monophasic liquid dosage forms

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mixture, elixir, syrups, draughts, linctuses,gargles, liniments,lotion

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Liquid Dosage Form Prepared By, Mr. Naresh Rajgor , Assistant Professor, M.P.Patel College of Pharmacy, Kapadwanj , Dist: Kheda , Gujarat

Liquid Dosage Form -Solution -Mixtures -Emulsion:

Liquid Dosage Form -Solution -Mixtures -Emulsion

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CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID DOSAGE FORMS:

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION Definition: “A solution is a liquid-preparation that contains one or more soluble chemical substances dissolved in a specified solvent.” Advantages: Immediately available for absorption. Attractive appearance and well polished gives psychological effects. Administration is easy in case of infants and mental patients. Used for the substances irritate GIT Homogeneous and uniform dosage. Easy to vary dose. Easy to colour,flavour and sweeten. Useful for hygroscopic drugs which must be administered as a solution Disadvantages: Bulky than tablets. Capsules and difficult to carry. Less stable Incompatibility is faster Patient have no accurate measuring device Bacterial contamination Accidental breakage of container results in compllete loss.

Solvents used :

Solvents used A) Aqueous liquids: Water Purified Water Water for injection Sterile water for injection Bacteriostatic water for injection B) Oils &oily materials: Animals source…pig fat Vegetable Source…corn,cotton Mineral Source…liquid paraffin Synthetics….ethyl oleate C) Hydroxylated Compounds: Ethanol Propylene Glycol Glycerol 1,3 butylene glycol Polyethylene glycol Sorbitol D) Hydro-alcoholic Mixtures E) Modern Vehicles: Dioxalanes Solvent for aerosol sprays Glycerofurol Dimethylecetamide

A. Aqueous Liquids::

A. Aqueous Liquids: Sr . No. Name Properties Remarks 1 Water -Cheap -High Dielectric Constant -Miscible with alcohol, glycerol and other polar solvents -Non flammable -Inert -Impurities 2. Purified Water -Prepared by Distillation or ion exchange resin -used for Parenterals Preparation 3. Water for injection -Sterile -Pyrogen free -Parenterals Preparation 4. Sterile water for injection Sterilizes and suitably packed -No antimicrobial added -Parenterals Preparation 5. Bacteriostatic water for injection Sterile water contain one or more suitable anti microbial - Parenterals Preparation

B. Oils and Oily Materials: :

B. Oils and Oily Materials: Sr . No. Name Properties Remarks 1 Corn oil -Clear -Light yellow oily liquid -Solvent and vehicle for injection 2. Cotton seed oil -Pale yellow oily liquid -Odourless -Solvent and vehicle for injection 3. Peanut oil -Colourless to Pale yellow -Solvent and vehicle for injection -- Liniments 4. Sesame Oil -Pale Yellow -Odourless - Solvent and vehicle for injection - Cosmetics, liniments and ointments. 5. Ethyl Oleate -Pale yellow oily liquid Low viscosity Vehicle for I.M, 6. Silicons Different Grade Dermatological Preparations

C. Hydroxylated Compounds::

C. Hydroxylated Compounds: Sr . No. Name Properties Remarks 1 Ethanol -Miscible wit hwater -Antimicrobial Property -Costly due to high excise duty 2. Propylene Glycol -solvent as well as preservatives - miscible with water -Oral Preparation -Hydrophilic ointments - injection of barbiturates,iodine 3. Glycerol -Colorless -Syrupy -Sweet taste -Hygroscopic Use as -solvent -Preservative -Humectant -Use in throat paints, linctuses, syrups, Elixirs 4. 1,3 butylene glycol -Colourless -Viscous -Miscible with water - solvent for morphine injection 5. Polyethylene glycol -colourless -Used in lotion 6. Sorbitol -white -miscible with water -sweet taste -70% w/w used as vehicle

Vehicle for the internal Use: :

Vehicle for the internal Use: 1. Purified Water 2.Aromatic Water a. Chloroform Water b. Peppermint Water c. Cinnamon Water d. Dill Water 3. Syrups 4.Glycerin 5. Hydro-alcoholic 6. Orange Syrup as a flavoring agent 7.Preservatives like Chloroform and Benzoic Acid

