Rules for Writers 8th Edition PDF Free Download by Diana Hacker

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mech_HackerSommers-Rules8-SE-080715 Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers Eighth Edition Rules for WRITERS You’re a writer. Rules for Writers is here for you. No one learns everything about writing in a single course or even two we all need to consult the rules or seek out advice sometimes. Having a reliable support system is key. Your peers your instructor and your writing center are part of your support system — and so is your Rules for Writers. Whatever the assignment whatever your purpose for writing Rules for Writers has answers and advice you need for papers and projects in every course. The more you rely on your handbook and learn from its advice the more successful you’ll be as a college writer. More support for you online If your instructor has assigned this book with LaunchPad Solo for Rules for Writers use the activation code to access even more support. Visit to check out 192 grammar and research exercises 39 sample student papers and 30 LearningCurve adaptive quizzes. According to a recent survey of 700 students at 50 colleges 79 of students feel that their handbook makes them more effective academic writers.

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mech_HackerSommers-Rules8-SE-080715 Brief Menu The Writing Process 1 1 Exploring planning and drafting 3 2 Revising editing and refecting 30 3 Building effective paragraphs 49 Academic Reading Writing and Speaking 65 4 Reading and writing critically 66 5 Reading and writing about multimodal texts 80 6 Reading and writing arguments 91 7 Speaking confdently 119 Clarity 125 8 Active verbs 126 9 Parallel ideas 129 10 Needed words 133 11 Mixed constructions 137 12 Misplaced and dangling modifers 140 13 Shifts 147 14 Emphasis 152 15 Variety 163 16 Wordy sentences 166 17 Appropriate language 170 18 Exact words 180 Grammar 187 19 Sentence fragments 188 20 Run-on sentences 195 21 Subject-verb agreement is or are etc. 202 22 Pronoun-antecedent agreement singular or plural 213 23 Pronoun reference clarity 218 24 Pronoun case I and me etc. 222 25 who and whom 227 26 Adjectives and adverbs 230 27 Standard English verb forms tenses and moods 237 Multilingual Writers and ESL Challenges 255 28 Verbs 256 29 Articles 270 30 Sentence structure 279 31 Prepositions and idiomatic expressions 288 Rules8_SE_IFC_IBC.indd 2 6/17/15 7:51 AM f with infnitives g with gerunds 25 Case of who and whom case 227 26 Adjectives and adverbs adj/adv 230 a adjectives b adverbs c good well bad badly d comparatives and superlatives e double negatives 27 Verb forms tenses moods vb 237 a irregular verbs b lie and lay c -s or -es endings d -ed endings e omitted verbs f tense g mood Multilingual/ESL 255 28 Verbs ESL 256 29 Articles types of nouns ESL 270 30 Structure ESL 279 31 Prepositions and idioms ESL 288 Punctuation 293 32 The comma 294 a with and but etc. b introductory elements c series d coordinate adjectives e nonrestrictive elements f transitions g direct address yes and no etc. h he said etc. i dates addresses titles numbers j to prevent confusion 33 Unnecessary commas no 308 34 The semicolon 313 a independent clauses b transitional expressions c series d misuses 35 The colon : 317 a with lists appositives quotations b conventional uses c misuses 36 The apostrophe ’ 319 a possessive nouns b indefnite pronouns c contractions d plurals of numbers letters etc. e misuses 37 Quotation marks “ ” 323 a direct quotations b quotation within a quotation c titles of short works d words as words e with other punctuation marks f misuses 38 End punctuation 330 a period . b question mark c exclamation point  39 Other punctuation marks 332 a dash — b parentheses c brackets d ellipsis mark . . . e slash / Mechanics 337 40 Abbreviations abbr 338 41 Numbers num 341 42 Italics ital 343 43 Spelling sp 345 44 The hyphen hyph 353 45 Capitalization cap 356 Grammar Basics 361 46 Parts of speech basic 362 47 Sentence patterns basic 375 48 Subordinate word groups basic 383 49 Sentence types basic 392 Research 395 50 Conducting research res 396 51 Managing information taking notes res 408 52 Evaluating sources res 416 MLA Papers 431 53 Thesis MLA 435 54 Avoiding plagiarism MLA 441 55 Integrating sources MLA 445 56 Documenting sources MLA 458 57 Manuscript format MLA 513 Sample paper 517 APA Papers 527 58 Thesis APA 530 59 Avoiding plagiarism APA 534 60 Integrating sources APA 537 61 Documenting sources APA 546 62 Manuscript format APA 580 Sample paper 585 Appendixes 597 Document design 597 Glossary of usage 608 Answers to lettered exercises 622 Index 636 Rules8_SE_IFC_IBC.indd 3 6/17/15 7:51 AM

