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Presented by: Aparajita Team Windows Harpreet Kaur Mansi Mahajan Anadi Vats Team Linux Palak Mehta Divyakshi Kumar Siddharth Bansal S ubmitted to: Mr. Rohit Khokher


WINDOWS : AN INTRO Microsoft Windows is a series of software operating systems and graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Windows had approximately 91% of the market share of the client operating systems for usage on the Internet. The most recent client version of Windows is Windows 7


AN INTRO TO LINUX The name " Linux " comes from the Linux kernel, originally written in 1991 by Linus Torvalds . The main supporting user space system tools and libraries from the GNU Project ( announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman ). Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware , ranging from mobile phones, tablet computers and video game consoles, to mainframes and supercomputers. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration.


WHY... WINDOWS vs LINUX!!! C omparison s between the Microsoft Windows and Linux computer operating systems are a long-running discussion topic within the personal computer industry. Throughout the entire period of the Windows 9x systems through the introduction of Windows 7, Windows has retained an extremely large retail sales majority among operating systems for personal desktop use, while Linux has sustained its status as the most prominent free software operating system. After their initial clash, both operating systems moved beyond the user base of the personal computer market and share a rivalry on a variety of other devices, with offerings for the server and embedded systems markets, and mobile internet access.

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Windows Linux Process Scheduling NT-based versions of Windows use a CPU scheduler based on a multilevel feedback queue with 32 priority levels defined. Linux kernel( it is a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level) once used a scheduling algorithm favouring interactive processes . Memory Management/ Disk paging Windows NT family (including 2000, XP, Vista, Win7) most commonly employs a dynamically allocated page file for memory management. A page file is allocated on disk, for less frequently accessed objects in memory, leaving more RAM available to actively used objects. This scheme suffers from slow-downs due to disk fragmentation Most hard drive installations of Linux utilize a "swap partition", a partition dedicated exclusively for paging operations. This reduces slowdown due to disk fragmentation from general use. Linux also allows to adjust aggressiveness of the kernel when deciding whether to swap out an application or leave it on RAM. Windows does not support such features. Default file systems The way default Windows' file system NTFS (New Technology File System) works causes files to become fragmented. Default Linux file systems do not require defragmenting. Performance


STABILITY Windows Linux General stability Windows operating systems based on the NT kernel are technically much more stable than some older versions . Installing unsigned or beta drivers can lead to decreased system stability There are several indirection levels since all applications are separated from the graphic subsystem which itself is detached from the Linux kernel. As a result of that and because most device drivers are integral part of the Linux kernel, it almost never crashes. The graphic subsystem can only fail if the application is using it in undocumented ways. Even in that case, it can be easily restarted without system reboot. Downtime Reboots are usually required after major system and driver updates. Reboots are usually required after system and driver updates. Recovery In modern,  versions of Windows, programs that crash may be forcibly ended through the task manager by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ESC or CTRL+ALT+DEL If the GUI hangs, on most distributions, CTRL+ALT+F1 (or <CTRL>+<ALT>+ either <F1> to <F6> inclusive) takes the user to the full screen terminal, where the process can be killed, and the GUI restored.

Accessibility and Usability:

Accessibility and Usability Windows Linux User Focus Mostly consistent. Inconsistencies appear primarily through back ports—software ported from newer operating systems to older ones. For example, software ported from Vista to XP must follow the Vista guidelines, those of the newer system (IE7 and Windows Media Player11 are examples of this) Interface is usually consistent among the desktop environment used, which follows its interface guidelines. High grade of customizability is provided in order to adapt to the needs of the user. Some inconsistencies may appear when using programs targeted for different desktop environments. Consistency between versions User interaction with software is usually consistent between versions, releases, and editions, although Windows Vista generated many complaints about unfamiliar and unexpected changes. Consistency ranges from high to poor between distributions, versions, window managers/desktop environments, and programs. Software is generally highly user-customizable, and the user may keep the customizations between versions. Consistency between applications All Microsoft software follows the same guidelines for GUI, although not all software developed for Windows by third parties follows these GUI guidelines .. Highly consistent. However, the vast amount of additional software that comes with a distribution is sourced from elsewhere; it may not follow the same GUI guidelines or it may cause inconsistencies different look and feel between programs build. Customizati -on By default, Windows only offers customization of size and color of the graphical elements, and it is typically not possible to change how the interface reacts to user input. Linux offers several user interfaces to choose from. Different environments and window managers offer various levels of customizability, ranging from colors and size to user input, actions, and display. Accessibility Both Windows and Linux offer accessibility options, such as high contrast displays and larger text/icon size, text to speech and magnifiers.


SECURITY Windows Linux Malware As of 2009, well over 2 million malware programs target Windows. As of 2006, more than 800 pieces Linux malware had been discovered. Open vs. Closed Claims its platform is more secure because of a comprehensive approach to security using the  Security Development Lifecycle Claims its platform is more secure because all of its code is reviewed by so many people that bugs are detected (referred to as Linus Law). Response speed Critical bug fixes are released only once a month after extensive programming and testing and certain bugs have been known to go unpatched for months or even year Bugs can be fixed and rolled out within a day of being reported (often within hours), though usually it takes a few weeks before the patch is available on all distributions. User Accounts In Windows Vista , all logged-in sessions (even for those of "administrator" users) run with standard user permissions, preventing malicious programs (and inexperienced users) from gaining total control of the system. Processes that require administrator privileges can be run using the User Account Control framework. Users typically run as limited accounts, having created both administrator and at least one user account during installation. In most Linux distributions, there are commands that will temporarily grant elevated permissions to processes that need it. In practice, this can be very dangerous, as any error can lead to severe damage to the system.

Market Share:

Windows Linux Estimated Desktop Usage Share 84.07% ( w3counter) 87.6%(W3Schools) 1.71% (w3counter) 4.9 % (W3Schools) Server market share 73.9% (officially registered) 20.36% (actual web servers) 21.2% (officially registered) 74.29% (actual web servers) Top 500supercomputer operating system family share 1.0% (absolute 5) 91.0% (absolute 455), the 14 fastest supercomputers run Linux Market Share



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