1. Isopropyl myristate 2. Liquid Paraffin 3.Solvent ether 4. Xylene5. Benzene :

1. Isopropyl myristate 2. Liquid Paraffin 3.Solvent ether 4. Xylene5. Benzene Vehicle For External Use Vehicle/Solvent For Extraction Isopropyl Alcohol Acetone Chloroform Ether Alcohol

1. COLOUR 2. FLAVOUR(ODOUR) 3. SWEETNER (TASTE):

1. COLOUR 2. FLAVOUR(ODOUR) 3. SWEETNER (TASTE) Organoleptic Additives:

1. Colouring Agents::

1. Colouring Agents: Generally used in case of cosmetic preparations. Ex of the cosmetic preparation like Eye Lashes, Eye-shadow, Eye-brows, hair dyes, face powders. In foods and Pharmaceuticals, colours are used to mask the quality or to hike the adulterations. The second reasons is to distinguish one product from the products. A third reason is to distinguish the preparation being administered.

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Classifications of the Colouring Agents:

1. Natural Colouring Agents:

1. Natural Colouring Agents ( A) Plants: Many plants contain colouring agents which may be extracted. And used as colorant. Some Examples are: a. Chlorophyll-green b. Annatto seeds-yellow to orange c. Carots-yellows d. Madder Plant-Reddish Yellow e. Indigo-Blue f. Saffron-Yellow g. Caramel- Burnt Sugar

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(B) Animal: Cochineal: It is an alkaline solution of the soluble Colouring principles caraminic acid of chochineal insects preserved by the addition of glyccerin . It is very dark purplish red liquid. b. Carmine: It is the aluminium lack of the colouring principle obtained from cochineal. It gives red colour to aqueous solution.

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(C) Minerals: Mineral colours are termed pigments. They are used to colour lotions, cosmetics and other preparation for external application. As they are toxic, their use for internal preparation is forbidden. Ex: Red ferric oxide Yellow Ferric Dioxide Titanium dioxide Carbon Black.

2. Synthetic colouring agents:

2. Synthetic colouring agents The sysnthetic colours are coaltar dyes, because many of them are produced from substance obtained from coal-tar. The certified colours are classified into three groups: Group I- F.D. and C. Colours used in foods, drugs and cosmetics. Groups II- The D. and C. Colour used in drug and Cosmetics. Group III- The External D. and C. Colour. Any color found in any of these lists is spoken as permitted color like Blue - Brilliant Blue, Indigo Carmine Green - Fast green, Guinea Green Violet - Wood Violet Red- Amaranth, Erythrosin Scarlet red Yellow - Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow

SELECTION OF COLORS::

SELECTION OF COLORS: There are deeply correlation between colour , flavour and sweeteners. Ex: Mint flavour preparation to be coloured green. A Cherry or Rasberry flavoured medicaments if coloured other than red, it is considerably disflavoured . The red color is very much acceptable followed by yellow and green. Blue and black are very less useful. Same in case of medicaments also like pills,tablets and capsules are acceptable in any color while mouthwashes may be yellowish brown or red and lotions are usually colourless to pink.

FLAVOURING AGENTS::

FLAVOURING AGENTS: The use of flavour is actually a composite sensation of taste, touch, smell, sound and heat. All above mensioned factors involve a combination of physiochemical and psychological action influence the sensitivity of substances. There are simply four types of tastes - Sweet - Sour - Salty -Bitter And some others are a combination of the above. Similarly there are seven basic odours like - Ethereal - camphoraceous - Musky - Floral -Pepperminty -Pungent -Putrid

Classification of flavouring agents: :

Classification of flavouring agents: Two Types: 1. Natural and 2. Synthetic Natural a. Fruits (Sweet, Sur and Astringent) -Citrus Fruits (Orange, Lemon) - Rasberry and Strawberries b . Seeds (Vanilla, Anise, Nutmeg) c. Buds/ Flawers -Orange flower water - clove blossoms d. Leaves - Camomile -Thyme - Rosemary

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e. Roots Glycyrrhiza f. Barks/Stems White pine Cinnamon Wild Cherry Bark g. Woods Quassia h. Gums Gum arabic Gum Tragacanth

