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Bio-mass, Eco-innovation

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European policies on biofuels, good practices, trends and beyond : Eco-innovations : 

European policies on biofuels, good practices, trends and beyond : Eco-innovations Regional Conference – Green Energy Alternatives Belgrade, 25-26/11/2008

“The Green Paper” : 

“The Green Paper” The Green Paper “A European Strategy for Sustainable Competitive and Secure Energy“ defines six priority areas: Competitiveness and the internal energy market. Diversification of the energy mix. Solidarity. Sustainable development. Innovation and technology. External policy.

Reasons to promote Biofuels 1/5 : 

Reasons to promote Biofuels 1/5 1. Security of Supply 2. Tackle Climate Change 3. Improve air quality 4. New markets for rural areas

Reasons to promote Biofuels 2/5 : 

Reasons to promote Biofuels 2/5 1. Security of Supply (replace oil imports): Today EU Energy consumption is 1725 Mtep with a monetary value of 480 Billions EUR. The level of energy dependence of the European Union in 2000 was about 50%, this dependence on imported energy will increase to up to 66% by 2030. 98% of the road transport market depends on oil, which is equivalent to 67% of oil demand.

Reasons to promote Biofuels 3/5 : 

Reasons to promote Biofuels 3/5 1. Tackle Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005. The European Union committed itself under this Protocol to reducing its emissions of greenhouse gases during the period 2008-2012 by 8% in relation to 1990 levels. Greenhouse emissions have decreased in EU 15 1.7% in relation to 1990 levels. However the trends indicate an increase from now to 2030.

Reasons to promote Biofuels 4/5 : 

Reasons to promote Biofuels 4/5 EU25 - CO2 emissions in the European Union (in Mt CO2)

Reasons to promote Biofuels 5/5 : 

Reasons to promote Biofuels 5/5 1. Improve air quality Communication from the Commission to the Council and the Parliament on Thematic Strategy on air pollution COM(2005) 446 final; Communication from the Commission to the Council and the Parliament on Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment COM(2005) 718 final. 6. New markets for rural areas Reform of Common Agricultural Policy in 2003.

European Policy on Biofuels: Communications 1/4 : 

European Policy on Biofuels: Communications 1/4 A. Main Communications: 1. Communication from the Commission on 7 November 2001 (COM (2001) 547 final) on alternative fuels for road transport and on a set of measures to promote the use of biofuels. 3. Communication from the Commission on 7 December 2005 COM (2005) 628/4 “Biomass Action Plan”. 5. Communication from the Commission on 8 February 2006 COM(2006) 34 final “An EU Strategy for Biofuels”.

European Policy on Biofuels:Communications 2/4 : 

European Policy on Biofuels:Communications 2/4 1. Communication from the Commission on 7 November 2001 on alternative motor fuels:

European Policy on Biofuels:Communications 3/4 : 

European Policy on Biofuels:Communications 3/4 1. Communication from the Commission on 7 December 2005 “Biomass Action Plan”: This communication has among other objectives to: – Double the use of biomass from now (4% of EU consummation) to 8% in 2010. – Develop political instruments and technologies to prepare the ground for the next stage up to 2020. The Biomass Action Plan announces more than 30 actions. They include the promotion of “biofuels obligations”. The Plan includes reviews of how fuel standards could be improved to encourage the use of biomass for transport.

European Policy on Biofuels: Legislation 1/4 : 

European Policy on Biofuels: Legislation 1/4 A. Directives: 1. European Parliament and Council Directive 2003/30/EC of 8 May 2003 on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport. 2. Council Directive 2003/96/EC of 27 October 2003 restructuring the Community framework for the taxation of energy products and electricity. 3. Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of clean road transport vehicles. (Adopted by the Commission on 22 December2005).

European Policy on Biofuels: Legislation 2/4 : 

European Policy on Biofuels: Legislation 2/4 1. European Parliament and Council Directive 2003/30/ EC of 8 May 2003 on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport: This directive fixes as an indicative objective the replacement of the 2% of petrol or of diesel by substitute fuels in 2005 and of the 5,75% in 2010. In 2006 the Commission shall to draw up an evaluation report for the European Parliament and for the Council on the progress made in the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels in Member States.

European Policy on Biofuels: Legislation 3/4 : 

European Policy on Biofuels: Legislation 3/4 1. Council Directive 2003/96 /EC of 27 October 2003 restructuring the Community framework for the taxation of energy products and electricity Under Article 16 of this Directive, Member States can reduce taxes on biofuels or completely exempt them from taxes, without needing the Commission’s prior approval (on fiscal grounds), as long as they respect certain strict conditions.

European Policy on Biofuels: Legislation 4/4 : 

European Policy on Biofuels: Legislation 4/4 1. Proposal of Directive of the European Parliament and the Council on the promotion of clean road transport vehicles Member States shall ensure that a quota of 25% of the road transport vehicles with a technically permissible maximum laden weight of more than 3.5 tonnes, which are purchased or leased in a given year by public bodies and operators providing transport services under concession or permission from a public body, are clean vehicles (Article 3).

European Research on Biofuels Cities (FP6) : 

European Research on Biofuels Cities (FP6) A. European Projects in the field of Biofuels Cities: 1. BEST 2. BIOGASMAX 3. CAP-CEB Total cost of the 3 projects: 38 MEUR Total EC contribution: 18 MEUR

European Research 7th FrameworkProgramme 1/2 : 

European Research 7th FrameworkProgramme 1/2 The Commission’s objectives for the Seventh Framework Programme gives a high priority to biomass research, in particular: “Biomass for fuels, electricity, heating and cooling”, with the objective of developing and demonstrating a portfolio of technologies; “Smart energy networks”, including the integration of biomass installations into Electricity grids and feeding biogas and synthetic gas into the natural gas grid.

