data collection method

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Presentation On Methods Of Data Collection & Their Advantages And Disadvantages Submitted To : Dr. Anil Goray Sir Submitted By : Karmveer Singh Kushwah (TA-2K10-17) 17/10/11 Shalini Choudhary (TA-2K10-36) Ruchi Gupta(TA-2K10-34) Mohneet Das Mahant (TA-2K10-19) Ram Krishna Lowansi (TA-2K10-30) Anuya Jhawar (TA-2K10-05) 1 INTERNATION INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES

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Searching For Data ?

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Data are special type of information, generally obtained through observation, surveys, enquiries, or are generated as a result of human activity. DATA:

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PRIMARY DATA : Are those which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character and known as Primary data. 2 ) SECONDARY DATA : Are those which have been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process are known as Secondary data. TYPES OF DATA :

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Various methods of collecting data are employed by social scientists. Here we will discuss the varied dimensions relevant to : data generation and attempt to arrive at an abstract typology involving stimuli, responses and setting for data collection. The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and research design /plan chalked out. INTRODUCTION :

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There are several methods of collecting primary data, particularly in surveys and descriptive researches. In descriptive research, we obtain primary data either through observation or through direct communication with respondents in one form or another or through personal interviews. COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA :

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These are already available i.e. they refer to the data which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else. Secondary data may either be published or unpublished data. Researcher must be very careful in using secondary data, because the data available may be sometimes unsuitable. COLLECTION OF SECONDARY :


METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION OBSERVATIONAL METHOD : Observation method is a method under which data from the field is collected with the help of observation by the observer or by personally going to the field. Types of Observation : Structured and unstructured observation: Participant, quasi-participant and non-participant obs. Controlled and non-controlled observation:

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When the observation is characterized by a careful definition of the units to be observed, the manner of recording the observed information, standardized condition of observation and the selection of pertinent data of observation is called as structured observation. Greater control of sampling. Measurement of error. Permits stronger generalizations and checks on reliability and validity. This is more like a survey, where every respondent is asked the same set of questions. But in this case, questions are not asked. Instead, particular types of behavior are looked for and counted. Structured Observation:

Unstructured Observation: :

Unstructured Observation: Early phase of the research May become specific to when and where to observe, what specific aspects of the setting or behavior to observe, and how to make and record observations. How to do unstructured observation : Take a note book and pen. Note down when you see something interesting. Write down theories as you form them. Dont jump to conclusions straight away Look for more evidence. Ask people to confirm things.

Participant Observation: :

Participant Observation: This depend on degree of involvement of the researcher, the researcher who may be an outsider, while observing the group, also play the role of a group member. Observer participates actively, for an extended period of time. May require observer to live or work in that area Assumes that observer will become accepted member of the group or community. Historically field research has been associated most strongly with participant observation.

Quasi-participant Observation: :

Quasi-participant Observation: In the absence of any standard set of relationship or role patterns for the outsider who is always present and never participating, both the group and the outsider are likely to feel uncomfortable. In this the observer assumes several role. Sometimes he is a participant, at other time she is in the role of an interviewer , a stranger or a listener. Never the less, he makes clear to the group that his purpose is to gather facts.

Non-participant Observation: :

Non-participant Observation: In non participant observation, the researcher observe the group or community. While maintaining physical and psychological isolation from them. Observer is a nerves dropper. Someone who attempts to observe people without interacting with the without their knowledge that they are being observed. Use the most routinely by psychologists studying children and animals.

Controlled Observation: :

Controlled Observation: When observation take place according to a definite pre-arranged plan, involving experimental procedure. The observer’s bias is the crucial weakness. Various techniques can be used to remove this bias such as interaction –analysis techniques, simple testing, scoring devices etc. Controlled observations may be carried out both in natural and contrived situations and in either case those observed may or may not be aware of the observation.

Non-controlled observation: :

Non-controlled observation: When the researcher observes the behavior and activities of a group under natural condition without any stimulation from outside. The observer can easily check the correctness of his information as often as desired. Since the period of participation continues for months, the range of material collected is much wider than collected by any other method. An unobtrusive participant observerse cure success to m any new variables and processes.

