mining methods

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Presentation Transcript

PlotMaker : 

PlotMaker Mining Methods Blackout day presentation - 5th December 2008 VENKAT M. Team Lead – Minex, INDIA

Slide 3: 

Mining Methods Coal is mined by two main methods - surface or ‘opencast’ mining and ‘underground’ mining. The choice of method is largely determined by the depth, geology of the coal deposit and other factors. The majority of the world's coal production is coming from Opencast mines. This scenario is same in India also.

Slide 4: 

Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing Drill machines (rotary/percussive) | SMS, emulsion, Primer, Nonel, etc | Shovels, Draglines, etc | Front-end loader, etc | Dumpers, Conveyors, etc | Coal washeries… OPENCAST

Slide 5: 

Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing DRAG LINE OPENCAST

Slide 6: 

Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing SURFACE MINER OPENCAST

Slide 7: 

Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing IN-PIT CRUSHING & CONVEYING OPENCAST

Slide 8: 

Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing Coal drill | Permitted explosives | Manual/ SDL/ LHD/Scraper | Manual/ SDL/ LHD/Scraper | Tubs, Conveyors, etc | Coal washeries… UNDERGROUND Supporting Ventilation Pumping

Slide 9: 

Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing ROAD HEADERS CONTINUOUS MINERS UNDERGROUND

Slide 10: 

Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing SDL/ LHD/ SCRAPER UNDERGROUND

Slide 11: 

Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing LONGWALL UNDERGROUND

Slide 12: 

Selection of Mining Equipment Stripping Ratio – in case of Opencast. Life of the mine Infrastructure available Proposed annual output Technology available

Slide 13: 

OPENCAST MINING

Slide 14: 

Different OC Machinery Shovel + Dumper Dragline Surface Miner Bucket Wheel Excavator In-pit crushing + Spreader

Schematic diagram of Opencast : 

Schematic diagram of Opencast

Heavy blasting in open cast benches : 

Heavy blasting in open cast benches

Slide 17: 

Shovel + Dumper Multi seam extraction More flexibility Can work in steep gradients upto 1 in 5

Slide 18: 

Shovel + Dumper

Rope Shovel and Dumper : 

Rope Shovel and Dumper

Hydraulic Shovel and Dumper : 

Hydraulic Shovel and Dumper

Slide 21: 

Surface Miner Selective mining. Particularly suitable for coal having compressive strength below 250 kg/cm2. Suitable in gradient of 1 in 10 and flatter.

Slide 22: 

Surface Miner

Slide 23: 

Surface Miner

Slide 24: 

Bucket wheel excavator Used mainly for lignite extraction. Particularly suitable for coal having low compressive strength upto 100 kg/cm2.

Slide 25: 

Bucket wheel excavator

Slide 32: 

DRAGLINE Gradients flatter than 1 in 6. Seams should be free of faults & other geological disturbances. Deposits with Major Strike length. A hilly property is not suitable. Deposit should have atleast 15 years life.

Slide 33: 

DRAGLINE

Giant Dragline bucket : 

Giant Dragline bucket

In-pit crusher conveyor technology : 

In-pit crusher conveyor technology

In-pit crusher conveyor technology : 

In-pit crusher conveyor technology

In-pit crusher conveyor technology : 

In-pit crusher conveyor technology

Slide 39: 

UNDERGROUND MINING

Incline entry into a seam. : 

Incline entry into a seam.

Entry through a shaft : 

Entry through a shaft

Entry through a shaft : 

Entry through a shaft

Man riding systems in the mines : 

Man riding systems in the mines

A well supported underground roadway : 

A well supported underground roadway

Coal train - 1919, Pennsylvania : 

Coal train - 1919, Pennsylvania

Drilling operation in the coal face : 

Drilling operation in the coal face

MANUAL COAL LOADING : 

MANUAL COAL LOADING

LOAD HAUL DUMPER : 

LOAD HAUL DUMPER Capacity – 2/2.7 Cu.M Production – 150/200 Tonnes/day For seams of 1 in 6 gradient and flatter Thickness of 2.0 m to 4.0 m

SIDE DUMP LOADER : 

SIDE DUMP LOADER Capacity – 1.0 Cu.M Production – 120 Tonnes/day For seams of 1 in 5 gradient and flatter Thickness of 2.0 m to 3.5 m

MECHANISED DRIVAGE MACHINES : 

MECHANISED DRIVAGE MACHINES Rate of drivage –6 meters/day Production –150 Tonnes/day For seams of 1 in 4 gradient and flatter Thickness of 2.0 m to 4.0 m

Continuous Miner : 

Continuous Miner Rate of drivage –50 meters/day Production –1500 Tonnes/day For seams of 1 in 5 gradient and flatter Thickness of 3.0 m to 4.0 m

Mechanised Roof Bolter : 

Mechanised Roof Bolter Bolting -240 bolts/day For seams of 1 in 5 gradient and flatter Thickness of 2.0 m to 5.0 m

Slide 53: 

Direction of retreat FACE Bottom Gate TOP Gate LONGWALL GENERAL LAYOUT Dip direction Longwall mining method includes drivage of two long roadways in coal and joining them at the end by a perpendicular drivage forming a face.

LONGWALL MINING : 

LONGWALL MINING

SHEARER WORKING AT LONGWALL FACE : 

SHEARER WORKING AT LONGWALL FACE

Slide 56: 

SHEARER WORKING AT LONGWALL FACE

POWERED ROOF SUPPORT AT LONGWALL FACE : 

POWERED ROOF SUPPORT AT LONGWALL FACE

LONGWALL MAIN GATE : 

LONGWALL MAIN GATE

Slide 59: 

NEW CONCEPTS (Going to be implemented in INDIA)

Slide 60: 

Highwall Mining Trench Mining Bench Mining

Slide 61: 

Highwall Mining

Slide 62: 

Highwall Mining

Slide 63: 

Punch Longwall

Slide 64: 

Advantages Step change in cost and productivity More production capacity High productivity & low cost Longer term and higher % of reserves extraction Easy logistics – near surface High gate road development rates feasible Higher and faster returns on investment Total investment ~ $100 million – compared with > $300 millions UG Punch Longwall

Slide 65: 

Punch Longwall

Slide 66: 

Punch Longwall

Erection of Arches : 

Erection of Arches

Erection of Arches : 

Erection of Arches

Meshing & Lagging with special sleepers : 

Meshing & Lagging with special sleepers

Slide 71: 

Punch Longwall

Slide 72: 

Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC)

Slide 73: 

Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC)

PED schematic operation : 

PC for entering messages. PED Receivers can be: BeltPED Personal Receiver (shown) AutoPED Vehicle Receiver ControlPED for Equipment Switching BlastPED for Remote Blast Initiation Modulator Transmitter Link Data Link Antenna (Surface or Underground) Ultra Low Frequency Transmission Through Rock PED schematic operation

PED receiver cap lamps : 

PED receiver cap lamps

Questions… Please : 

Questions… Please

Slide 78: 

Thank you VENKAT M. TL-Minex-INDIA