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2. Synthetics SR . NO. SYNTHETICS NATURE OF FLAVOUR 1. Benzaldehyde Bitter Almond, Cherry pits 2. Decyl Aldehyde Citrus Flavours (Orange, Lemon) 3. Cinnamic aldehyde Cinnamon type 4. Ionones Berry type flavours 5. Ethyl aceto acetate Cherry flavor 6. Terpene Alcohols Rasberry , strawberry and pineapple 7. Ethylmalonate Wine like flavour

Selection of flavours::

Selection of flavours: Taste Characteristics of the drugs like a. Sour - Citrus flavour b. Salty - Butterscotch, apple and sitrus c. Bitter - Chocolate, mint, raberry d. Sweet - Fruit, Berry, Vanilla Dosage Forms: If the Product is thickened, the taste buds are not able to perceive the true flavour . Incompatibility: Vitamin B 12 cannot be combined with aldehyde or esters flavours . Adverse Reaction: Allergic Reaction of flavour Dosing regimen: Age of Patient: Children, Adult, Elder Colour and flavour : - Yellow - Lemon flavour - Red -Cherry

3. SWEETENING AGENTS::

3. SWEETENING AGENTS: Sucrose Sorbitol (Half Sweet than Sucrose) Glycerin Honey Saccharin Sodium (300-550 times) Cyclametaes (30 times sweeter than sucrose) Aspartame

FORMULATION PROBLEMS AND REMEDY:

FORMULATION PROBLEMS AND REMEDY Sr .No. PROBLEMS REMEDY 1 Solubility Select available and permissible solvent other than water Use of co-solvent use of proper type and concentration of surfactant use of additive which increases the solubility of drug ( Hydrotrophy ) Complexation pH Manipulation Chemical modification

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Sr .No. PROBLEMS REMEDY 2 Stability Hydrolysis Oxidation Photodegradation Microbial Growth Hydrolysis Use lesser water or other solvent and go for elixir or Glycerides Complex formation By use of surfactant By use of particular buffer b. Oxidation Decreases oxygen content store in cool atmosphere and in dark use anti oxidant and chelating agents, pH c. Photodegradation Store in dark . Use of amber coloured container. d. Microbial Growth use proper anti microbial agent

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Sr .No. PROBLEMS REMEDY 3 Organoleptic Properties Use proper color, flavor and sweetener. 4. Viscosity For prolonged action 5. Volatility Protect from heat If possible add drug in end.

ORAL MONOPHASIC DOSAGE FORM:

ORAL MONOPHASIC DOSAGE FORM Draughts Drops Linctuses Syrups Elixirs Mixtures

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Draughts: It is simple solution (mixture) which contains a single dose.Each dose is sent in separate bottle.Total volume is 50 ml. It is essential to be labelled with storage conditions on draughts.It is given very early expiry date (48 hours). Examples: Ipecacuanha emetic draughts-BPC (Treatment of poison) Malefern draught-Emulsion Paraldehyde draughts- Oxidized to acetic acid and cause death,Do not use, if the solution is discolored.

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Drops: For vitamins and antibiotics formulation for pediatric purpose. It is not meant for higher dose. Drops are dispensed in a bottle with dropper. It contains potent drugs, so dose is measured precisely. Linctuses: Viscous liquid oral preparations that are usually prescribed for the relief of cough. Vehicle is always a syrup and sometimes contains glycerin, because of sweetening taste and soothing effect on mucous membrane.

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FORMULATION OF LINCTUSES: 1. Vehicle: 2. Additives 1. Vehicles: a. Syrup b. Tolu Syrup It also provides aromatic odour and flavour, it has also mild expectorant action. Due to high content (68%) of sucrose, solution tends to crystallise, so stored at constant temperature. Due to high solid and low water content, dissolution of medicament is slow. Sometime glycerol is used as Auxiliary Vehicle .

