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The Endocrine System Communication Chemical Main Function: It releases hormones into the blood to signal other cells to behave in certain ways. It is a slow but widespread form of communication.


Endocrine gland s Release hormones into the bloodstream. Hormone s are chemicals released in one part of the body that travel through the bloodstream and affect the activities of cells in other parts of the body. Consists of: The Endocrine System

Pituitary Gland:

Pituitary Gland Function : It secretes nine hormones that directly regulate many body functions and controls functions of other glands. Disorders : To much growth hormones (GH) in early childhood can result in a condition called gigantism . To little GH can result in Pituitary Dwarfism . Robert Wadlow

Thyroid Gland:

Thyroid Gland Function : plays a major role in regulation the body’s metabolism. Disorders : If the Thyroid Gland produces to much Thyroxin , it can cause a condition known as Hyperthyroidism . If to little thyroxin produces it is called Hypothyroidism .


Pancreas Function : The Insulin and Glycogen in the Pancreas help to keep the level of glucose in the blood stable. Disorders : When the Pancreas fails to produce or properly use Insulin, it can cause a condition known as Diabetes Mellitus .

Adrenal Gland :

Adrenal Gland Functions : -The adrenal glands release Adrenaline in the body that helps prepare for and deal with stress. -Also regulates kidney function.


Ovaries Functions : Pair of reproductive organs found in women that produce eggs. Also secrete estrogen and progesterone , which control ovulation and menstruation.


Testes Functions: Pair of reproductive glands that produces sperm. Also secrete Testosterone to give the body its masculine characteristics.

Interaction of Glands:

Interaction of Glands The hypothalamus is located in the brain and controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. It is an important link between the endocrine and nervous systems.


The Nervous System Communication Electrical


Main Function : This communication system controls and coordinates functions throughout the body and responds to internal and external stimuli. The Nervous System Our nervous system allows us to feel pain.


Consists of: brain, spinal cord, nerves and sense organs The Nervous System Sense Organs: Eyes, Skin, Ears, Nose & Tongue


A nerve is an organ containing a bundle of nerve cells called neurons . Neurons carry electrical messages called impulses throughout the body. Picture shows hundreds of severed neuron axons The Nerve


cell body Impulse in a Neuron muscle tissue TYPICAL MOTOR NEURON Axon dendrite synapse cell body


Because neurons never touch, chemical signalers called neurotransmitters must travel through the space called synapse between two neurons. Neurotransmitters Synapse (gap) The message is transferred when RECEPTORS receive neurotrans-mitters. (pink spheres)

Parts of a Neuron:

Parts of a Neuron Cell body : contains nucleus & most of the cytoplasm Dendrites : projections that bring impulses into the neuron to the cell body. Axon : long projection that carries impulses away from cell body 1 3 2


Sensory Neuron Interneuron Motor Neuron Types of Neurons Sensory Neuron Interneuron Motor Neuron Muscle Contracts Synapse Synapse Synapse


Sensory Neuron carry impulses from sense organs to spinal cord & brain Fun Fact: Where can the largest cells in the world be found? The giraffe’s sensory and motor neurons! Some must bring impulses from the bottom of their legs to their spinal cord several meters away!!


Interneuron processes impulses in brain and spinal cord - connect sensory and motor neurons


Motor Neurons carry impulses from the brain & spinal cord to muscles & glands Axon End Axons branching out to muscle fibers


Nerves work together with muscles for movement. An impulse begins when one neuron is stimulated by another neuron or by the sense organs. The impulse travels down the axons of Sensory neurons to the brain cells called Interneurons . The brain will then send an impulse through motor neurons to the necessary muscle or organs, telling it to contract. Communication with Neurons


A reflex is an involuntary response that is processed in the spinal cord not the brain. Reflexes protect the body before the brain knows what is going on. Reflex Arc


brain Spinal Cord Cerebellum Cerebrum Medulla Oblongata Central Nervous System Consists of : Brain and Spinal Cord


Cerebrum Voluntary or conscious activities of the body-learning, judgment Cerebellum Coordinates and balances the actions of the muscles Medulla Oblongata (Brain Stem) Controls involuntary actions like blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and swallowing Spinal Cord The main communications link between the brain and the rest of the body Central Nervous System


Consists of: Sensory division and Motor division -includes all sensory neurons, motor neurons, and sense organs Peripheral Nervous System

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