Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI’S) : Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI’S) Pranitha BT 008 Introduction:: It was Gandhi who was realized the importance of village panchayat as an important instrument of rural development. And it for promoting and nurturing democracy at the grass roots. In january1957, the GOI appointed a committee called community development programme (CDP), and suggest how best it could be implemented. The committee recommended a three tier system of local government , christened, panchayati raj by Jawaharlal Nehru. The committee offered two broad directional thrusts: a) It argued that there should be administrative decentralization for effective implementation of development programme and, b) The decentralized administrative system should be under the control of elected bodies Introduction: Contd…..,: Contd….., The new system of PRI’S was first adopted in Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh in 1959. The Indian parliament passed the 73 rd constitution amendment act in December 1992. It envisages the establishment of panchayats as units of local self government in all states and union territories, except the tribal areas in the states Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram and certain other scheduled areas. The panchayats receive funds from three sources : The panchayats receive funds from three sources (i) Local body grants, as recommended by the Central Finance Commission, (ii) Funds for implementation of centrally-sponsored schemes, and (iii) Funds released by the state governments on the recommendations of the State Finance Commissions. Powers and responsibilities are delegated to Panchayats at the appropriate level :- Preparation of plan for economic development and social justice. Implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice in relation to 29 subjects given in Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution. To levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees. Salient features of 73rd constitution amendment act,1992 are as follows:: Salient features of 73 rd constitution amendment act,1992 are as follows: 1.The gram sabha has been envisaged as the foundation of the Panchayati raj system. 2. There shall be 3 tiers of panchayats, at the village, intermediate and district level. 3.Seats in a Panchayat at every level are to be filled by direct election from territorial constituents demarcated for this purpose 4.Seat shall be reserved at every level of panchayat for scheduled tribes (ST’s) in proportion to their population in a given panchayat area ,and for women to extent of not less than one third of the total number of seats . 5. The term of office of panchayatas shall be five years and elections must be completed before the expiry of its duration. If dissolved earlier elections must be completed with in six month from the date of disolution. Contd…,: Contd…, 6.A state finance commission shall be constituted in every state, to go into the principle governing the distribution and devolution of financial resources between the pnachayat & states. 7.The superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of electoral rolls and conduct of all elections to panchayat shall be vested in a state elect commission. 8. The eleventh schedule has been added to the constitution, which denotes 29 subjects /functions which could be entrusted to the PRI’s Village level panchayat : Village level panchayat It is called a Panchayat at the village level. It is a local body working for the good of the village. The number of members usually ranges from 7 to 31; occasionally, groups are larger, but they never have fewer than 7 members. The block-level institution is called the Panchayat Samiti . The district-level institution is called the Zilla Parishad . Intermediate level panchayat : Intermediate level panchayat Panchayat samiti is a local government body at the tehsil or Taluka level in India. It works for the villages of the Tehsil or Taluka that together are called a Development Block. The Panchayat Samiti is the link between the Gram Panchayat and the district administration. There are a number of variations of this institution in various states. It is known as Mandal Praja Parishad in Andhra Pradesh, Taluka panchayat in Gujarat, Mandal Panchayat in Karnataka, etc.In general it's a kind of Panchayati raj at higher level. Constitution : Constitution It is composed of ex-officio members (all sarpanchas of the panchayat samiti area, the MPs and MLAs of the area and the SDO of the subdivision), coopted members (representatives of SC/ST and women), associate members (a farmer of the area, a representative of the cooperative societies and one of the marketing services) and some elected members. The samiti is elected for 5 years and is headed by the chairman and the deputy chairman . Departments : Departments The common departments in the Samiti are as follows: General administration Finance Public works Agriculture Health Education Social welfare Information Technology and others. Functions : Functions Implement schemes for the development of agriculture. Establishment of primary health centre's and primary schools. Supply of drinking water, drainage, construction/repair of roads. Development of cottage and small-scale industries and opening of cooperative societies. Establishment of youth organizations. Sources of income: Sources of income The main source of income of the panchayat samiti are grants-in-aid and loans from the State Government. District level panchayat: District level panchayat In the district level of the panchayati raj system you have the "zilla parishad". It looks after the administration of the rural area of the district and its office is located at the district headquarters. The Hindi word Parishad means Council and Zilla Parishad translates to District Council. It is headed by the "District Collector" or the "District Magistrate" or the "Deputy Comminissioner". it is the link between the state government and the panchayat samiti Functions : Functions 1. Provide essential services and facilities to the rural population and the planning and execution of the development programmes for the district. 2. Supply improved seeds to farmers. Inform them of new techniques of training. Undertake construction of small-scale irrigation projects and percolation tanks. Maintain pastures and grazing lands. 3. Set up and run schools in villages. Execute programmes for adult literacy. Run libraries. 4. Start Primary Health Centers and hospitals in villages. Start mobile hospitals for hamlets, vaccination drives against epidemics and family welfare campaigns. 5. Construct bridges and roads. Contd..,: Contd.., 6. Execute plans for the development of the scheduled castes and tribes. Run ashrams Halas for adivasi children. Set up free hostels for scheduled caste students. 7. Encourage entrepreneurs to start small-scale industries like cottage industries, handicraft, agriculture produce processing mills, dairy farms, etc. implement rural employment schemes. 8. They construct roads,schools,& public properties. And they take care of the public properties. 9. They even supply work for the poor people.(tribes,scheduled caste,lower caste) Sources of Income : Sources of Income 1. Taxes on water, pilgrimage, markets, etc. 2. Fixed grant from the State Government in proportion with the land revenue and money for works and schemes assigned to the Parishad. Conclusion : Conclusion It is hoped that PRI’s will emerges stronger and more dynamic to face various challenges and problems that still lie a head of them. Their success in the future will depend on the extent of transfer of rural development functions and devolution of financial and administrative powers to them by state Government. Given these features of panchayats and their elected heads , there is need for building the capacity of elected through education and training. This is all the more necessary ,given a variety of administrative and financial functions expected to be performed by the elected leaders, as also the ambivalent attitude of the bureaucracy and the reluctance of the state leaders to part this power.