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Punctuation 293 32 The comma 294 33 Unnecessary commas 308 34 The semicolon 313 35 The colon 317 36 The apostrophe 319 37 Quotation marks 323 38 End punctuation 330 39 Other punctuation 332 Mechanics 337 40 Abbreviations 338 41 Numbers 341 42 Italics 343 43 Spelling 345 44 The hyphen 353 45 Capitalization 356 Grammar Basics 361 46 Parts of speech 362 47 Sentence patterns 375 48 Subordinate word groups 383 49 Sentence types 392 Research 395 50 Thinking like a researcher gathering sources 396 51 Managing information taking notes responsibly 408 52 Evaluating sources 416 Writing Papers in MLA Style 431 53 Supporting a thesis 435 54 Citing sources avoiding plagiarism 441 55 Integrating sources 445 56 MLA documentation style 458 57 MLA manuscript format sample research paper 513 Writing Papers in APA Style 527 58 Supporting a thesis 530 59 Citing sources avoiding plagiarism 534 60 Integrating sources 537 61 Documenting sources in APA style 546 62 APA manuscript format sample paper 580 Appendixes 597 A document design gallery 597 Glossary of usage 608 Answers to lettered exercises 622 Index 636 01_HAC_01131_SE_FM_i_xxviii.indd i 01_HAC_01131_SE_FM_i_xxviii.indd i 01/09/15 5:03 PM 01/09/15 5:03 PM

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Eighth Edition Rules for WRITERS Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers Harvard University Contributing ESL Specialist Kimberli Huster Robert Morris University Bedford /St. Mar tin ’ s A Macmillan Education Imprint Boston • New York 01_HAC_01131_SE_FM_i_xxviii.indd iii 01_HAC_01131_SE_FM_i_xxviii.indd iii 01/09/15 5:03 PM 01/09/15 5:03 PM

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3 1 Exploring planning and drafting Writing is a process of f guring out what you think not a matter of recording already developed thoughts. Since it’s not possible to think about everything all at once you’ll f nd the process more manageable if you handle a piece of writing in stages. You will generally move from planning to draf ing to revising but as your ideas develop you will f nd yourself circling back and returning to earlier stages. Before composing a f rst draf spend some time generating ideas. Mull over your subject while listening to music taking a walk or driving to work or jot down inspirations or explore your questions with a willing listener. Consider these questions: What do you f nd puzzling striking or interesting about your subject What would you like to know more about Be curious and open to new ideas and dif erent points of view. Explore questions you don’t have answers to. 1a Assess the writing situation. Begin by taking a look at your writing situation. T e key elements of a writing situation include the following: • subject • purpose • audience • genre • sources of information • constraints length document design reviewers deadlines It is likely that you will make f nal decisions about all of these matters later in the writing process — af er a f rst draf for example — but you will become a more ef ective writer if you think about as many of them as possible in advance. For a quick checklist see the chart on pages 4–5. 03_HAC_01131_PT1_001_064.indd 3 03_HAC_01131_PT1_001_064.indd 3 01/09/15 4:57 PM 01/09/15 4:57 PM