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2. Additives: Chemical Stabilizers : Linctuses are self stabilized due to syrup, so no need of any other stabilizer. B. Colouring Agent: Coal-tar dyes Ex: Compound Tartrazine solution C. Flavouring Agent: Syrup itself act as masking agent. Some fruit flavours used are; Lemon and Black current Benzaldehyde and oxymel used as a flavouring agents;

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D. Preservatives: Syrup has preservative action due to high osmotic pressure. Tolu syrup contain Benzoic acid and cinnamic acid as a preservatives. Some other preservatives are -Chloroform spirit -Benzoic acid spirit solution. EXAMPLE OF LINCTUSES: -Codeine Linctuses - Diamorphine Lictus -Compoound Tolu Linctus

SYRUPS::

SYRUPS: Definition: “It is concentrated aqueous solution of sucrose mixed wit hsolution of medicaments and others additives.” Generally syrup is prepared by sucrose but is partly replaced by dextrose, glycerin, sorbitol or other polyhydric alcohols to reduce crystallisation of sucrose or to increase solubility of medicaments and other additives.

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Function of Syrups as: Sweetening agent Good antioxidant Preservatives Demulcents and soothing agent Vehicles Syrups are used for formulating: Antibiotics Antitussives Antihistamines Sedatives Vitamins Analgesic/antipyretic

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PREPARATION OF SYRUP: Solution with heat: For non-volatile, thermostable drugs 2.Agitation without heat: For volatile, thermolabile drugs 3.Addition of medicating liquid to syrup: For liquid medicaments such as extracts, tinctures 4.Percolation: EXAMPLES OF SYRUPS: Codeine phosphate syrup Squill syrup

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Definition: “Elixirs are clear, pleasantly-flavoures, sweetened Hydroalcoholic liquid. ELIXIRS:

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Additives: Chemical Stabilizers: pH Adjustment Sequestering agents- like EDTA Colouring Agents: Amaranth Compound Tartrazine Falouring Agents: Black curretn syrup Concentrated Rasberry Lemon spirit Compound orange spirit

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Sweetening Agents: Syrups Glycerol Sorbitol Solution Lemon Spirit Invert Syrup Sodium Sachharin

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5. preservatives: 20% Alcohol as vehicle Propylene glycol Glycerol Syrup Additional Preservatives are Double Strength chloroform water Benzoic acid Methyl paraben EXAMPLES; Chloral Elixir, pediatric Paracetamol Elixir Ephedrine Elixir Phenobarbitone Elixir

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Definition: “Mixtures are a liquid preparations, intended for oral administration, in which drug is dissolved, suspended or dispersed in a suitable vehicle.” Classification: Simple Mixture Diffusible Mixture Indiffusible Mixture Precipitates forming liquids Mixture containing slightly soluble liquids Miscellaneous MIXTURES

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Formulation: Vehicles: Anise water Camphor water Caraway water Chloroform water Cinnamon water Peppermint water 2. Medicament 3. Preservatives: Chloroform water-0.25% Benzoic acid-0.1%

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4. Colours and Flavours: Aromatic water Syrups/glycerol liquorice liquid extract lemon syrup orange syrup compound orange spirit 5. Container: - Plain glass or plastic bottle

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6. Thickening Agent: (For indiffusible Mixtures) Poly Saccharides Natural Acacia Starch Tragacanth Sodium alginate Semisynthetic Methyl Cellulose Hydroxy ethylcellulose Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose Microcrystalline Cellulose

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B. Inorganic Agents: Clays: Bentonite Aluminium Magnesium Silicate Herctorite Alluminium Hydroxid Syntheitc Carbomer Colloidal Silicon dioxide

Preparation of Suspending Agent::

Preparation of Suspending Agent: A. Compound powder of Tragacanth (C.P.T.) Formula: Acacia ---------20% Tragacanth --------15% Starch ---------20% Sucrose ---------45% It is used as such 2 gm per 100 ml or mix 10 gr/oz The compound of tragacanth is always used when the vehicle is other than water or chloroform water.

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Mucilage of Tragacanth (M.T.) Formula: Tragacanth finely powdered ------12.5 gm Alcohol (90%) ------ 25 ml Chloroform Water Q.S. -----100 ml It is used as musilage-1/4 th of the mixture. The mucilage of tragacanth is used when vehicle is water or chloroform.

