Ruminants

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Module 10Cattle Nutrition : 

Module 10Cattle Nutrition VETS 270

Cattle Nutrition Objectives : 

Cattle Nutrition Objectives Review ruminant digestion Establish a basic understanding of cattle nutrition. Understand the basics of dairy cattle nutrition. Understand the basics of beef cattle nutrition. Apply body condition scoring to dairy and beef cattle.

DIGESTION IN RUMINANTS : 

DIGESTION IN RUMINANTS

ADULT RUMINANT : 

ADULT RUMINANT Rumen Reticulum Omasum Abomasum

Rumen : 

Rumen Fermentation vat Microbial populations Utilize fibrous feedstuffs Volatile fatty acid (VFA) absorption Rumen papillae

Reticulum : 

Reticulum Extension of the rumen Honeycomb shaped projections Hardware disease

Omasum : 

Omasum Membranous leaves Water absorption

Abomasum : 

Abomasum True stomach HCl Proteolytic enzymes

Intestinal tract : 

Intestinal tract Microbial protein Digestive enzymes Functions similar to simple stomach animals

VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS : 

VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS Acetate Propionate Butyrate

SALIVA : 

SALIVA Contains buffers Stabilizes rumen pH Cow may produce 20 gallons per day when proper rumination occurs

BOVINE NUTRITION : 

BOVINE NUTRITION

BOVINE NUTRITION : 

BOVINE NUTRITION Dairy cows Beef cows

CUD CHEWING THUMB RULE : 

CUD CHEWING THUMB RULE Cows are resting - should be ruminating Cud should be chewed at least 30 times before swallowing – indicates adequate long fiber

CARBOHYDRATES : 

CARBOHYDRATES 70 to 80% of the diet Non structural Sugar and starch Structural Cellulose Hemicellulose Pectin Lignin

VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS : 

VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS CHO fermented to VFAs Energy source Absorbed into blood stream transported to liver and other tissues

FIBER : 

FIBER Forages Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) Hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin Related to dry matter intake Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) Insoluble fraction – cellulose and lignin Related to dry matter digestibility

PROTEIN : 

PROTEIN Microbial protein By-pass protein 60 to 70% dietary protein is degraded by microbes Microbes use dietary protein as N source Ammonia is incorporated into microbial protein Excess NH3 is absorbed across rumen wall

PROTEIN : 

PROTEIN Soluble protein (SP) – rapidly degraded in the rumen Rumen degradable (RDP) – includes SP and fraction that is slowly degraded in the rumen Rumen undegradable protein (RUP) – by pass protein and unavailable protein

RUMEN pH EFFECTS : 

RUMEN pH EFFECTS Optimal pH 6.0 to 6.3 Fiber bacteria like 6.0 to 6.8 Starch bacteria like 5.5 to 6.0

FACTORS AFFECTING pH : 

FACTORS AFFECTING pH Forage to concentrate ratio Physical form of feeds Feed intake Moisture content Dietary fats Method of feeding

FORAGE TO CONCENTRATE : 

FORAGE TO CONCENTRATE High forage pH > 6.0 Stimulates saliva secretion Length stimulate rumination >Acetate production (?milk fat) High concentrate Decreases pH > Propionate production (?milk fat)

PHYSICAL FORM : 

PHYSICAL FORM Particle size Rumen mat Fiber digestion decreased

FEED INTAKE : 

FEED INTAKE Large amounts of concentrates Overall increase in DMI Fermentation Saliva but not enough to cancel out drop in pH

MOISTURE : 

MOISTURE Wet feeds reduce pH (less saliva needed) Dry matter intake may also be reduced

FATS : 

FATS Reduce digestibility Toxic to fiber digesting bacteria

METHOD OF FEEDING : 

METHOD OF FEEDING Total Mixed Ration (TMR) Stabilizes rumen pH Concentrates separately Can see reduction in pH

WATER : 

WATER Young Heifer - 2 to 8 gallons Dry cow - 10 gallons per day Lactating cow 20 lbs of milk - 12 gallons 100 lbs of milk - 32 gallons

CALVES : 

CALVES

COLOSTRUM : 

COLOSTRUM Sooner the better 20% protein vs 3.2% First feeding with in 30 minutes of birth 8 to 10% of body weight About 4 quarts (varies with size of calf) Second feeding with 6 - 12 hours Definitely less than 24 hours Force feed - stomach tube

SAVING COLOSTRUM : 

SAVING COLOSTRUM Freeze 1st 6 milkings Fermented (soured) 50 to 70ºF Dilute fermented colostrum 3:1 Stir before feeding

WASTE MILK : 

WASTE MILK Not new born calves Antibiotic residue Antibiotics and Microflora Mastitic milk and bacteria May not know organism Disease transmission

FEEDING : 

FEEDING Bottle feed first few feedings Pail feeding with in few couple days

CALF SCOURS : 

CALF SCOURS Diarrhea Yellowish Overfeeding Dirty pails Overcrowding Low resistance to disease Coccidiosis

CALF STARTER : 

