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Approach Methodology Individual tool contribution Project management performance Contribution of PRM process Practical implications Conclusions ReferencesIntroduction: Introduction Risk management - one of the main areas of the P M Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) - Project Management Institute project risk management (PRM)- a process that accompanies the project from its definition through its planning, execution and con-trol phases up to its completion and closure.Intro….: Intro…. Numerous Phases option among the different stages of project. Identify risk factors Assess risk probabilities and effects Develop strategies to mitigate identified risks Monitor risk factors Invoke a contingency plan; Manage the crisis Recover from the crisis.intro: intro Risks encountered @ Software Industries Identification Analysis Response planning Tracking and controlProblem Definitions????: Problem Definitions???? A question of major relevance to any individual or organization considering the adoption or improvement of a PRM process is: which tools can provide the greatest benefits?Approach: Approach surveying a sample of project managers in order to find out which tools are widely used tools - project management and effective project risk managementMethodology: Methodology Questionnaire - personally or via e-mail to about 400 project managers from the software and high-tech sectors in Israel during April through June 1998. questionnaire consisted of three main sections a number of brief questions to be answered on a 0±5 scale.Methodology……cont’d: Methodology……cont’d First section - E xtent of the contribution of individual PRM tools to the project success in general Objective - identify the tools that were perceived as being the most valuable by the respondents . Second section - Effectiveness and efficiency of the manner in which projects are managed in the respondent's organization Objective - investigate whether there is a relationship between the use of PRM tools and the level of performance of the project management process .Methodology……cont’d: Methodology……cont’d Third section - Contribution of a risk management process to overall project success Objective - learn about the differences in PRM tool usage between those project managers who believe that risk management is a valuable process, and those who do notIndividual tool contribution: Individual tool contribution 38 tools have been finalised Tools were grouped according to the five stages of the Software Engineering Institute Risk Management process Sixth group is also added for tools, processes and practices of a general nature “background” Objective - Affect the manner in which risks are managed without being specifically related to one of the five stages in the PRM cycleIndividual tool contribution….cont’d: Individual tool contribution….cont’d Respondents - Rate indicates the contribution of each tool to the PRM process by a value between 0 (no contribution at all) to 5 (critical contribution) Results for the 38 tools, divided into the six groupsIndividual tool contribution….cont’d: Individual tool contribution….cont’d Out of the ten tools that received the highest mean score, five @ `Background ' group,tools in this group received scores above the overall average of 2.72 Indicates risk management is related to other management practices Requirements management Subcontractor management Configuration controlIndividual tool contribution….cont’d: Individual tool contribution….cont’d During the execution of the project, managers are likely to neglect the risk control phase Risk control tools are used sporadically or not at all, and their contribution is rated as lowProject management performance: Project management performance Six questions designed to represent the manner in which projects were managed at the respondent's organization Two complementary aspects of project management: efficiency and effectiveness Respondents @ indicate the extent to which the projects they manage exhibit the characteristics listedPMP Questions…..: PMP Questions…..Project management performance…cont’d: Project management performance…cont’d Project Management Performance (PMP) index as the average of the scores over the six items Plot the PMP index against total tool score. Each observation corresponds to one respondent. Positive relationship between the extent of tool use and the PMP scorePMP Index VS Total tool score: PMP Index VS Total tool scoreProject management performance…cont’d: Project management performance…cont’d Co-efficient of correlation = 0.36 0.36 at a level of significance of 0.0008. Suggests that respondents who come from environments conducive to better project management performance are more likely to assign higher scores to project risk management tools.Project management performance…cont’d: Project management performance…cont’d Exploring the relationship between individual tool scores and the PMP score 84 respondents are divided into two sets, based on their PMP index value. LOW set (43 respondents with PMP below 3) HIGH set (41 respondents with PMP above 3)Project management performance…cont’d: Project management performance…cont’d Using 0.05 as the threshold for rejecting the null hypothesis, highlighted with a star (*) the tools in which there is a statistically significant difference in score between the LOW and the HIGH populations Background groups - link between the organization-wide application of practices Simulation (T30) Subcontractor Management (T33) Quality Management (T36) Train ing (T37) Customer Satisfaction Surveys (T38) Effective and efficient environment for managing projects.Project management performance…cont’d: Project management performance…cont’d Analysis group - more extensive use of risk analysis tools is associated with better project management practice. Risk Probability Assessment (T5) Risk Impact Assessment (T6) Risk Classification (T8) Ranking of Risks (T9)Contribution of PRM proces: Contribution of PRM procesRMC Index vs Average tool score: RMC Index vs Average tool scoreContribution of PRM proces…cont’d: Contribution of PRM proces …cont’d Defined a composite index, Risk Management Contribution (RMC) Strong positive relationship, with the co- efficient of correlation equal to 0.67 at a level of significance of 0.0001 Respondents - value of the risk management process as a contributor to overall project success are more likely to apply the tools in the listContribution of PRM proces…cont’d: Contribution of PRM proces …cont’d 84 respondents- 2 sets, based on their RMC index value and threshold value was 3.5 LOW set HIGH set both of equal size (42)Contribution of PRM proces…cont’d: Contribution of PRM proces …cont’d As for the Planning group-significant differences in three of the less commonly used tools: Cost±Bene®t Analysis (T14), Cause and Effect Analysis (T15) and Project Replanning for Risk Mitigation (T16).Practical implications: Practical implicationsPractical implications…cont’d: Practical implications…cont’d Objective - to identify the tools that have the greatest potential for contribution to a project risk management process Adopt the tools for performing project management practices (PMP=HIGH) (or) Practitioners who already have a good risk management process (RMC=HIGH)Practical implications…cont’d: Practical implications…cont’d These two types of results, the ranking in Table 1 and the selected tools in Table 6, can also serve for diagnostic purposes Possible to identify areas of in sufficient coverage and to devise a course of action that will enhance the project risk management capabilities in the organizationConclusion: Conclusion Approach - extended to other aspects of the risk management process, such as assignment of roles and responsibilities, timing and frequency of risk management activities, and amount of effort applied Applied to other processes related to project management, and, as the benchmarking proponents advocate, to many aspects of the organizationReferences: References Boehm BW. Software risk management: principles and practices. IEEE Software 1991;8:32±41 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V9V-41HHNG4-2&_user=450750&_coverDate=01/31/2001&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000021538&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=450750&md5=368ed4ff5553dc178269c974e18e7ebd&searchtype=a You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.