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draft 1a Exploring planning and drafting 4 Checklist for assessing the writing situation Subject ● Has the subject or a range of possible subjects been assigned to you or are you free to choose your own ● What interests you about your subject What questions would you like to explore ● Why is your subject worth writing about How might readers benef t ● Do you need to narrow your subject because of length restric- tions for instance Purpose and audience ● Why are you writing: To inform readers To persuade them To call them to action To of er an interpretation of a text Do you have more than one purpose for writing ● Who are your readers How well informed are they about the subject What do you want them to learn ● How interested and attentive are your readers likely to be Will they resist any of your ideas What possible objections will you need to anticipate and counter ● What is your relationship to your readers: Student to instructor Citizen to citizen Expert to novice Employee to supervisor Genre ● What genre type of writing does your assignment require: A report A proposal An analysis of data An essay ● If the genre is not assigned what genre is appropriate for your subject purpose and audience ● What are the expectations and conventions of your assigned genre For instance what type of evidence is typically used in the genre ● Does the genre require a specif c design format or method of organization ● Does the genre require or benef t from visuals such as photos drawings or graphs Sources of information ● Where will your information come from: Reading Research Direct observation Interviews Questionnaires 03_HAC_01131_PT1_001_064.indd 4 03_HAC_01131_PT1_001_064.indd 4 01/09/15 4:57 PM 01/09/15 4:57 PM

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Assess the writing situation 5 draft 1a ● What type of evidence suits your subject purpose audience and genre ● What documentation style is required: MLA APA Length and format ● Do you have any length specif cations If not what length seems appropriate given your subject purpose audience and genre ● Is a particular format required If so do you have guidelines to follow or examples to consult Deadlines ● What are your deadlines How much time will you need to allow for the various stages of writing including proofreading and printing or posting the f nal draf Academic English What counts as good writing varies from culture to culture and even among groups within cultures. In some situations you will need to become familiar with the writing styles — such as direct or indirect personal or impersonal plain or embellished — that are valued by the culture or discipline for which you are writing. Subject Frequently your subject will be given to you. In a psychology class for example you might be asked to discuss Bruno Bettelheim’s Freudian analysis of fairy tales. In a composition course assign- ments of en ask you to analyze texts and evaluate arguments. In the business world you may be assigned to draf a marketing plan. When you are free to choose your own subject let your own curiosity focus your choice. Make connections between yourself and what you are learning. If you are studying television radio and the Internet in a communications course for example you might ask yourself which of these subjects interests you most. Perhaps you want to learn more about the role streaming video can play in activism and social change. Look through your read- ings and class notes to see if you can identify questions you’ d like to explore further in an essay. 03_HAC_01131_PT1_001_064.indd 5 03_HAC_01131_PT1_001_064.indd 5 01/09/15 4:57 PM 01/09/15 4:57 PM

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draft 1a Exploring planning and drafting 6 Make sure that you can reasonably investigate your subject in the space you have. If you are limited to a few pages for exam- ple you could not do justice to a broad subject such as “videos as agents of social change. ” Y ou could however focus on one aspect of the subject — perhaps contradictory claims about the ef ective- ness of creating video content for small specif c audiences. If your interest in a subject stems from your personal expe- rience you will want to ask what it is about your experience that would interest your audience and why. For example if you have vol- unteered at a homeless shelter you might have spent some time talk- ing to homeless children and learning about their needs. Perhaps you can use your experience to broaden your readers’ understand- ing of the issues to persuade an organization to fund an af er-school program for homeless children or to propose changes in legislation. Whether or not you choose your own subject it’s important to be aware of the expectations of each writing situation. T e fol- lowing chart suggests ways to interpret assignments. Understanding an assignment Determining the purpose of an assignment T e wording of an assignment may suggest its purpose. Y ou might be expected to do one or more of the following in a college writing assignment: ● summarize information from course materials or research See 4c. ● analyze ideas and concepts See 4d. ● take a position on a topic and defend it with evidence See 6h. ● synthesize combine ideas from several sources and create an original argument See 55d and 60d. Understanding how to answer an assignment’s question Many assignments will ask you to answer a how or why question. Y ou cannot answer such questions using only facts instead you will need to take a position. For example the question “What are the survival rates for leukemia patients” can be answered with facts. T e question “Why are the survival rates for leukemia patients in one state lower than those in a neighboring state” must be answered with both a claim and facts. If a list of questions appears in the assignment be careful — instructors rarely expect you to answer all the questions in order. Look instead for topics or themes that will help you ask your own questions. 03_HAC_01131_PT1_001_064.indd 6 03_HAC_01131_PT1_001_064.indd 6 01/09/15 4:57 PM 01/09/15 4:57 PM

