logging in or signing up Ruminants vetmedlvt Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 228 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: March 31, 2009 This Presentation is Unlisted Favorites: 0 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Module 10Cattle Nutrition : Module 10Cattle Nutrition VETS 270 Cattle Nutrition Objectives : Cattle Nutrition Objectives Review ruminant digestion Establish a basic understanding of cattle nutrition. Understand the basics of dairy cattle nutrition. Understand the basics of beef cattle nutrition. Apply body condition scoring to dairy and beef cattle. DIGESTION IN RUMINANTS : DIGESTION IN RUMINANTS ADULT RUMINANT : ADULT RUMINANT Rumen Reticulum Omasum Abomasum Rumen : Rumen Fermentation vat Microbial populations Utilize fibrous feedstuffs Volatile fatty acid (VFA) absorption Rumen papillae Reticulum : Reticulum Extension of the rumen Honeycomb shaped projections Hardware disease Omasum : Omasum Membranous leaves Water absorption Abomasum : Abomasum True stomach HCl Proteolytic enzymes Intestinal tract : Intestinal tract Microbial protein Digestive enzymes Functions similar to simple stomach animals VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS : VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS Acetate Propionate Butyrate SALIVA : SALIVA Contains buffers Stabilizes rumen pH Cow may produce 20 gallons per day when proper rumination occurs BOVINE NUTRITION : BOVINE NUTRITION BOVINE NUTRITION : BOVINE NUTRITION Dairy cows Beef cows CUD CHEWING THUMB RULE : CUD CHEWING THUMB RULE Cows are resting - should be ruminating Cud should be chewed at least 30 times before swallowing – indicates adequate long fiber CARBOHYDRATES : CARBOHYDRATES 70 to 80% of the diet Non structural Sugar and starch Structural Cellulose Hemicellulose Pectin Lignin VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS : VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS CHO fermented to VFAs Energy source Absorbed into blood stream transported to liver and other tissues FIBER : FIBER Forages Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) Hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin Related to dry matter intake Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) Insoluble fraction – cellulose and lignin Related to dry matter digestibility PROTEIN : PROTEIN Microbial protein By-pass protein 60 to 70% dietary protein is degraded by microbes Microbes use dietary protein as N source Ammonia is incorporated into microbial protein Excess NH3 is absorbed across rumen wall PROTEIN : PROTEIN Soluble protein (SP) – rapidly degraded in the rumen Rumen degradable (RDP) – includes SP and fraction that is slowly degraded in the rumen Rumen undegradable protein (RUP) – by pass protein and unavailable protein RUMEN pH EFFECTS : RUMEN pH EFFECTS Optimal pH 6.0 to 6.3 Fiber bacteria like 6.0 to 6.8 Starch bacteria like 5.5 to 6.0 FACTORS AFFECTING pH : FACTORS AFFECTING pH Forage to concentrate ratio Physical form of feeds Feed intake Moisture content Dietary fats Method of feeding FORAGE TO CONCENTRATE : FORAGE TO CONCENTRATE High forage pH > 6.0 Stimulates saliva secretion Length stimulate rumination >Acetate production (?milk fat) High concentrate Decreases pH > Propionate production (?milk fat) PHYSICAL FORM : PHYSICAL FORM Particle size Rumen mat Fiber digestion decreased FEED INTAKE : FEED INTAKE Large amounts of concentrates Overall increase in DMI Fermentation Saliva but not enough to cancel out drop in pH MOISTURE : MOISTURE Wet feeds reduce pH (less saliva needed) Dry matter intake may also be reduced FATS : FATS Reduce digestibility Toxic to fiber digesting bacteria METHOD OF FEEDING : METHOD OF FEEDING Total Mixed Ration (TMR) Stabilizes rumen pH Concentrates separately Can see reduction in pH WATER : WATER Young Heifer - 2 to 8 gallons Dry cow - 10 gallons per day Lactating cow 20 lbs of milk - 12 gallons 100 lbs of milk - 32 gallons CALVES : CALVES COLOSTRUM : COLOSTRUM Sooner the better 20% protein vs 3.2% First feeding with in 30 minutes of birth 8 to 10% of body weight About 4 quarts (varies with size of calf) Second feeding with 6 - 12 hours Definitely less than 24 hours Force feed - stomach tube SAVING COLOSTRUM : SAVING COLOSTRUM Freeze 1st 6 milkings Fermented (soured) 50 to 70ºF Dilute fermented colostrum 3:1 Stir before feeding WASTE MILK : WASTE MILK Not new born calves Antibiotic residue Antibiotics and Microflora Mastitic milk and bacteria May not know organism Disease transmission FEEDING : FEEDING Bottle feed first few feedings Pail feeding with