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Psychological Factors of Consumer Behaviour: Personality:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 1 Psychological Factors of Consumer Behaviour: Personality Authored By: Anupam Kumar Reader, SMS Varanasi Email: anupamkr@gmail.com

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© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 2

What is Personality:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 3 What is Personality The inner psychological characteristics that determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment Personality reflects individual differences Personality is consistent and enduring Personality can change

Theories of Personality:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 4 Theories of Personality Freudian theory Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation Neo-Freudian personality theory Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality Trait theory Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits

Freudian Theory:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 5 Freudian Theory

Freudian Theory:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 6 Freudian Theory Id Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks satisfaction Morals, beliefs, goodness, and even evil are non-existent to the knowledge of the primitive id Superego Individual’s internal expression of society’s moral and ethical codes of conduct The superego is simply our conscious. It is driven by authorities, parents, and other moral officials in society. Its main purpose is to ensure the “limitations of satisfactions” of the id Ego Individual’s conscious control that balances the demands of the id and superego

Freudian Theory and Personality (Product):

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 7 Freudian Theory and Personality (Product) Consumer researchers using Freud’s personality theory see consumer purchases as a reflection and extension of the consumer’s own personality

Freudian Theory:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 8 Freudian Theory Emphasis on sexual urges as a primary motivator Personality is entirely shaped by early childhood experiences Objection to Freudian Theory; Freud's negative view of human nature Freud's lack of emphasis on social and cultural influences on behavior and personality

Neo-Freudian Personality Theory:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 9 Neo-Freudian Personality Theory Neo-Freudian theories. These are essentially revisions of Freud's theory They stress the influence of socio-cultural factors in personality development. Several personality theories are collectively referred to as neo – Freudian theories Carl Jung Alfred Adler Erik Erikson Karen Horney Erich Fromm

Neo-Freudian Personality Theory:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 10 Neo-Freudian Personality Theory People seek goals to overcome feelings of inferiority People continually attempt to establish relationships with others to reduce tensions

Neo-Freudian Personality Theory:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 11 Neo-Freudian Personality Theory Karen Horney proposed three personality groups: Compliant Needs that move you towards others desire to be loved, wanted, and appreciated Aggressive Need that move you against others Detached Need that you move away from others Individuals utilize all three of these strategies, shifting focus depending on internal and external factors

Trait Theory:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 12 Trait Theory Personality theory with a focus on psychological characteristics Trait any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another Personality is linked to how consumers make their choices to consumption of a broad product category not a specific brand

Trait Theory:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 13 Trait Theory Innovativeness Dogmatism Social character Need for uniqueness Optimum stimulation level Variety-novelty seeking The degree to which consumers are receptive to new products, new services, or new practices

Trait Theory:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 14 Trait Theory Innovativeness Dogmatism Social character Need for uniqueness Optimum stimulation level Variety-novelty seeking A personality trait that reflects the degree of rigidity a person displays toward the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to his or her own established beliefs

Trait Theory:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 15 Trait Theory Innovativeness Dogmatism Social character Need for uniqueness Optimum stimulation level Variety-novelty seeking Ranges on a continuum for inner-directedness to other-directedness Inner-directedness rely on own values when evaluating products Innovators Other-directedness look to others less likely to be innovators

Trait Theory:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 16 Trait Theory Innovativeness Dogmatism Social character Need for uniqueness Optimum stimulation level Variety-novelty seeking Consumers who avoid appearing to conform to expectations or standards of others

Trait Theory:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 17 Trait Theory Innovativeness Dogmatism Social character Need for uniqueness Optimum stimulation level Variety-novelty seeking A personality trait that measures the level or amount of novelty or complexity that individuals seek in their personal experiences High OSL consumers tend to accept risky and novel products more readily than low OSL consumers.

Trait Theory:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 18 Trait Theory Innovativeness Dogmatism Social character Need for uniqueness Optimum stimulation level Variety-novelty seeking Measures a consumer’s degree of variety seeking Examples include: Exploratory Purchase Behavior Use Innovativeness Vicarious Exploration

Cognitive Personality Factors:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 19 Cognitive Personality Factors Need for cognition (NC) A person’s craving for enjoyment of thinking Individual with high NC more likely to respond to ads rich in product information Visualizers versus verbalizers A person’s preference for information presented visually or verbally Verbalizers prefer written information over graphics and images.

Consumer Materialism to Compulsive Consumption:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 20 Consumer Materialism to Compulsive Consumption Consumer materialism Fixated consumption behavior Compulsive consumption behavior The extent to which a person is considered “materialistic” Consumers fixated on certain products or categories of products “Addicted” or “out-of-control” consumers

Consumer Materialism:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 21 Consumer Materialism

Compulsive Buying:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 22 Compulsive Buying When I have money, I cannot help but spend part or the whole of it. I am often impulsive in my buying behavior. As soon as I enter a shopping center, I have an irresistible urge to go into a shop to buy something. I am one of those people who often responds to direct mail offers. I have often bought a product that I did not need, while knowing I had very little money left.