CALF STARTER Start with in first few days Textured feed preferred Start VFA production Start rumen and papillae development Provide good quality - second cut hay Gaining at 1.25 lbs per day Corn silage not recommended

INDIVIDUAL PENS : 

INDIVIDUAL PENS

CALF HUTCH : 

CALF HUTCH

HEIFERS : 

HEIFERS Forage is basis of ration Supplemented Corn silage provides adequate energy but needs protein supplementation Want rate of gain to be 1.8 - 2 lbs per day

HEIFERS to 12 months : 

HEIFERS to 12 months Grass/legume hay Low moisture silage 3 to 5 pounds of grain Varies based on forage analysis

HEIFERS 12 to 22 months : 

HEIFERS 12 to 22 months ½ to 2/3 ration should be hay, hay silage 1/3 to ½ corn silage Feed milking ration 30 days before calving

IONOPHORS : 

IONOPHORS Growth stimulants Improve feed efficiency Improve rates of gain Monensin - Rumensin Lasalosid - Bovatec

RATES OF GAIN : 

RATES OF GAIN Heifers 1.8 - 2 lbs per day Want them to reach 750 -800 pounds by around 12-14 months of age

SPRINGING HEIFER : 

SPRINGING HEIFER Should be growing at 2 lbs per day High quality forage and grain but do not allow to get fat Limit amount of salt during last two weeks of gestation

DRY COW : 

DRY COW

DRY COW : 

DRY COW Dry period 45 - 60 days 30 days for involution Mammary gland regeneration

DRY COW - GOALS : 

DRY COW - GOALS Developing calf Body Condition score 3.5 to 4.0 Prepare mammary gland for next lactation Minimize digestive, metabolic and infectious diseases

FEEDING : 

FEEDING Maintain optimum dietary fiber Limit energy intake Avoid overfeeding protein Meet mineral and vitamin requirements

FIBER : 

FIBER 1% or more of body weight coarse dry roughage Limit corn silage to 2% of body weight Limit concentrate to 0.5% of body weight Avoid excellent forages Require higher fiber levels (50% NDF or more)

LEGUMES : 

LEGUMES Limit to less than 1% of body weight High in CP, Ca and K Udder edema, milk fever and ketosis

ENERGY : 

ENERGY Dry off at BCS 3.5 to 4.0 Limit energy intake Avoid over conditioning - “Fat Cow” Syndrome or Fatty Liver

MINERALS : 

MINERALS Avoid excess calcium Ca:P ratio between 2.5:1 and 1.5:1 Legumes - no more than half forage dry matter

ANIONIC SALTS : 

ANIONIC SALTS Cation - anion balance Cation - sodium and potassium Anion - chloride and sulfur Feed anionic salts - negative charge

ANIONC DIET : 

ANIONC DIET Increase Ca absorption and mobilization Increase blood levels of Ca Decrease incidence of milk fever

TRANSITION COW : 

TRANSITION COW Lactating to dry Dry to lactating Transition diet two weeks prior to due date

LACATATING COW : 

LACATATING COW

GROUPING : 

GROUPING Milk production Age or lactation Stage of lactation Reproductive status

FEEDING SYSTEMS : 

FEEDING SYSTEMS Bunk Milking parlor Computerized grain feeder Total Mixed Ration

FEEDING BASICS : 

FEEDING BASICS Higher energy requirement TMR Dry matter intake

LACTATION CURVE : 

LACTATION CURVE

FEEDING PROBLEMS : 

FEEDING PROBLEMS

KETOSIS : 

KETOSIS Negative energy balance First 6 - 8 weeks of lactation (peak lactation) Using body stores for energy Ketones are produced

SIGNS : 

SIGNS Off feed - loss of appetite Ketones on breath and in urine Drop in milk production Dull and listless Loss of body condition Treatment - IV glucose

PREVENTION : 

PREVENTION Provide diet adequate in energy Adequate body condition at calving Prevent situations where cow goes off feed Begin “lead feeding” grain 10 -15 days prior to calving

FATTY LIVER : 

FATTY LIVER Fat Cow Syndrome Excessive fatness - BCS > 4.0 Cow utilizing fat stores due to reduction in intake Liver builds up with triglycerides Liver stops function Cause predisposition to ketosis

PREVENTION : 

PREVENTION Avoid over condition Do not overfeed Do not allow to become over conditioned during dry period Gluconeogenic supplements

DISPLACED ABOMASUM : 

DISPLACED ABOMASUM Abomasum shifts upward to left 90% LDA Within two weeks of calving Gas build up High grain and silage diets produces acid - gas High silage diets

SIGNS : 

SIGNS Poor appetite Reduced fecal output Drop in milk production Dull and listless Treatment - surgical

PREVENTION : 

PREVENTION Not over feed concentrates or silage Provide long stem hay in diet Provide adequate fiber in diet

LAMINITIS : 

LAMINITIS Inflammation of the laminae Not enough adequate fiber Diet too high in concentrates

SIGNS : 

SIGNS Lameness Cows stand with hind feet in gutter Cows reluctant to go to feed bunk or water Cows reluctant to go to milking parlor