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Assess the writing situation 7 draft 1a Purpose Your purpose or reason for writing will of en be dictated by your writing situation. Perhaps you have been asked to draf a proposal requesting funding for a student organization to report the results of a psychology experiment or to write about the con- troversy surrounding genetically modif ed foods for the school newspaper. Even though your overall purpose may be fairly obvi- ous in such situations a closer look at the assignment can help you make some necessary decisions. How detailed should the proposal be How technical does your psychology professor ex- pect your report to be Do you want to inform students about the controversy surrounding genetically modif ed foods or to change their attitudes toward it In many writing situations part of your challenge will be discovering a purpose. Asking yourself why readers should care about what you are saying can help you decide what your pur- pose might be. Perhaps your subject is magnet schools — schools that draw students from dif erent neighborhoods because of fea- tures such as advanced science classes or a concentration on the arts. If you have discussed magnet schools in class a description of how these schools work probably will not interest you or your readers. But maybe you have discovered that your county’s mag- net schools are not promoting diversity as had been planned and you want to call your readers to action. Although no precise guidelines will lead you to a purpose you can begin by asking “Why am I writing” and “What is my goal” Identify which one or more of the following aims you hope to accomplish. Recognizing implied questions When you are asked to discuss analyze agree or disagree with or consider a topic your instructor will of en expect you to answer a how or why question. Discuss the ef ects of the No Child Lef Behind Act on special education programs. How has the No Child Lef Behind Act af ected special education programs Consider the recent rise of attention def cit hyperactivity disorder diagnoses. Why are diagnoses of attention def cit hyperactivity disorder rising 03_HAC_01131_PT1_001_064.indd 7 03_HAC_01131_PT1_001_064.indd 7 01/09/15 4:57 PM 01/09/15 4:57 PM

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580 APA manuscript format sample research paper 62 APA ■ 67. Online posting If an online posting is not archived cite it as a personal communication in the text of your paper and do not include it in the list of references. If the posting is archived give the URL and the name of the discussion list if it is not part of the URL. McKinney J. 2006 December 19. Adult education-healthcare partnerships Electronic mailing list message. Retrieved from ■ 68. Twitter post tweet Use the author’s real name if it is given and put the screen name in brackets exactly as it appears in the source including capitalization and punctuation. If only the screen name is known begin with that name and do not enclose it in brackets. Include the entire text of the tweet as the title fol- lowed by the label “Tweet” in brackets end with the URL. CQ Researcher. 2012 December 5. Up to 80 percent of the 600000 processed foods sold in America have sugar added to their recipes. See Tweet. Retrieved from https://twitter .com/cqresearcher/status/276449095521038336 ■ 69. Facebook post Use the author’ s name exactly as it appears in the post. In place of a title give a few words of the post followed by the label “Facebook post” in brackets. Include the date you retrieved the source and the URL for the poster’s Facebook page. If you are citing a personal Facebook page that will not be acces- sible to your readers cite it as personal communication in your text not in the reference list see item 15 on p. 552. U.S. Department of Education. 2012 October 9. They are resilient Facebook post. Retrieved October 15 2012 from http://www 62 APA manuscript format sample research paper T e guidelines in this section are consistent with advice given in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. Washington DC: APA 2010 and with typical require- ments for undergraduate papers. 19_HAC_01131_PT11_527_596.indd 580 19_HAC_01131_PT11_527_596.indd 580 01/09/15 4:59 PM 01/09/15 4:59 PM

