- Diabetic word Diabetes commonly diagnosed by “water tears” that drank the urine of those suspected of having diabetes. The urine of people with diabetes was thought to be sweet and tasty. The name diabetes mellitus (mellitus- honey) was established. A century after Willis. Dobson demonstrated that the sweetness was indeed due to sugar. From that time of earliest records of the history of diabetes, the progress in the understanding of the disorder came slowly until the middle of the 19 th century. However, First chemical test developed to indicate and measure the presence of sugar in urine was described by Avicenna, an Arab physician in about 1000 AD.

French physician bouchardat:

French physician bouchardat In 1870’s French physician Bouchardat, noticed the disappearance of glycosuria in his diabetic patients during the rationing of food in Paris while under siege by Germany during the franco-prussian war. He formulated the idea of individualized diet for his diabetic patients.

Paul Langerhans:

Paul Langerhans In 1869, the German medical student Paul Langerhans described the detailed microscopic structure of pancreas and explained about the nine different type of cells present in pancreas. The cells are small, irregular, polygonal cells without granules, which formed numerous “ zellhaufen ” literally 8 cell heaps and he measured the cell 0.1 to 0.24 mm in diameter throughout the gland. Finally in 1893 those cells are named as ” ilots de langerhans”; in February 1894, he presented a thesis entitled “ contributions to the microscopy anatomy of pancreas 9 ” and in the dissertation he clearly mentioned that the pancreas contain two systems of cells , one set secretes the normal pancreatic juice the function of the other was unknown.

starvation diet:

starvation diet Frederick Allen in 1919, he prescribed low calorie diets as little as 450 calories per day to 100 diabetes patients on a near “starvation diet” then he understood that reducing caloric intake caused diabetics to excrete less glucose in the urine. This diet could actually cure some overweight type 2 diabetes patients then he published, total dietary regulations in the treatment of diabetes, after that he joined as director of diabetes research at the Rockefeller institute. He established the first treatment clinic in USA, the physistric institute in New Jersey.

FATHER OF DIABETES-Frederick Banting:

FATHER OF DIABETES-Frederick Banting In 1920, October 31, Frederick Banting conceives the idea of insulin after reading Moses Barrons “the relation of the islets of Langerhans to diabetes with special reference to the case of pancreatic lithiasis ” and the work of Nanyn , Minkowski , Opie , Schafer, and other authors had indicated that diabetes was caused by the lack of a protein hormone secreted by the islets of langerhans in the pancreas, the hormone was named as insulin by Schafer. Based on the reference Dr. Banting and his assistant Charles Best continues his research using a murky concoction of canine pancreas extracts on de- pancreatized dogs. Finally in 1921 summer insulin was discovered and a depancreatized dog is successfully treated with insulin

Diabetes classification:

Diabetes classification After the development of insulin, diabetes was classified by Hinsworth in the year of 1935 based on insulin sensitivity. Type-I (insulin sensitive) & type –II (insulin insensitive). After differentiating of diabetes he opened the door for new avenues of diabetes management

Gestational diabetes mellitus:

Gestational diabetes mellitus The national diabetes data group (NDDG) issued updated classification of diabetes types, including one that was during pregnancy. In 1979, they observed more neutral “carbohydrate intolerances of pregnancy” in the terms of “gestational diabetes mellitus”. In 1998 Hadden reports the incident in the medical literature observed as early as 1823, where the diabetic like condition appeared during pregnancy but seemed to perinatal mortality among the babies of women who developed diabetes year later, leading to the coining of the term prediabetes in pregnancy. Following Belgian scientist J.P.Hoet announces the condition was called “ metagestational diabetes”, finally Jorgen pedeson modified as gestational diabetes (type-III) in 1967

Purified insulin:

Purified insulin Eli Lilly & Company was the first to produce large quantity of purified insulin with the help of Best. This insulin was obtained from only animal sources at the same time Panayotis katsoyannis & Helmut Zahn was characterized the structure of insulin. In 1972, Paul E.Lacy identified the key component of the islet that produces insulin, a beta cell of pancreas was responsible for insulin production and he developed the pioneered techniques to isolate and purification of beta cells. Finally he transplanted the islet cells into rats which successfully cured diabetes followed by transplantation to humans in 1980. The production of insulin from animal sources was not an economic and impure one one . For the production of pure and economic insulin rDNA technique has been used as a prominent technique. In 1977, Herbert boyer was the first to developed geneticaly synthesized human insulin form E.Coli which named it as “ Humulin ”: now vast variety of human insulin was currently developed by recombinant techniques

Rosalyn sussman yalow :

Rosalyn sussman yalow For the evaluation of type-I diabetes, Dorothy frank (1960), who had type-I diabetes developed urine strips in order to test urine sugar level by using strip by doing it yourself. If the urine strip turns blue color it means no sugar was present and orange means positive. the innovation of urine strip helped to collection of test tube line upon the bathroom sink and waiting for the result. Rosalyn sussman Yalow received the 1977 Nobel Prize for the development of radio immuno assay for insulin and she measured the multitude of substances found in tiny quantity in human body, including viruses, hormones & drugs. For the analysis of insulin she used radioisotope labeled antibodies


Glucometer In 1969 the first portable glucometer was developed in Ames diagnostics by Dr. Richard Bernstein there after in October of that year it came for usage in emergency condition and distinguished between unconscious & conscious drunks when the laboratory was closed at night. Finally it was modified like calculator that can is easy for carrying and pursing

Insulin pump:

Insulin pump Around 70s the insulin pump was designed to mimic the body’s normal release of insulin. The pump dispenses a continuous insulin dosage through a cannula using a small needle that is inserted into skin. The first pump created in 1979, by Linda Frederickson “describes her first insulin pump” my first pump in 1980 was an auto syringe, which weighed 17 ounces and had blinking red light, peoples nicknamed them as “blue brick”. In 1979 Dereta released the first needle free insulin delivery system. In 1983 the first biosynthetic human insulin is introduced. it was reducing the cost and purification process of animal insulin


RECENT MARKETED INSULIN FORMULATIONS Oral insulin therapy Inhalation powders Microprocessor controlled inhaler Passport - insulin skin patch


FUTURE RESEARCH ON TREATMENT OF DIABETES Artificial beta cells transplantations Artificial beta cells Artificial Pancreas Diabetes stem cell research Naturopathy Acupuncture Biofeedback Methods Chromium Ginseng Magnesium Vanadium Omega3 Aloe Vera

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