Liquids for Special Use (Oral Cavity):

Liquids for Special Use (Oral Cavity) Gargles Mouth-washes Throat paints Glycerites Throat Spray

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Gargles: Gargles are aqueous clear solutions intended to be used in the mouth and throat. Gargles are used by forcing the air from lungs through gargles which ids held up in throat. Gargles are highly Medicated than Mouth washes. Gargles are pleasantly flavoured and 5-9.5 pH appear to be safe. Some therapeutic agents used in gargles are antibiotics, antiseptics , local anesthetics, Anti-inflammatory, Antifungal, Analgesic, Deodorants and Astringents. Examples: Phenol gargles Potassium chlorate and phenol gargles Thymol glycerin compound

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Mouth Washes: Mouth washes are aqueous solution used to cleanse and deodorise the buccal cavity. Mouth washes used for its deodorants, refreshing or antiseptic property. Mouth washes generally contain antibiotic agents or astringent Mouth washes contain alcohol, glycerin, sweeteners and surfactants, flavouring and coloring agents. Examples: - Alkaline phenol mouth wash Hydrogen peroxide mouth wash Buffer sodium perborate mouth wash Compound sod. Chloride mouth wash Container: Glass bottle closed with plastic screw cap

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3. Throat Paints PAINTS: Paints are solution applied to skin. They may be aqueous or alcoholic solutions are sometimes prepared with collodion basis-volatile solvent, that evaporates and leaves dry or resinous film of medicament. Paints contain-antiseptics, astringents, caustics, analgesic substances. List of paints: Crystal violet paint Coaltar paint Podophyllum paints

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Throat Paints: Throat paints are liquid preparations applied to mucous surfaces. They may be aqueous or alcoholic solution Throat paints are more viscous due to high content of glycerin and prolong the action of medicaments. Throat paints are used for the mouth and throat infection. throat paints contains – antiseptic, astringent, caustics and analgesic. CONTAINERS: Dispensed in wide mouth bottle with brush. They are store in airtight containers in a cool place. EXAMPLES: Compound iodine paints Crystal violet paint

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4. Glycerites These are viscous hygroscopic liquids or semisolids preparations which contain not less than 50% by weight of glycerin and dissolved medicaments. Glycerites have sweet taste and does not become rancid. They also act as preservatives. Glycerites are hygroscopic and should be preserved in air tight container. EXAMPLES: Borax glycerin - Used as bacteriostatic Phenol glycerin - Mouth ulcer and tonsilitis Tannic acid glycerin - in ulcer Starch glycerin - Emollient base, excipient for pills

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5. Throat Spray Spray solutions are aqueous alcoholic or glycerin solution intended for throat or nose by means of atomizer or nebulizer. The spray device should produce coarse droplets for upper respiratory tract, while fine droplets for lungs (produced by nebulizer). Spray solution contain antibiotics, antihistaminic, vasoconstrictors, alcohol and suitable solubilizing and wetting agents. Spray solution contain chlorbutol as an antibacterial and antifungal agent. EXAMPLES: Adrenaline and Atropine spray compound-BPC.

LIQUIDS FOR SPECIAL USE (OTHER THAN ORAL CAVITY):

LIQUIDS FOR SPECIAL USE (OTHER THAN ORAL CAVITY) DOUCHES ENEMAS EAR-DROPS NASAL DROPS INHALANTS/SPRAY/AEROSOLS

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Douches Douches is medicated aqueous solution for rinsing body cavity applied at lower pressure like Eye douches Pharyngeal douches - Nasal douches - Vaginal douches - Bladder douches - Rectum douches Generally three cavities are widely used ; For vaginal purpose termed as Douches For bladder purpose termed as Irrigation For rectum purpose termed as Enemas.