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APA manuscript format 581 APA 62a 62a APA manuscript format Formatting the paper T e guidelines on pages 581–83 describe APA’s recommenda- tions for formatting the text of your paper. For guidelines on pre- paring the reference list see pages 583–84. Font If your instructor does not require a specif c font choose one that is standard and easy to read such as Times New Roman. Title page Begin at the top lef with the words “Running head ” followed by a colon and the title of your paper shortened to no more than f f y characters in all capital letters. Put the page number 1 f ush with the right margin. About halfway down the page on separate lines center the full title of your paper your name and your school’s name. At the bottom of the page you may add the heading “ Author Note ” cen- tered followed by a brief paragraph that lists specif c information about the course or department or provides acknowledgments or contact information. See page 585 for a sample title page. Page numbers and running head Number all pages with arabic numerals 1 2 3 and so on in the upper right corner one-half inch from the top of the page. Flush with the lef margin on the same line as the page number type a running head consisting of the title of the paper shortened to no more than f f y characters in all capital letters. On the title page only include the words “Running head” followed by a colon before the title. See pages 585–96. Margins line spacing and paragraph indents Use margins of one inch on all sides of the page. Lef -align the text. Double-space throughout the paper. Indent the f rst line of each paragraph one-half inch. Capitalization italics and quotation marks In headings and in titles of works that appear in the text of the paper capitalize all words of four letters or more and all nouns pronouns verbs adjectives and adverbs of any length. Capitalize the f rst word following a colon if the word begins a complete sentence. In the body of your paper italicize the titles of books journals magazines and other long works such as Web sites. Use quotation marks around the titles of articles short stories and other short works. NOTE: APA has dif erent requirements for titles in the reference list. See page 584. 19_HAC_01131_PT11_527_596.indd 581 19_HAC_01131_PT11_527_596.indd 581 01/09/15 4:59 PM 01/09/15 4:59 PM

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582 APA 62a APA manuscript format sample research paper Long quotations When a quotation is forty or more words set it of from the text by indenting it one-half inch from the lef mar- gin. Double-space the quotation. Do not use quotation marks around it. See p. 594 for an example. See also p. 541 for more information about integrating long quotations. Footnotes If you insert a footnote number in the text of your paper place the number raised above the line immediately follow- ing any mark of punctuation except a dash. At the bottom of the page begin the note with a one-half-inch indent and the superscript number corresponding to the number in the text. Insert an extra double-spaced line between the last line of text on the page and the footnote. Double-space the footnote. See p. 587 for an example. Abstract and keywords An abstract is a 150-to-250-word para- graph that provides readers with a quick overview of your essay. It should express your main idea and your key points it might also brief y suggest any implications or applications of the research you discuss in the paper. If your instructor requires one include an abstract on a new page af er the title page. Center the word “Abstract” in regular font not boldface one inch from the top of the page. Double- space the abstract and do not indent the f rst line. A list of keywords follows the abstract the keywords help readers search for a published paper on the Web or in a data- base. Leave one line of space af er the abstract and begin the next line with the word “Keywords” italicized and indented one-half inch followed by a colon. T en list important words related to your paper. Check with your instructor for requirements in your course. See p. 586 for an example of an abstract. Headings Although headings are not always necessary their use is encouraged in the social sciences. For most undergraduate papers one level of heading is usually suf cient. See pp. 588–92. First-level headings are centered and boldface. In research papers and laboratory reports the major headings are “Method ” “Results ” and “Discussion. ” In other types of papers the major headings should be informative and concise conveying the structure of the paper. Second-level headings are f ush lef and boldface. T ird-level headings are indented and boldface followed by a period and the text on the same line. In f rst- and second-level headings capitalize the f rst and last words and all words of four or more letters and nouns pro- nouns verbs adjectives and adverbs of any length. In third- level headings capitalize only the f rst word any proper nouns and the f rst word af er a colon. 19_HAC_01131_PT11_527_596.indd 582 19_HAC_01131_PT11_527_596.indd 582 01/09/15 4:59 PM 01/09/15 4:59 PM

