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A presentation on Organizational Change Model:

A presentation on Organizational Change Model By K.Venkateswara Raju MBA HR(ICFAI)

What is change??????:

What is change?????? Change is the law of nature . It is necessary way of life in most organizations for their survival and growth. Man has to mould himself continuously to meet new demand and face new situations. Then the question arise what is the organizational change ? The term ‘Organizational Change’ implies the creation of imbalance in the existence pattern or situation and is a process of moving from the present state to a desired state

Reason for the Change:

Reason for the Change Change in the organization is a must whether brought about deliberately or unwillingly. The reason for change are categorized as follows, change in business conditions, change in managerial personnel, deficiency in existing organizational patterns, technological and psychological reasons, government policies, size of the organization.

Models of change:

Models of change Although there are a lots of change models and theories have been formulated by various experts and management gurus but here we will give a glance on few models of change The Models have been categorised depending upon their nature of change,analysis and treatment into three groups. (a) Process-based models (b) Content-based models (c) Integrated models

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Process models focus on the actual steps-the ‘how’ of organisational change process.These models deal with the sequence of steps involved in bringing about change in an organisation . Content based models focus on the substance of the changes in an organisation like understanding and analysing change,attempts to identify system and effectiveness variables in the organisation that affect its state of equilibrium. Integrated models focus both on the content and process. At first we will discuss about Lewin’s Three Step Change Model

Lewin’s Three Step Change Model:

Lewin’s Three Step Change Model Most theories of organizational change originated from the landmark work of social psychologist Kurt Lewin. Lewin developed a three ‑ stage model of planned change which explained how to initiate, manage, and stabilize the change process. The three stages are unfreezing, changing, and refreezing .

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Let us now consider the three stages of change . Unfreezing - The focus of this stage is to create the motivation to change. In so doing, individuals are encouraged to replace old behaviors and attitudes with those desired by management. Managers can begin the unfreezing process by disconfirming the usefulness or appropriateness of employees' present behaviors or attitudes.

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Changing : Because change involves learning, this stage entails providing employees with new information, new behavioral models, or new ways of looking at things. The purpose is to help employees learn new concepts or points of view. Role models, mentors, experts, benchmarking the company against world‑class organizations, and training are useful mechanisms to facilitate change

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Refreezing Change is stabilized during refreezing by helping employees integrate the changed behavior or attitude into their normal way of doing things. This is accomplished by first giving employees the chance to exhibit the new behaviors or attitudes. Once exhibited, positive reinforcement is used to reinforce the desired. Additional coaching and modeling also are used at this point to reinforce the stability of the change.

Edgar Huse’s seven stage Model of Change:

Edgar Huse’s seven stage Model of Change In 1980, Edgar Huse proposed a seven-stage OD model based upon the original three-stage model of Lewin. Scouting - Where representatives from the organization meet with the OD consultant to identify and discuss the need for change. The change agent and client jointly explore issues to elicit the problems in need of attention . Entry - This stage involves the development of, and mutual agreement upon, both business and psychological contracts. Expectations of the change process are also established.

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3. Diagnosis - Here, the consultant diagnoses the underlying organizational problems based upon their previous knowledge and training. This stage involves the identification of specific improvement goals and a planned intervention strategy. 4. Planning - A detailed series of intervention techniques and actions are brought together into a timetable or project plan for the change process. This step also involves the identification of areas of resistance from employees and steps possible to counteract it.

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5. Action - The intervention is carried out according to the agreed plans. Previously established action steps are implemented. 6. Stabilization & Evaluation - The stage of 'refreezing' the system. Newly implemented codes of action, practices and systems are absorbed into everyday routines. Evaluation is conducted to determine the success of the change process and any need for further action is established. 7. Termination - The OD consultant or change agent leaves the organization and moves on to another client or begins an entirely different project within the same organization.