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Douches are restricted to vaginal solution. Douches have cleansing or antiseptic action. Douches may promote healing or as an astringent. Vaginal douches must be sterile if used after child birth or surgery. Bladder irrigation must always be sterile as bladder is a sterile organ. Vaginal douches are introduced by means of a suitable rubber syringe. Vaginal douches have pH 5.5

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Douches dispensed as concentrated forms and directions for dilution with warm water. Douches frequently dispensed in the form of powder or tablet with the direction for dissolving in a specified quantities of warm water. Category Ingredients 1. Cleansing -Isotonic sodium chloride solution -Boric acid (2%) -Sodabicarb (1-2%) - Saponated cresol (0.2-.05%) 2. Antiseptic Chlorhexidine (0.02%) Chlorxylenol (5-10%) Lactic acid (0.5-2%) Mercuric chloride (0.001%) KMnO 4 (0.001-1%) 3. Astringent - Alum (1%) Tannic acid Zinc sulphate

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2. ENEMAS “Enemas are aqueous or oily solution or suspension or oil in water emulsion introduced into rectum or colon for cleansing , therapeutic or diagnostic purpose. Types of Enemas: CLEANSING ENEMAS: Cleansing enemas used to evacuate feaces in constipation or before an operation. Two types: By stimulating of peristalsis i . Large volume: Plain water Soft soap Turpentine enemas

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ii. Small volume (Osmotic retention) Sodium phosphate enema Magnesium sulphate enema Sorbitol Sodium chloride Sodabicarb B. By lubricating impacted feaces: Olive oil enemas Araches oil Enemas Glycerin enemas

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ii. THERAPEUTICS ENEMAS: iii. Diagnostic enemas: It is used for X- Ray Examination of lower bowel. Ex: Barium sulphate enemas. Category Ingredient Sedative Chloral hydrate Paraldehyde 2. Anthelmintics Quassia 3. anti-inflammatory Corticosteroids 4. nutrients

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Disposable Enemas: Enemas available in disposable plastic bags. They include evacuant enemas like magnesium sulphate and retention enemas of prednisolone . CONTAINERS: Single use plastic pack with rectal nozzle LABEL: To be warmed to body temperature before use.

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Ear Drops: Ear drops are solutions or suspension of drugs that are used into the ear. VEHICLES: - Water -Propylene glycol -glycerin - PEG-4000 -Dil. Alcohol -Haxylene glycol Category Uses 1. For mild infection Antibiotics, anti bacterial 2. For softening wax Hydrogen peroxide, sodabicarb 3. For cleansing Spirit 4. Drying weeping surface Astringent, ammonium acetate 5. antiseptic- anaesthesic phenol

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CONTAINERS: Coloured fluted glass bottle with dropper LABELLED: - not to be taken orally Store in a cool place Not to be diluted List of official ear drops: Chloramphenicol ear drops Hydrocortisone and neomycin E.D. Hydrogen peroxide E.D. Phenol E.D. Sodium Bicarbonate E.D.

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4. NASAL DROPS: Definition: “Nasal drops are liquid preparation and may be aqueous or oily for instillation into nostrils.” The following category can be formulated for nasal drops: - sympathomimetics ------- vasoconstrictor (ephedrine) Anti niflammatory ------ corticosteroids Anti bacterial Anti histamine Local anaesthetics

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Nasal Vehicles: they should possess following properties: pH range of 5.5-7.5. Have mild buffer capacity. Tonicity equivalent to normal saline. The viscosity should not exceed the normal viscosity of nasal mucus. Contain antimicrobial agents Containes : -Fluted color glass bottle with plastic screw cap and dropper. Label: -FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY - STORE IN A COOL PLACE

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Nasal inhalation: Inhalation are solution or suspension of volatile aromatic medicaments in alcohol, or an alcoholic preparation. And the vapour of which is inhaled to lower respiratory tract. If the ingredient is volatile at room temperature, it may be placed on an absorbent pad and inhaled. If not, poured on hot surface of water (65 C) and vapour is inhaled. Inhalation which requires hot water consists alcoholic solution mixture of medicaments with water and light magnesium carbonate. Containers: White fluted bottle

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Label: SHAKE BOTTLE BEFORE USE Examples: Benzoin inhalation Menthol and benzoin inhalation Menthol and eucalyptus inhalation Epinephrine inhalation.