in few couple days CALF SCOURS : CALF SCOURS Diarrhea Yellowish Overfeeding Dirty pails Overcrowding Low resistance to disease Coccidiosis CALF STARTER : CALF STARTER Start with in first few days Textured feed preferred Start VFA production Start rumen and papillae development Provide good quality - second cut hay Gaining at 1.25 lbs per day Corn silage not recommended INDIVIDUAL PENS : INDIVIDUAL PENS CALF HUTCH : CALF HUTCH HEIFERS : HEIFERS Forage is basis of ration Supplemented Corn silage provides adequate energy but needs protein supplementation Want rate of gain to be 1.8 - 2 lbs per day HEIFERS to 12 months : HEIFERS to 12 months Grass/legume hay Low moisture silage 3 to 5 pounds of grain Varies based on forage analysis HEIFERS 12 to 22 months : HEIFERS 12 to 22 months ½ to 2/3 ration should be hay, hay silage 1/3 to ½ corn silage Feed milking ration 30 days before calving IONOPHORS : IONOPHORS Growth stimulants Improve feed efficiency Improve rates of gain Monensin - Rumensin Lasalosid - Bovatec RATES OF GAIN : RATES OF GAIN Heifers 1.8 - 2 lbs per day Want them to reach 750 -800 pounds by around 12-14 months of age SPRINGING HEIFER : SPRINGING HEIFER Should be growing at 2 lbs per day High quality forage and grain but do not allow to get fat Limit amount of salt during last two weeks of gestation DRY COW : DRY COW DRY COW : DRY COW Dry period 45 - 60 days 30 days for involution Mammary gland regeneration DRY COW - GOALS : DRY COW - GOALS Developing calf Body Condition score 3.5 to 4.0 Prepare mammary gland for next lactation Minimize digestive, metabolic and infectious diseases FEEDING : FEEDING Maintain optimum dietary fiber Limit energy intake Avoid overfeeding protein Meet mineral and vitamin requirements FIBER : FIBER 1% or more of body weight coarse dry roughage Limit corn silage to 2% of body weight Limit concentrate to 0.5% of body weight Avoid excellent forages Require higher fiber levels (50% NDF or more) LEGUMES : LEGUMES Limit to less than 1% of body weight High in CP, Ca and K Udder edema, milk fever and ketosis ENERGY : ENERGY Dry off at BCS 3.5 to 4.0 Limit energy intake Avoid over conditioning - “Fat Cow” Syndrome or Fatty Liver MINERALS : MINERALS Avoid excess calcium Ca:P ratio between 2.5:1 and 1.5:1 Legumes - no more than half forage dry matter ANIONIC SALTS : ANIONIC SALTS Cation - anion balance Cation - sodium and potassium Anion - chloride and sulfur Feed anionic salts - negative charge ANIONC DIET : ANIONC DIET Increase Ca absorption and mobilization Increase blood levels of Ca Decrease incidence of milk fever TRANSITION COW : TRANSITION COW Lactating to dry Dry to lactating Transition diet two weeks prior to due date LACATATING COW : LACATATING COW GROUPING : GROUPING Milk production Age or lactation Stage of lactation Reproductive status FEEDING SYSTEMS : FEEDING SYSTEMS Bunk Milking parlor Computerized grain feeder Total Mixed Ration FEEDING BASICS : FEEDING BASICS Higher energy requirement TMR Dry matter intake LACTATION CURVE : LACTATION CURVE FEEDING PROBLEMS : FEEDING PROBLEMS KETOSIS : KETOSIS Negative energy balance First 6 - 8 weeks of lactation (peak lactation) Using body stores for energy Ketones are produced SIGNS : SIGNS Off feed - loss of appetite Ketones on breath and in urine Drop in milk production Dull and listless Loss of body condition Treatment - IV glucose PREVENTION : PREVENTION Provide diet adequate in energy Adequate body condition at calving Prevent situations where cow goes off feed Begin “lead feeding” grain 10 -15 days prior to calving FATTY LIVER : FATTY LIVER Fat Cow Syndrome Excessive fatness - BCS > 4.0 Cow utilizing fat stores due to reduction in intake Liver builds up with triglycerides Liver stops function Cause predisposition to ketosis PREVENTION : PREVENTION Avoid over condition Do not overfeed Do not allow to become over conditioned during dry period Gluconeogenic supplements DISPLACED ABOMASUM : DISPLACED ABOMASUM Abomasum shifts upward to left 90% LDA Within two weeks of calving Gas build up High grain and silage diets produces acid - gas High silage diets SIGNS : SIGNS Poor appetite Reduced fecal output Drop in milk production Dull and listless Treatment - surgical PREVENTION : PREVENTION Not over feed concentrates or silage Provide long stem hay in diet Provide adequate fiber in diet LAMINITIS : LAMINITIS Inflammation of the laminae Not enough adequate fiber Diet too high in concentrates SIGNS : SIGNS Lameness Cows stand with hind feet in gutter Cows reluctant to go to feed bunk or water Cows reluctant to go to milking parlor PREVENTION : PREVENTION