Consumer Ethnocentrism:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 23 Consumer Ethnocentrism Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products They can be targeted by stressing nationalistic themes

Brand Personality:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 24 Brand Personality Personality-like traits associated with brands Examples Liril and freshness Nike and athlete IIM’s are performance driven Ruf & Tuf Jeans are dependable and rugged Brand personality which is strong and favorable will strengthen a brand but not necessarily demand a price premium

Brand Personality:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 25 Brand Personality

Brand Personality Framework:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 26 Brand Personality Framework

Brand Personality:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 27 Brand Personality

Brand Personality:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 28 Brand Personality

Product Personality Issues:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 29 Product Personality Issues Gender Often used for brand personalities Some product perceived as masculine while others as feminine Geography Actual locations like Banarasi Saree and Karachi Halwa Fictitious names also used such as Hidden Valley and Church Gate Color Color combinations in packaging and products denotes personality

Colour of Personality:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 30 Colour of Personality

Personality Associations of Colors:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 31 Personality Associations of Colors BLUE Commands respect, authority IBM holds the title to blue Men seek products packaged in blue Houses painted blue are avoided Low-calorie, skim milk RED Human, exciting, hot, passionate, strong Makes food “smell” better Coca-Cola “owns” red YELLOW Caution, novelty, temporary, warmth Eyes register it faster Sells a house

Personality Associations of Colors:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 32 Personality Associations of Colors ORANGE Powerful, affordable, informal Draws attention quickly WHITE Goodness, purity, chastity, cleanliness, delicacy, refinement, formality Suggests reduced calories Pure and wholesome food Clean, bath products, feminine GREEN Secure, natural, relaxed or easy- going, living things Good work environment Associated with vegetables

Personality Associations of Colors:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 33 Personality Associations of Colors Brown Informal and relaxed, masculine, nature Coffee in a dark-brown can was “too strong” SILVER / GOLD Regal, wealthy, stately Suggests premium price BLACK Sophistication, power, authority Powerful clothing High-tech electronics

Self and Self-Image:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 34 Self and Self-Image Consumers have a variety of enduring images of themselves These images are associated with personality Individuals consumption relates to self-image

Self Image:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 35 Self Image

Marketing Concept:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 36 Marketing Concept One or multiple selves Makeup of the self-image Extended self Altering the self- image Same consumer acts differently in different situations or with different people People have a variety of social roles Marketers can target products to a particular “self”

Different Situations Different Products:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 37 Different Situations Different Products

Marketing Concept:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 38 Marketing Concept One or multiple selves Makeup of the self -image Extended self Altering the self- image Contains traits, skills, habits, possessions, relationships and way of behavior Developed through background, experience and interaction with others Consumers select products congruent with their image

Enhancing Product Image:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 39 Enhancing Product Image

Marketing Concept:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 40 Marketing Concept One or multiple selves Makeup of the self-image Extended self Altering the self- image Possessions can extend self in a number of ways: Actually Symbolically Conferring status or rank Bestowing feelings of immortality Endowing with magical powers

Product as an Extended Self:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 41 Product as an Extended Self

Marketing Concept:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 42 Marketing Concept One or multiple selves Makeup of the self-image Extended self Altering the self -image Consumers use self-altering products to express individualism by Creating new self Maintaining the existing self Extending the self Conforming

Altering Self Image:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 43 Altering Self Image

Bibliography:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 44 Bibliography Lindquist, Jay D. and Sirgy, M Joseph. Consumer Behaviour . New Delhi: Cenage Learning India Private Limited, 2009. Hawkins, Del I., Best, Roger J., Coney, Kenneth A. and Mookerjee, Amit. Consumer Behaviour: Building Marketing Strategy . Ninth Edition New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 2007. Schiffman, Leon G. and Kanuk, Leslie L. Consumer Behaviour . Ninth Edition. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. Licenses of Pearson Education in South Asia, 2009. Loudon, David L. and Della Britta, Albert J. Consumer Behaviour . Fourth Edition. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 2002. Assael, Henry. Consumer Behaviour: A Strategic Approach . New Delhi: Biztantra, An Imprint of Dreamtech Press. By arrangement with Houghton Mifflin Co., USA, 2009. Khan, Martin. Consumer Behaviour . Second Edition. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Limited, 2004. Nair, Suja R. Consumer Behaviour in Indian Perspective . Mumbai: Himalya Publishing House, 2007. Kumar, S Ramesh. Consumer Behaviour and Branding : Concepts Reading and Cases. Noida: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. Licenses of Pearson Education in South Asia, 2009. Gupta, S.L. and Pal Sumitra. Consumer Behaviour: An Indian Perspective . New Delhi: Sultan Chand & Sons, 2001. Datta, Debraj and Datta Mahua. Consumer Behaviour & Advertising Management . Delhi: Vrinda Publications (P) Ltd., 2009. Acknowledgements: for images and advertisement frames. Sahara India, Cadbury India, Pepsi, HUL, Project Tiger, Bacardi, Nokia India, Nerolac, Sony India realbollywood.com, beaconhillacademy.org, leftwingconspiracy.com, anunews.net

For further details / comments:

© Copyright 2010 Anupam Kumar 45 For further details / comments Contact: Anupam Kumar Reader, SMS Varanasi Email: anupamkr@gmail.com