Schein’s Model of change:

Stages of the change process Stage 1. Unfreezing: Creating the motivation to change Disconfirmation Creation of survival anxiety or guilt Creation of psychological safety to overcome learning anxiety Stage 2. Changing: Learning new concepts, new meanings, and new standards Imitation of and identification with role models Scanning for solutions and trial-and-error learning Stage 3. Refreezing: Internalizing new concepts, meanings, and standards Incorporating into self-concept and identity Incorporating into ongoing relationships and groups Schein’s Model of change

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Unfreezing - The most difficult and important stage (1) the present state is somehow disconfirmed; (2) some anxiety or guilt is aroused because some goals will not be met or standards or ideals will not be maintained; (3) enough ‘‘psychological safety’’ is provided to make it unnecessary for the target individuals or groups to psychologically defend themselves because the disconfirming information is too threatening or the anxiety or guilt is too high. Cognitive Redefinition - By what means does a motivated learner learn something new when we are dealing with thought processes, feelings, values, and attitudes? It occurs by taking in new information that has one or more of the following impacts: 1) semantic redefintion--we learn that words can mean something different from what we had assumed; 2) cognitive broadening--we learn that a given concept can be much more broadly interpreted than what we had assumed 3) new standards of iudgment or evaluation--we learn that the anchors we used for judgment and comparison are not absolute, and if we use a different anchor our scale of judgment shifts. Imitation and Positive or Defensive Identification with a Role Model Cognitive re-definition occurs when the learner has become unfrozen,i.e. motivated to change, and has, therefore opened him or herself up to new information. The next question to address, then, is how the new information comes to the learner. The most basic mechanism of acquiring new information that leads to cognitive restructuring is to discover in a conversational process that the interpretation that someone else puts on a concept is different from one's own. If one is motivated to change, i.e. if the factors described above have been operating, one may be able to "hear" or "see" something from a new perspective. The best examples come from what has colloquially been labeled brainwashing. Scanning: Insight or Trial and Error Learning A learner or change target can be highly motivated to learn something,yet have no role models nor initial feeling for where the answer or solution might lie. The learner then searches or scans by reading, traveling, talking to people, hiring consultants, entering therapy, going back to school, etc. to expose him or herself to a variety of new information that might reveal a solution to the problem. Personal and Relational Refreezing The main point about refreezing is that new behavior must be to some degree congruent with the rest of the behavior and personality of the learner or it will simply set off new rounds of disconfirmation that often lead to unlearning the very thing one has learned.

John P Kotter's 'eight steps to successful change':

John P Kotter's 'eight steps to successful change' Kotter's eight step change model can be summarised as: Increase urgency - inspire people to move, make objectives real and relevant. Build the guiding team - get the right people in place with the right emotional commitment, and the right mix of skills and levels. Get the vision right - get the team to establish a simple vision and strategy, focus on emotional and creative aspects necessary to drive service and efficiency.

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Communicate for buy-in - Involve as many people as possible, communicate the essentials, simply, and to appeal and respond to people's needs. De-clutter communications - make technology work for you rather than against. Empower action - Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lots of support from leaders - reward and recognise progress and achievements. Create short-term wins - Set aims that are easy to achieve - in bite-size chunks. Manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current stages before starting new ones.

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7. Don't let up - Foster and encourage determination and persistence - ongoing change - encourage ongoing progress reporting - highlight achieved and future milestones. 8. Make change stick - Reinforce the value of successful change via recruitment, promotion, new change leaders. Weave change into culture.

Bullock and Batten’s Integrative Model for Planned Change:

Bullock and Batten’s Integrative Model for Planned Change Analyzed over 30 models of change management and arrived at their own 4-phase model The model progresses as follows: Exploration phase - The organization has to make decision on the need for change: · Explore and decide on the need for change · Identify what changes are required · Identify resources required

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Planning phase - Understanding the problem: Diagnosis of the problem Clarify goals and objectives Identify specific activities required to undertake change Agree changes with stakeholders Identify supports required to enable change to occur Action phase-Changes identified,agreed& implemented: Support for change is explicit Changes are monitored and evaluated Results are communicated and acted upon Adjustments and refinements are made where necessary