European Research 7th FrameworkProgramme 2/2 : 

European Research 7th FrameworkProgramme 2/2 Some of the most important areas of work will be: the development of an industry-led “biofuel technology platform”; the “bio-refinery” concept, getting the most out of all parts of plants; research into second-generation biofuels, where a substantial increase in Community funding is expected.

BIOGASMAX 1/4 : 

BIOGASMAX 1/4 The European Biogasmax project creates a network of biogas-related demonstrations on the European territory with the aim of sharing experiences in terms of best practices in managing urban transportation. The objective of the BIOGASMAX project is to address urban challenges related to air and water pollution, as well as waste management. To this end, it uses a virtuous cycle in which biogas is produced from various types of urban waste that must be managed.

BIOGASMAX 2/4 : 

BIOGASMAX 2/4 During the process, BIOGASMAX focuses on monitoring the economic and environmental impact in order to produce fuel for transport that does not harm the environment. The research and development projects carried out in the context of BIOGASMAX are closely tied to the following four main fields of technological activities: Production of biogas from various types of waste; Upgrading of biogas to a high-quality fuel; Distribution for transport and injection into natural gas grids; Use in vehicles to increase the number of biomethane-fueled vehicles.

BIOGASMAX 3/4 : 

BIOGASMAX 3/4

BIOGASMAX 4/4 : 

BIOGASMAX 4/4

BIOGASMAX - Strategy & Stakes : 

BIOGASMAX - Strategy & Stakes From waste to clean fuel Biogas production is a natural process Efficient reduction of greenhouse gases Biomethane has a very wide range of biomass feedstock Sustainable waste treatment and Agriculture Biomethane – an energy efficient fuel Biomethane can reduce dependence on oil and secure energy supply

Biogas lifecycle : 

Biogas lifecycle

Eco-innovation : 

Eco-innovation The principle goals of eco-innovations are to move from ecological uncertainty – to harmony with nature, and from market failures - to a new system Economy Environmental protection means the precautionary protection of services of nature Massive extraction and use of natural resources – including fossil energy carriers – forces the services of nature to adjust the change

Eco-innovation : 

Eco-innovation Global extraction of natural resource is steadily increasing The European economy is increasingly dependent on resource imports from other parts of the world On average a European consumes per year around three times the amount of resources of a citizen in the emerging countries The Eu is the world region that outsources the biggest part of resource extraction The rapidly increasing demand for resources has lead to an unprecedented boost in resources prices World reserves in fossil fuels and metals are unevenly distributed across the world regions “Critical metals” will affect the European economy more subtle, but further-reaching

Source: OECD (2008), based on SERi MFA databaseResource scarcityGlobal resource extraction by major resources and regions : 

Source: OECD (2008), based on SERi MFA databaseResource scarcityGlobal resource extraction by major resources and regions

Patterns of resource use in different sectors of the EU : 

Patterns of resource use in different sectors of the EU Three areas with most resource-intensive industries are as follows: Stones, construction, and housing Metals and car manufacturing Agriculture, food, and nutrition

Resource scarcitySectors affected by resource scarcity : 

Resource scarcitySectors affected by resource scarcity Lack of knowledge! Oil plays a crucial role for all sectors, both in it energetic and non-energetic use Further shrinking of the primary extraction sectors in Europe is likely but exceptions may be possible High-tech industries, in particular the electronic industry, will be affected by declining availability of precious metals Also the development of new techologies, such as photovoltaic electricity generation, could be slowed down by resource scarcity

Challenges of Eco-innovationOpportunities on the supply and demand sides of the coin : 

Challenges of Eco-innovationOpportunities on the supply and demand sides of the coin

How to speed up Eco-innovation in the EU/SEEImpact and effectiveness of Eu programs : 

How to speed up Eco-innovation in the EU/SEEImpact and effectiveness of Eu programs EuP/Eco-design Directive The Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) FP7 The Environmental technology Action plan (ETAP) Directive on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD) The Eu Action Plan on Sustainable Consumption and production and Sustainable industrial Policy (SCP/IP-AP)

Other approaches and best-practices of promoting eco-innovation : 

Other approaches and best-practices of promoting eco-innovation European Directive on Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Scheme of UK Aggregates Levy and Aggregates levy Sustainability Fund (ALSF): good steering effect plus funding Environment-driven Business Development in Sweden: proven succes for about 60 products and 100 companies Energy labeling in a dynamic ‘’top runner” policy mix: impressive results, e.g. annual energy savings of 0.2 PJ in NL from 1995-2004

Funding schemes for environmental technologies 1/2 : 

Funding schemes for environmental technologies 1/2 EU LEVEL Cohesion, structural funds Funding programmes, research programmes: - Intelligent Energy Europe - Marco Polo - EACI – eco-innovation - Enterprise Europe Network

Funding schemes for environmental technologies 2/2 : 

Funding schemes for environmental technologies 2/2 Multilateral Development Banks WB – Climate Fund – 4.5 billions$ EIB – risk sharing phase Best practice: innovative financing SITRA/Finnish Innovation Fund UK Carbon Trust Berlin Energy Saving Partnership Glitnir’s Resource Verification Loan

THANK YOU for YOUR ATTENTION! : 

THANK YOU for YOUR ATTENTION! Vladimir Bozic vladimir.bozic@cid-brussels.eu Brussels Centre for Integration and Development www.cid-brussels.eu Rue Haute 121, 1000 Brussels +32 487 204 817, +381 60 5000 270

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