Electron Transport Chain

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Presentation Transcript

Electron transport chain(ETC) : 

Electron transport chain(ETC)

Introduction : 

Introduction Discovery In 1961, an American biochemist, Albert Lehninger, discovered that the citric acid cycle and the electron-transfer chain of enzymes (where 1 NADH makes 3 ATPs) are located within each cell’s mitochondria. And each cell has many mitochondrion power plants that produce an energy output which can be measured.

Slide 3: 

Importance and Location Importance: These are the mechanism by which NADH plus H+ and FADH2 are used to generate ATP Location: Inner mitochondrial membrane (showing my mammalian bias)

Slide 4: 

Location

ETC : 

ETC The majority of the energy conserved during catabolism reactions occurs near the end of the metabolic series of reactions in the electron transport chain. The electron transport or respiratory chain gets its name from the fact electrons are transported to meet up with oxygen from respiration at the end of the chain. The overall electron chain transport reaction is: 2 H+ + 2 e+ + 1/2 O2 ---> H2O + energy

ETC : 

ETC Notice that 2 hydrogen ions, 2 electrons, and an oxygen molecule react to form as a product water with energy released in an exothermic reaction. This relatively straight forward reaction actually requires eight or more steps. The energy released is coupled with the formation of three ATP molecules per every use of the electron transport chain

ETC : 

ETC The Electron transport system contains mainly six components arranged in the following sequence 1.NAD (Nicotinamide adino dehydragenase) 2.FAD ( Flavo adino dehydragenase) 3.cytochrome B 4.cytochrome C 5.cytochrome A and 6.cytochrome A3

Initiation of Electron Transport Chain: : 

Initiation of Electron Transport Chain: Once the NADH has been made from a metabolite in the citric acid cycle inside of the mitochondria, it interacts with the first complex 1 enzyme, known as NADH reductase. This complex 1 contains a coenzyme flavin mononucleotide (FMN) which is similar to FAD. The sequence of events is that the NADH, plus another hydrogen ion enter the enzyme complex and pass along the 2 hydrogen ions, ultimately to an interspace in the mitochondria.

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These hydrogen ions, acting as a pump, are utilized by ATP synthetase to produce an ATP for every two hydrogen ions produced. Three complexes (1, 3, 4) act in this manner to produce 2 hydrogen ions each, and thus will produce 3 ATP for every use of the complete electron transport chain.

Oxidation of FAD & NADH occurs by the following steps : 

Oxidation of FAD & NADH occurs by the following steps Step1: The initiation of electron transport system is the removal of hydrogen from the substrate by enzyme dehydrogenase 2H 2H+ + 2e- the hydrogen atom becomes ionized into protons+ and electrons-

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Step2: The hydrogen ion reduces the co-enzyme NAD NAD + 2H+  NADH +H+ Step3: NADH is oxidized into NAD by transferring its hydrogen ion to FAD which act as the hydrogen carrier. Step4: From FAD each hydrogen ion is discharged in the cell fluid and electrons are passed on the cytochromes B,C,A and A3

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Step5: From the cytochromes the electrons are given to the enzyme cytochrome oxidase. Step6: The cytochrome oxidase finally discharge electron to oxygen.This oxygen units with hydrogen ions forming water.

Global ETC With ATP : 

Global ETC With ATP

Global ETC With ATP : 

Global ETC With ATP

Step 1: Proton gradient is built up as a result of NADH (produced from oxidation reactions) feeding electrons into electron transport system. : 

Step 1: Proton gradient is built up as a result of NADH (produced from oxidation reactions) feeding electrons into electron transport system.

Step 2: Protons (indicated by + charge) enter back into the mitochondrial matrix through channels in ATP synthase enzyme complex. This entry is coupled to ATP synthesis from ADP and phosphate (Pi) : 

Step 2: Protons (indicated by + charge) enter back into the mitochondrial matrix through channels in ATP synthase enzyme complex. This entry is coupled to ATP synthesis from ADP and phosphate (Pi)

Step 3: The cytochrome oxidase finally discharges electron to oxygen. This oxygen units with hydrogen ions forming water : 

Step 3: The cytochrome oxidase finally discharges electron to oxygen. This oxygen units with hydrogen ions forming water

Conclusion : 

Conclusion Protons are translocated across the membrane, from the matrix to the intermembrane space Electrons are transported along the membrane, through a series of protein carriers Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor, combining with electrons and H+ ions to produce water As NADH delivers more H+ and electrons into the ETS, the proton gradient increases, with H+ building up outside the inner mitochondrial membrane, and OH- inside the membrane.

THANK YOU : 

THANK YOU Presentation by R.Vijayarangan

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