Adequate fiber in diet Long stem hay Silage chopped to sufficient length Not overfeed concentrates HARDWARE DISEASE : HARDWARE DISEASE Traumatic Reticulitis Wire, nails, pieces of metal in reticulum Puncture through wall and cause peritonitis - can cause pericarditis SIGNS : SIGNS Can be chronic disease Poor performance Reluctant to move Edema around brisket Pericarditis - death PREVENTION - Magnet HYPOMAGNESIUM : HYPOMAGNESIUM Grass Tetany Low blood magnesium Eating grasses low in magnesium (spring) Turned out on pasture in the spring Less common if eating legumes & grass mixture SIGNS : SIGNS Incoordination – ataxic Convulsions Muscle twitching Death PREVENTION : PREVENTION Mineral supplement with Magnesium during grazing season Magnesium Oxide (MagOx) added to grain WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE : WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE Selenium deficiency Soil deficient in Selenium so forages deficient Vitamin E – antioxidant for cell membranes Selenium – prevents autooxidation of membranes Can also occur in other animals SIGNS : SIGNS Muscle stiffness Rigid gait Unthrifty Reproductive disorders White muscle on necropsy PREVENTION : PREVENTION Salt mineral mix with selenium Sodium selenite added to grain Selenium can be toxic! MILK FEVER : MILK FEVER Parturient Paresis Hypocalcemia Usually third lactation cow (almost never a 1st calf heifer) Commonly seen within 72 hours of calving Colored breeds (Jersey) more susceptible SIGNS : SIGNS Unsteadiness Muscle stiffening Cow down in sternal recumbency with head displaced to one side Eyes dull, pupils dilated Subnormal temperature, ears cold Sleep attitude Treatment - IV calcium PREVENTION : PREVENTION Prevention is not 100% Low calcium diet during dry period Increase calcium 5 days before calving Cation-Anion balance Anionic salts - acidosis Ca:P ratio 1:1 Vitamin D help with Ca absorption BEEF COWS : BEEF COWS DIFFERENCES : DIFFERENCES Graze Kept outdoors Calves allowed to suckle Fed higher grain diets for finishing FEED COSTS : FEED COSTS 50 to 70% of total cost Meet nutritional requirements at minimal cost FACTORS INFLUENCING REQUIREMENTS : FACTORS INFLUENCING REQUIREMENTS Stage of production Weather Cow weight Milk production Age Physical activity STAGE OF PRODUCTION : STAGE OF PRODUCTION Post calving Pregnant and lactating Mid-gestation Pre-calving POST CALVING : POST CALVING Nursing Must rebreed within 80 to 85 days to calve at the same time next year Requirements are greatest during this period Poor nutrition - lower milk production, weaning weight and poor reproductive performance PREGNANT AND LACTATING : PREGNANT AND LACTATING Pregnancy requirements small Usually feeding high quality forage MID-GESTATION : MID-GESTATION Post weaning period No longer nursing Fetal requirements are still fairly low Maximize crop residues and low quality forages Best time to put condition on PRE-CALVING : PRE-CALVING 60 to 90 days prior to calving Fetal growth is maximum Poor nutrition - lower birth weights calf survival milk production and calf growth delayed estrus WEATHER : WEATHER WEATHER INFLUENCES REQUIREMENT : WEATHER INFLUENCES REQUIREMENT Cold weather Wind chill Body condition Hair coat Length Dry or wet COW WEIGHT : COW WEIGHT Weight increases protein energy BODY CONDITION : BODY CONDITION At calving Regaining condition Influences rebreeding Dystocia MILK PRODUCTION : MILK PRODUCTION MILK PRODUCTION : MILK PRODUCTION Greatly increases requirements Takes priority over reproduction Demands of calf Lactation curve AGE : AGE Growth First calf heifer (2 year old) Older cow PHYSICAL ACTIVITY : PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Grazing Feedlot MANAGEMENT SCHEMES : MANAGEMENT SCHEMES Cow Calf operation Stocker Yearling Feedlot COW CALF OPERATION : COW CALF OPERATION Maintain breeding stock Produce calves Raise calves until weaned (400 - 500lbs) Paid by the pound need to get high weight at low cost Fed mainly crop or surplus forage STOCKER YEARLING : STOCKER YEARLING Buy weaned calves and raise to about one year old Grow calves to about 800 lbs Goal is to buy calves cheap, feed cheap and sell at good price. Feed mainly roughage FEEDLOT : FEEDLOT Buy large calves 800 - 850 lbs Finish for slaughter at 1000 - 1300 lbs Usually large commercial operation of 1000 head or more Feed mainly concentrates FEEDLOT : FEEDLOT Conclusion : Conclusion Similar nutritional needs. Development of nutrition programs can be quite complex. Forage basis of diets. Concentrates added as needed. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.