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Advantages  Collect data where and when an event or activity is occurring  Does not rely on people’s willingness to provide information  Directly see what people do rather than relying on what they say they do Disadvantages :  Susceptible to observer bias  Hawthorne effect – people usually perform better when they know they are being observed.  Does not increase understanding of why people behave the way they do Observation method :

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This method of collecting data involves presentation or oral-verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses. There are different type of interviews as follows : Personal Interviews : The interviewer asks questions generally in a face to face contact to the other person or persons. B) Telephonic Interviews : When it is not possible to contact the respondent directly, then interview is conducted through –Telephone. 2) INTERVIEW METHOD:

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C) Structured interviews : In this case, a set of pre-decided questions are there. D) Unstructured interviews : In this case, we don’t follow a system of pre-determined questions. E) Focused interviews : Attention is focused on the given experience of the respondent and its possible effects. F) Clinical interviews : Concerned with broad underlying feelings or motivations or with the course of individual’s life experience, rather than with the effects of the specific experience, as in the case of focused interview.

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G) Group Interviews : A group of 6 to 8 individuals is interviewed. H) Qualitative And Quantitative Interviews : Divided on the basis of subject matter i.e. whether qualitative or quantitative. I) Individual Interviews : Interviewer meets a single person and interviews him. J) Selection Interviews : Done for the selection of people for certain jobs. K) Depth Interviews : It deliberately aims to elicit unconscious as well as other types of material relating especially to personality dynamics and motivations.

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Advantages :  Useful for gaining insight and context into a topic  Allows respondents to describe what is important to them  Useful for gathering quotes and stories Disadvantages :  Susceptible to interview bias  Time consuming and expensive compared to other data collection methods  May seem intrusive to the respondent Interviews

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This method of data collection is quite popular, particularly in case of big enquiries. The questionnaire is asked to respondents who are expected to read and understand the questions. And write down the reply in the space meant for the purpose in the questionnaire itself. The respondents have to answer the questions on their own. 3) QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD:


QUESTIONNAIRE : The communication method, in effect is the method of designing questionnaires with a view to collect the requisite information. The questionnaires can be classified into two main types: Structured questionnaire --- Disguised and non-disguised questionnaire Non-structured questionnaire --- Disguised and non-disguised questionnaire

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Open-ended questions: This types of questions gives the respondent complete freedom to decide the form, length detail of the answer Closed End questions: This type of questions the respondent is offered only to choices like yes or no, true or false, use or do not use. Multiple-choice questions: this types of questions the respondent is offered two or more choices. Types of questions

Designing A Questionnaire ::

Designing A Questionnaire : A researcher should be intended to collect the primary data has to be extremely careful in deciding : What information is to be collected ? What should be the order of questions ? How many questions are to be formulated ? What should be their sequence ? What should be wording of each question ? What should be the layout of the questionnaire ?

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Advantages :  Comparatively inexpensive and easy.  Reduces chance of biasness because the same questions are asked of all respondents.  Versatility.  Some people feel more comfortable responding to a survey than participating in an interview. Disadvantages :  Survey respondents may not complete the survey resulting in low response rates.  Size and diversity of sample will be limited by people’s ability to read.  Given lack of contact with respondent, never know who really completed the survey.  Unable to probe for additional details.  Good survey are time consuming. Questionnaires

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It is essentially an intensive investigation of the particular unit under consideration. Its important characteristics are as follows : the researcher can take one single social unit or more of such units for his study purpose. b) the selected unit is studied intensively i.e. it is studied in minute details. 5) CASE STUDY METHOD :

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Advantages :  Fully depicts people’s experience in program input, process, and results.  Powerful way of portraying program to outsiders. Disadvantages :  Usually quite time consuming to collect information, organize and analyze it.  Represents depth of information rather than breadth. Case Studies

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One of the common methods of diagnosing and solving of social problems is that of undertaking surveys. Festinger and Kat of the opinion that, “Many research problems require systematic collection of data from population through the use of personal interviews or other data gathering devices 6) SURVEY METHOD :

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It is one of the important methods for the study of social problems. In the words of Thomas Carson Macormic , “The schedule is nothing more than a list of questions which it seems necessary to test the hypothesis .” 4) SCHEDULE METHOD:

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In this method, data is collected from the same sample respondents at the some interval either by mail or by personal interview. This is used for studies on : Expenditure Pattern 2) Consumer Behaviour 3) Effectiveness of Advertising 4) Voting Behaviour and so on 7) PANEL METHOD :

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BIBLIOGRAPHY : Book - Marketing research G C Beri Book- Shiv kumar , A.P , Management Research Methodology www.

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