PREVENTION : 

PREVENTION Adequate fiber in diet Long stem hay Silage chopped to sufficient length Not overfeed concentrates

HARDWARE DISEASE : 

HARDWARE DISEASE Traumatic Reticulitis Wire, nails, pieces of metal in reticulum Puncture through wall and cause peritonitis - can cause pericarditis

SIGNS : 

SIGNS Can be chronic disease Poor performance Reluctant to move Edema around brisket Pericarditis - death PREVENTION - Magnet

HYPOMAGNESIUM : 

HYPOMAGNESIUM Grass Tetany Low blood magnesium Eating grasses low in magnesium (spring) Turned out on pasture in the spring Less common if eating legumes & grass mixture

SIGNS : 

SIGNS Incoordination – ataxic Convulsions Muscle twitching Death

PREVENTION : 

PREVENTION Mineral supplement with Magnesium during grazing season Magnesium Oxide (MagOx) added to grain

WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE : 

WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE Selenium deficiency Soil deficient in Selenium so forages deficient Vitamin E – antioxidant for cell membranes Selenium – prevents autooxidation of membranes Can also occur in other animals

SIGNS : 

SIGNS Muscle stiffness Rigid gait Unthrifty Reproductive disorders White muscle on necropsy

PREVENTION : 

PREVENTION Salt mineral mix with selenium Sodium selenite added to grain Selenium can be toxic!

MILK FEVER : 

MILK FEVER Parturient Paresis Hypocalcemia Usually third lactation cow (almost never a 1st calf heifer) Commonly seen within 72 hours of calving Colored breeds (Jersey) more susceptible

SIGNS : 

SIGNS Unsteadiness Muscle stiffening Cow down in sternal recumbency with head displaced to one side Eyes dull, pupils dilated Subnormal temperature, ears cold Sleep attitude Treatment - IV calcium

PREVENTION : 

PREVENTION Prevention is not 100% Low calcium diet during dry period Increase calcium 5 days before calving Cation-Anion balance Anionic salts - acidosis Ca:P ratio 1:1 Vitamin D help with Ca absorption

BEEF COWS : 

BEEF COWS

DIFFERENCES : 

DIFFERENCES Graze Kept outdoors Calves allowed to suckle Fed higher grain diets for finishing

FEED COSTS : 

FEED COSTS 50 to 70% of total cost Meet nutritional requirements at minimal cost

FACTORS INFLUENCING REQUIREMENTS : 

FACTORS INFLUENCING REQUIREMENTS Stage of production Weather Cow weight Milk production Age Physical activity

STAGE OF PRODUCTION : 

STAGE OF PRODUCTION Post calving Pregnant and lactating Mid-gestation Pre-calving

POST CALVING : 

POST CALVING Nursing Must rebreed within 80 to 85 days to calve at the same time next year Requirements are greatest during this period Poor nutrition - lower milk production, weaning weight and poor reproductive performance

PREGNANT AND LACTATING : 

PREGNANT AND LACTATING Pregnancy requirements small Usually feeding high quality forage

MID-GESTATION : 

MID-GESTATION Post weaning period No longer nursing Fetal requirements are still fairly low Maximize crop residues and low quality forages Best time to put condition on

PRE-CALVING : 

PRE-CALVING 60 to 90 days prior to calving Fetal growth is maximum Poor nutrition - lower birth weights calf survival milk production and calf growth delayed estrus

WEATHER : 

WEATHER

WEATHER INFLUENCES REQUIREMENT : 

WEATHER INFLUENCES REQUIREMENT Cold weather Wind chill Body condition Hair coat Length Dry or wet

COW WEIGHT : 

COW WEIGHT Weight increases protein energy

BODY CONDITION : 

BODY CONDITION At calving Regaining condition Influences rebreeding Dystocia

MILK PRODUCTION : 

MILK PRODUCTION

MILK PRODUCTION : 

MILK PRODUCTION Greatly increases requirements Takes priority over reproduction Demands of calf Lactation curve

AGE : 

AGE Growth First calf heifer (2 year old) Older cow

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY : 

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Grazing Feedlot

MANAGEMENT SCHEMES : 

MANAGEMENT SCHEMES Cow Calf operation Stocker Yearling Feedlot

COW CALF OPERATION : 

COW CALF OPERATION Maintain breeding stock Produce calves Raise calves until weaned (400 - 500lbs) Paid by the pound need to get high weight at low cost Fed mainly crop or surplus forage

STOCKER YEARLING : 

STOCKER YEARLING Buy weaned calves and raise to about one year old Grow calves to about 800 lbs Goal is to buy calves cheap, feed cheap and sell at good price. Feed mainly roughage

FEEDLOT : 

FEEDLOT Buy large calves 800 - 850 lbs Finish for slaughter at 1000 - 1300 lbs Usually large commercial operation of 1000 head or more Feed mainly concentrates

FEEDLOT : 

FEEDLOT

Conclusion : 

Conclusion Similar nutritional needs. Development of nutrition programs can be quite complex. Forage basis of diets. Concentrates added as needed.

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