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6. Nasal Sprays: Spray solutions are aqueous alcoholic or glycerin solutions in the form of coarse droplets of finely divided solids intended to be applied to the nose or throat by means of atomizer. The type of atomizer used depends upon the viscosity of the spray solution. Oily solutions wqere formerly used, but are no longer used as they retard ciliary action and enter in trachea and cause lipoidal pneumonia. Evxamples: Anti inflammatory(corticosteroids) Antihistaminics --Sympathomimetics Local anaesthetics -- Antimigraine

LIQUIDS FOR EXTERNAL USE::

LIQUIDS FOR EXTERNAL USE: MONOPHASIC LINIMENTS LOTIONS COLLODIONS APPLICATIONS BIPHASIC LINIMENTS LOTIONS APPLICATIONS

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LINIMENTS: “Liniments are fluid, semi-fluid or occasionally semisolid preparations intended for external application.” They may be alcoholic or oily solution or emulsion. Liniments containing substances have following properties.: Analgesic Rubefacient Counter Irritants Soothing Stimulating

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In case of monophasic (solution) liniments, two types of solvents are used. 1. Alcohol - Soap liniments - Aconite liniments. 2. Oil - Camphor Liniments - Methyl Liniments Arachis and cotton seed oil is used. It is less irritant than alcohol. It is spread more easily. Liniments may be applied with or without friction. It may be painted or applied on skin by brush. Liniments should not be applied on broken skin. Liniments contains volatile ingredients so cold storage is necessary and kept away from flame.

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PREPARATION: It can be prepared as solution or emulsion as the case may be. CONTAINER: Coloured fluted bottle. LABEL: FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY NOT FOR BROKEN SKIN STORE IN COOL PLACE INFLAMMABLE

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2. LOTIONS: “Lotion are liquid preparations intended for external application or for special use. Lotion may be aqueous or alcoholic solution or suspension referred as SHAKE LOTION. In aqueous or alcoholic solution, the main ingredients are salts. Alcohol causes defatting, countered by addition of castor oil. Sometimes salt dissolved in water- aqueous solution, termed as EYE-LOTION, meant for eyes.

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On application of shake lotion on skin, the water evaporates, leaving residue of medicaments on skin. The evaporation causes cooling effect. Lotions are applied to inflammed area. The use of alcohol hasten (faster) drying and enhance cooling. The use of glycerin keeps skin moist and promote adherence of residue powder on skin. The suspending agent like Na C.M.C. may be used to assist dispersion. Lotion liable to microbial growth, so includes proper preservatives. Lotion used for local cooling, soothing, protective, drying or moisturizing properties.

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Lotion includes- antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti- infective, anti pyretic and local anesthetic agents. EXAMPLES: Lead lotion - lead subacetate in water Salicylic lotion - salicylic acid in alcohol CONTAINER: Fluted bottle, closed with plastic screw cap. LABEL: FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY DILUTED LOTION NOT TO BE USED LATED THAN ONE MONTH AFTER ISSUE.

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LINIMENTS LOTION 1. ALCOHOLIC, OILY OR SOAP SOLUTION OR EMULSION AQUEOUS OR ALCOHOLIC SOLUTION OR SUSPENSION 2, APPLIED WITH FRICTION APPLIED WITHOUT RUBBING 3. NOT APPLIED ON BROKEN SKIN APPLIED ON BROKEN SKIN 4. APPLIED WITH BRUSH APPLIED WITH ABSORBENT MATERIAL 5. Ex: camphor liniments soap liniments turpentine liniments Ex: calamine lotion Benzyldehyde lotion.

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COLLODION: Collodions are fluid- prepared for external use. They are applied by brush, rod or applicator. The base is pyroxillin (Nitro Cellulose) in a volatile solvents. The volatile vehicle evaporates leaving a flexible, protective film covering the site. The volatile vehicles are ether, alcohol and acetone. Flexibility to film given by castor oil. Pyrocillin is highly inflammable so it is kept moist with industrial menthylated spirit, stored loosely packed, protect from light in a cool place.

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EXAMPLES: Flexible Collodion –USP/BP Salicylic acid collodion -BPC LABEL: FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY STORE IN A COOL PLACE HIGHLY INFLAMMABLE KEEP AWAY FROM NAKED FLAMES.

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APPLICATION: These are fluids or semifluid preparations used for external application. They are suspensions or emulsions. There is no difference in between and liniments, the only different is in use. Examples: Benzyl benzoate application Chlorophenothane application.