Textiles in Aircraft by Vignesh Dhanabalan

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TEXTILES IN AIRCRAFT VIGNESH DHANABALAN Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com

Why Textiles in Aircraft Industry:

Why Textiles in Aircraft Industry Safety Reduce the total weight Enhance the comfort and aesthetics properties Provide advanced insulation Resistance to water, fuels, extremes of temperature Easy maintenance 20-50% less weight Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com


TEXTILE MATERIALS IN AIRCRAFT (AEROSPACE ENGINEERING) Nylon tire cord Seat belt webbing Airbags Car body covers Seat upholstery/fabric Carpets Headliners Insulation felts (NVH components) Sun visors / sun blinds Helmets Airline disposables Dooms Rotor blade Wings Fuel tanks Circuit board Webbings for aircrafts Aircraft upholstery Parachutes Space shuttles Space suits ETC Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com


BOEING 747 In 2006, Boeing 787 consisted of 50 % by weight and 80 % by volume carbon fiber- that was a textile plane Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com


KEVLAR GLASS POLY FIBER CARBON BORON FIBER STEEL ACRYLIC NYLON 6 -6,6 POLYESTER MAJOR FIBER AND RESINS USED Polyurethane Vinyl ester Epoxy Phenolic PEEK Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com


Carbon/epoxy (CFRP) – used as a primary structural and skin material. Kevlar/epoxy – mostly used in military applications, in primary structures and amour plating. Glass fibre - used as a structural and skin material (on amateur-built and aircraft). Glass/ phenolic (GFRP) – used in interior fittings, furnishings and structures. Boron/epoxy – used in composite repair patches, older composite structures. Poly-Fiber  can be rejuvenated after years of weathering. Poly-Fiber is the only all-VINYL system which bonds extremely well to polyester fabrics and remains flexible when it dries and does not support combustion Carbon fiber burn results FIBERS AND COMPOSITES Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com


Ram – Radar Absorbent Material Multistate radar Lockheed Have Blue technology - evade radar detection - -surface to air missile (SAM) and anit aircraft artillery(AAA) Automatic target recognition Bird Of Prey– CAMOUFLAGE And many more TECHNOLOGY USED Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com


The material had a layered structure and was based on graphite particles and other semi conductive materials embedded in a rubber matrix. It used a carbon-impregnated plywood that would have made it very stealthy to Britain's primitive radar of the time. It is unknown if the carbon was incorporated for stealth reasons or because of Germany's metal shortage. A related type of RAM consists of  Neoprene polymer sheets with ferrite grains or carbon black particles (containing about 30% of crystalline graphite) embedded in the polymer matrix. The tiles were used on early versions of the F-117A Nighthawk, RAM – RADAR ABSORBANT MATERIALS Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com

Lockheed Have Blue Technology:

 Rather than smooth aerodynamic lines, Have Blue adopted an angular, faceted shape to deflect electromagnetic waves and lower its radar signature.  Aided by a fly-by-wire control system to rectify its aerodynamic instability, the F-117A Nighthawk , known as the Stealth Fighter . Lockheed Have Blue Technology Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com

Multistate radar :

Better deflection is achieved with curved surfaces . Plastic and Fiber-glass are less reflective or indeed transparent to Radar Neoprene. Multistate radar Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com


The load rating for the aircraft tire is 13,000 pounds compared to the automotive tire with 835 pounds Aircraft tyre is normally inflated 300 psi where the car tyre is inflated to 32 Psi aircraft tyre 275 mph ,car tyre is rated to 100 mph A380 maximum takeoff weight: 560 tons Load on one main landing wheel: 260.68 kN Tire inflation pressures: 15 and 17 bars NYLON BASED TYRE Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com


Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com


Subjected to Aero dynamic, inertial and centrifugal forces Acts to Flap wise, cord wise ,Axial And torsional load. Air thrust produced varies from 90 N to 569KN Carbon fiber fatigue failure replaced with Boron fiber Aluminum alloy, graphite composite, or titanium spar Aluminum pocket and skin with honeycomb core or cross-ply fiber glass exterior Aluminum failing near 40,000 cycles and the composite blade exceeding 500,000cycles without failure ROTOR BLADE Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com

Flight Surface and Rotor Inner side Covering Against Ballistic Impact:

Flight Surface and Rotor Inner side Covering Against Ballistic Impact Broken parts of rotor blade can act as projectile and from External impact woven structure Material – Ballistic Nylon, Kevlar, glass fiber tape, metal resin and aromatic polyamides High coefficient of friction between fiber strands. Composite layers preferred at 30 degrees Carbon/epoxy composite structures susceptible to low-impact damage Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com

Fabric Fuel Tanks :

Petro-Shield   U.S. military specification MIL-T-52983D, MIL-T-52983E, MIL-T-52983F, MIL-T-52983G, ATPD2266 and MIL-PRF-32233 for fuel tanks.  suitable for carrying kerosene, diesel and fuels with less than 40% aromatic content.  12 liters per second Tensile Strength 2000 lb (8.90 KN)
Tear Strength 350 lb (1.56 KN) 
Puncture Strength 400 lb (1.78 KN)
Seam Strength 2000 lb (8.90 KN) Weight savings about approximately 300 kilogram each flight corresponding in 30 000 EUR savings for each Boeing 757-200 aircraft per year Fabric Fuel Tanks Easy store fabric fuel tanks Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com


The balloon envelopes are made of special high tenacity fire resistant material called rip-stop nylon 6.6 fabric with tough , durable coatings for heat and air retention UV ,Heat, Abrasion resistance Strength, light-weight, Longevity PARACHUTE Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com


Boron/Epoxy composite straps developed by the US Sandia National Laboratories to repair fatigued cabin and cargo door corners on the L-1011 and DC10 Lightweight Carpets- Lantal Textiles-880 g/ sqm . An armored cockpit –Dyneema Upholstery Application Fiber type Seat cover slit sheet Nylon Door trim panel padding Polyester Airbag and headlines Nylon Trunk cover PVC coated Interior carpet Nylon Tire cords PET, glass, nylon-6, Polyester, etc Shelf panel cover Polypropylene Hood panel insulator Glass Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com

Market value:

Market value Technical textile-16.7 million tones in 2000 with the value of US $ 92.88 billions 2010 to 23.77 million tones worth of US $ 127 billions Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com


The Future of Textile Composites in Aerospace is very high With ever increasing fuel costs and environmental lobbying, commercial flying is under sustained pressure to improve performance, and weight reduction is a key factor in the equation. The aircraft construction business ensures that any opportunity to reduce operating costs is explored and exploited wherever possible. Competition exists in the military too, with continuous pressure to increase payload and range, flight performance characteristics and 'survivability', not only of airplanes, but of missiles, too. Conclusion Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com

Thank you:

VIGNESH DHANABALAN 12M.TECH13 Thank you Vignesh Dhanabalan - vigneshdhanabalan@hotmail.com

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