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Integration phase - Stabilising and embedding change: Changes supported and reinforced Results and outcomes from change communicated throughout the organization Continuous development of employees through training, education Ongoing monitoring and evaluation

Action Research Model :

Action Research Model Assuming that planned change is a cyclical process,this model proposes that organizations,in order to change,need to undertake research initially so as to have adequate information that may guide their future action.The results of the action are then assessed to provide information to guide further action and this cycle is repeated as an ongoing process.The eight steps elaborated by Cummings and Huse(1989) under this model are: Problem Identification: At this stage,a key executive senses the existence of problems that can be alleviated with the help of an organization development(OD) Practitioner. Consultant with An Expert: Once the problem(s) has been sensed,it is understood that there is a solution to such problem(s),the help of an OD expert is sought.

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Data Gathering and Preliminary Diagnosis: Using various tools such as interviews,questionnaires,organizational performance analysis,data is gathered by the OD consultant.The consultant works in collaboration with organizational members. Feedback: The gathered data is passed on to the key client /group to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the area under study,with the consultant providing the client all relevant and useful data. Joint Diagnosis of the problem: After discussing the feedback,the group focuses on additional relevant research that might be required.The results of this additional research are then summarized and submitted to the group again so that they are validated for further diagnoses and identification of problem(s).

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Joint Action Planning: The consultant and the management team jointly agree on problem-solving methods.Depending upon the cultural,technological and work environment,specific courses of action are taken in order to solve the problem(s).At this stage,the time and cost of the intervention is also taken into consideration. Action: This is the stage at which the actual change from its present state to its desired state takes place and may involve installation of new methos and procedures,reorganizing structures and work designs,or reinforcing new behavior. Data Gathering After Action: New data is gathered again so as to determine the amount of change that has taken place vis-à-vis the effects of the action.This affirms the cyclical nature of the process.Further feedback is sought and based onthis;situations are re-diagnosed and new action taken.

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The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change Change First order change (Transactional change) Second order change (Transformational change) OD interventions directed towards structure, management practices, and systems (policies & procedures) result in first order change. OD interventions directed towards mission and strategy, leadership, and organization culture result in second order change. Warner Burke

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Diagnosis – The Six-Box Model Leadership Purposes Relationships Helpful Mechanisms Rewards Structure Environment Weisbord identifies six critical areas where things must go right if organisation is to be successful. According to him, the consultant must attend to both formal and informal aspects of each box. This model is still widely used by OD practitioners Marvin Weisbord

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The Circle encompassing the boxes represents external environment.According to Weisbord,its important to understand both the formal system(the structure)and the informal system(the culture).All the six boxes have an informal and formal aspect to them. For Example ,the structure may be represented formally using an organisational chart of authority and accountability and network that may be the informal aspect of the structure.Similarly authority could be formal as shown in the organisation chart or could be in the form of unwritten rules. Weisbord emphasised the importance of the gap between the formal and informal and called for action to reduce the gap(this action represents the process side).

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Each box in this model is meant to ask questions to diagnose the gap. Purposes – What is the degree of clarity in the organisational members’ minds regarding the organisation’s mission?What is the extent of support by them for the organisation’s mission? Relationships - Weisbord discussed relationships in three fold;between individuals,between and among departments,units andgroups,and between the person vis a vis his job.He stressed on the quality of these relationships,which are essential for managing and dealing with conflict. Structure - This deals with the adequacy and fitment of the internal structure with the organisation’s mission. Helpful mechanisms - The idea behind this is to find out what are the processes or procedures in the organisation that help organisational members in doing their work and which are the one’s that block their work? Rewards - Is there a gap between the organisation’s formal rewards and punishments and the belief of organisational members actually being rewarded or punished for? Leadership - The Leaders main responsibility is to overlook and supervise the effective functioning of all boxes and to maitain a balance among them

The Managing Change Model:

The Managing Change Model

Any Questions??? :

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