Geography of India (2)

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3/21/2015 1

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3/21/2015 2

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3/21/2015 3 GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

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3/21/2015 4 VIGNESH KUMAR BALASUBRAMANIAN M..SC BOTANY GANDHIGRAM RURAL UNIVERSITY-DU

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3/21/2015 5 India

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3/21/2015 6 The Indian Subcontinent India is apart of a larger piece of land called the Indian “ Subcontinent ” A landmass that is part of a continent but is geographically an independent entity India is separated from Asia by the Himalaya and Hindu Kush Mountains The Indian subcontinent is divided into three major physical regions The Northern Mountains The Indo- Gangetic Plain The Deccan Plateau

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3/21/2015 7 The Northern Mountains Himalayan Mountains Tallest mountain range in the world 20 mountains that are over 24,000 ft. high Mount Everest Tallest peak at 29,035 ft First climbed by Edmond Hilary & Tenzing Norgay in 1953 Many have tried to climb it since and hundreds have died Creates the majority of the northern border of India Source of important rivers to India Ganges, Feni, Indus, and Brahmaputra rivers

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3/21/2015 8 The Northern Mountains Hindu Kush Named for their danger Kush= Death Extremely rugged Like the Himalayas are a source of water for much needed rivers

The Northern Mountains:

3/21/2015 9 The Northern Mountains India has eight major mountain ranges having peaks of over 1,000 m (3,300 ft) Mt. Kanchenjunga in Sikkim : It has more than sixty peaks above 7,000 m (23,000 ft)

The Northern Mountains:

3/21/2015 10 The Northern Mountains The Vindhyas in central India: The Vindhya range runs across most of central India, extending 1,050 km (650 mi). The average elevation of these hills is from 300 to 600 m (980 to 1,970 ft). They are formed by the wastes created by the weathering of the ancient Aravali mountains. Geographically, it separates northern India from southern India. The western end of the range lies in eastern Gujarat, near its border with Madhya Pradesh, and runs east and north, almost meeting the Ganges at Mirzapur.

The Northern Mountains:

3/21/2015 11 The Northern Mountains Western Ghats : The Western Ghats run along the western edge of India's Deccan Plateau . The range runs approximately 1,600 km (990 mi) from south of the Tapti River near the Gujarat–Maharashtra border and across Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu to the southern tip of the Deccan peninsula. The average elevation is around 1,000 m (3,300 ft).Anai Mudi in the Anaimalai Hills 2,695 m (8,842 ft) in Kerala is the highest peak in the Western Ghats.

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3/21/2015 12 Indo- Gangetic plain Area that surrounds the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers Best farmland in India No coincidence that this is one of the two most densely populated areas in India They farm rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, and tea

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3/21/2015 13 Ganges River Begins in the Himalayas and flows 1500 miles directly through the Indo- Gangetic plain Also known as “ Gangamai ” or Mother Ganges Important for farming, trade, and transportation Holiest river of Hinduism Home to the Goddess Ganga Hindus believe they must purify themselves in it Travel down the sacred “ Ghats ” or steps Bathe and drink water to wash away their sins Ashes of the dead are scattered in the water

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3/21/2015 14 Ganges River One of the most polluted rivers on earth Raw sewage, industrial waste, dead animals and humans have poisoned the water Toxic chemicals and bacteria Dangerous to Hindus who bath in and drink it Hepatitis, typhoid, and cholera are common Many Hindus travel as far upstream as they can before purifying themselves Cities like Varanasi get many bathers because of the relatively clean water Less pollution

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3/21/2015 15 Indus River Begins in the Himalayas and flows 1975 miles through the country of Pakistan Formerly apart of India Important to the development of the first cities and civilizations in India Mohenjo- Daro and Harrapan civilizations Important for farming, trade, and transportation Today it the at the front lines of conflict between India and Pakistan Fighting over the fertile cotton fields of Kashmir

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3/21/2015 16 Brahmaputra River Begins in the Himalayas and flows 1100 miles through northern Indian the country of Bangladesh Important for farming, trade, and transportation Important to Hinduism like the Ganges Represents one of the main gods of Hinduism called Vishnu The river is credited with preserving all life along its banks

Thar Desert:

3/21/2015 17 Thar Desert The Thar Desert is the world's seventh largest desert.It forms a significant portion of western India and covers an area of 200,000 to 238,700 km2 (77,200 to 92,200 sq mi).The desert continues into Pakistan as the Cholistan Desert. Most of the Thar Desert is situated in Rajasthan, covering 61% of its geographic area.

Dry deciduous and thorny forests :

3/21/2015 18 Dry deciduous and thorny forests The Malwa Plateau is spread across Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. The average elevation of the Malwa plateau is 500 metres, and the landscape generally slopes towards the north. Most of the region is drained by the Chambal River and its tributaries; the western part is drained by the upper reaches of the Mahi River.

Dry Evergreen Forests along the Eastern Ghats:

3/21/2015 19 Dry Evergreen Forests along the Eastern Ghats The Deccan Plateau is a large triangular plateau, bounded by the Vindhyas to the north and flanked by the Eastern and Western Ghats. The Deccan covers a total area of 1.9 million km² (735,000 mile²). It is mostly flat, with elevations ranging from 300 to 600 m (980 to 1,970 ft). The average elevation of the plateau is 2,000 feet (610 m) above sea level.It slopes gently from west to east and gives rise to several peninsular rivers such as the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri and the Mahanadi which drain into the Bay of Bengal. Much of the Deccan is covered by thorn scrub forest scattered with small regions of deciduous broadleaf forest. Climate in the Deccan ranges from hot summers to mild winters.

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3/21/2015 20 The Monsoon India has two major seasons Summer is hot Winter is cool The climate is caused by the “ Monsoon ” Seasonal winds During summer the winds come from the Indian Ocean & bring large amounts of rain During winter the winds come from the land and are dry

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3/21/2015 21 The Monsoon Summer monsoon is essential for survival Brings needed water for farming But the heavy rains also cause great devastation Flooding and “ cyclones ” are common Violent storms like hurricanes Eastern India and Bangladesh suffers great damage almost every year Villages and farms are flooded and destroyed Overflowing of rivers Ganges and Brahmaputra

INDIA:

3/21/2015 22 INDIA Continent - Asia Region - South Asia Indian subcontinent Longest river - Ganges, Brahmaputra Largest lake - Chilka Lake seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of 3,166,414 square kilometres

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3/21/2015 23 The Ganges–Brahmaputra system occupies most of northern, central, and eastern India, while the Deccan Plateau occupies most of southern India. Kangchenjunga, on the border between Nepal and the Indian state of Sikkim, is the highest point in India at 8,598 m (28,209 ft) and the world's 3rd highest peak.

The Indian Plate:

3/21/2015 24 The Indian Plate India is entirely contained on the Indian Plate, a major tectonic plate that was formed when it split off from the ancient continent Gondwanaland

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3/21/2015 25 THANK YOU

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