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APA manuscript format 583 APA 62a First-Level Heading Centered Second-Level Heading Flush Left Third-level heading indented. Text immediately follows. Visuals tables and f gures AP A classif es visuals as tables and f g- ures f gures include graphs charts drawings and photographs. Label each table with an arabic numeral Table 1 Table 2 and so on and provide a clear title. Place the label and title on separate lines above the table f ush lef and double-spaced. Type the table number in regular font italicize the table title. If you have used data from an outside source or have taken or adapted the table from a source give the source information in a note below the table. Begin with the word “Note” italicized and followed by a period. If any data in the table require an ex- planatory footnote use a superscript lowercase letter in the table and in a footnote following the source note. Double-space source notes and footnotes do not indent the f rst line of each note. For an example of a note in a table see p. 591. For each f gure place the f gure number and a caption below the f gure f ush lef and double-spaced. Begin with the word “Figure” and an arabic numeral both italicized followed by a period. Place the caption not italicized on the same line. If you have taken or adapted the f gure from an outside source give the source information immediately following the caption. Use the term “From” or “ Adapted from” before the source information. In the text of your paper discuss the most signif cant fea- tures of each visual. Place the visual as close as possible to the sentences that relate to it unless your instructor prefers that visu- als appear in an appendix. Preparing the list of references Begin your list of references on a new page at the end of the paper. Center the title “References” one inch from the top of the page. Double-space throughout. For a sample reference list see page 595. Indenting entries Type the f rst line of each entry f ush lef and indent any additional lines one-half inch. Alphabetizing the list Alphabetize the reference list by the last names of the authors or editors or by the f rst word of an orga- nization name if the author is an organization. When a work has no author or editor alphabetize by the f rst word of the title other than A An or T e. 19_HAC_01131_PT11_527_596.indd 583 19_HAC_01131_PT11_527_596.indd 583 01/09/15 4:59 PM 01/09/15 4:59 PM

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584 APA 62b APA manuscript format sample research paper If your list includes two or more works by the same author arrange the entries by year the earliest f rst. If your list includes two or more works by the same author in the same year arrange the works alphabetically by title. Add the letters “a ” “b ” and so on within the parentheses af er the year. For journal articles use only the year and the letter: 2012a. For articles in magazines and news- papers use the full date and the letter in the reference list: 2012a July 7 use only the year and the letter in the in-text citation. Authors’ names Invert all authors’ names and use initials instead of f rst names. Separate the names with commas. For two to seven authors use an ampersand before the last author’s name. For eight or more authors give the f rst six authors three ellipsis dots and the last author see item 3 on p. 556. Titles of books and articles In the reference list italicize the titles and subtitles of books. Do not italicize or use quotation marks around the titles of articles. For both books and articles capi- talize only the f rst word of the title and subtitle and all proper nouns. Capitalize names of journals magazines and newspa- pers as you would capitalize them normally see 45c. Abbreviations for page numbers Abbreviations for “page ” and “pages” “p. ” and “pp. ” are used before page numbers of newspaper articles and selections in anthologies see item 15 on p. 563 and item 31 on p. 569. Do not use “p. ” or “pp. ” before page numbers of articles in journals and magazines see items 13 and 14 on pp. 559 and 563. Breaking a URL or DOI When a URL or a DOI digital object identif er must be divided break it af er a double slash or before any other mark of punctuation. Do not insert a hyphen do not add a period at the end. 62b Sample APA research paper On the following pages is a research paper on the ef ectiveness of treatments for childhood obesity written by Luisa Mirano a student in a psychology class. Mirano’s assignment was to write a literature review paper documented with APA-style citations and references. 62 APA manuscript format sample paper Sample student writing: Mirano “Can Medication Cure Obesity in Children A Review of the Literature” literature review 19_HAC_01131_PT11_527_596.indd 584 19_HAC_01131_PT11_527_596.indd 584 01/09/15 4:59 PM 01/09/15 4:59 PM

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